The Presidential Amnesty Programme For Peace Building Initiatives In The Niger Delta Region

Project and Seminar Material Under Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution

The Presidential Amnesty Programme For Peace Building Initiatives In The Niger Delta Region


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the presidential amnesty programme for peace building initiatives in the Niger Delta region. Specifically, the study aims to identify the causes of militancy in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, discuss the components of the amnesty programme for the militants in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, ascertain the extent to which the amnesty has served as a peace building mechanism in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria and highlight measures capable of promoting peace in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of 141 responses were validated from the survey. From the responses obtained and analyzed, the findings revealed that the extent to which the amnesty has served as a peace building mechanism in the Niger Delta region is high. The study thereby recommends that marginalization and deprivation must be critically looked into. A comprehensive development plan for the region must be put in place. The Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC) must be well funded and monitored to ensure that funds released are judiciously utilized for the right purpose.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The Niger Delta is the major hub of the Nigerian economy, but continues to linger in violence occasioned by multifarious social, political and environmental issues. Dudu and Odalonu (2016)confirmed that the Niger Delta which is located in the southern part of Nigeria, at the apex of the Gulf of Guinea on the west coast of Africa remain the treasure base of Nigeria. It comprises the largest oil producing states which makes up the country’s nine federating states out of thirty-six, namely: Abia, Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Imo, Ondo and Rivers.Interestingly, Omuta cited in Omokhoa (2015) disclosed that; Niger Delta produce the vast majority of the oil and gas wealth of the country and accounts for 95 per cent of the foreign exchange earnings, about 83 per cent of the Federal Government revenue. As such, Egwu (2019) describes Niger Delta as the ‘honey’ land of the Nigerian state, but reveals that oil and gas resources have been the major source of acrimony between the Nigerian state and the indigenous population of the region. Why? because the Nigerian state as well as the World enjoying the ‘honey’ left the ‘bees’ to ‘sting’ the indigenes. He added that the crude oil which was discovered in commercial quantities in the region at Otagbagi, very close to Oloibiri in present day Bayelsa state in 1956 and followed by Nigerian independence in 1960, gave high aspirations as well as expectations of development in the Niger Delta. Their expectations however, was cut short. As Moshood (2016) acknowledges: Consequently, amidst the interventions, Ojakorotu and Gilbert (2018) recalled that since 1990s, oil violence in the Niger Delta had constituted festering sore on the thumbs of the stakeholders: Nigerian state, the Multinational Oil Companies (MNOCs), and the Niger Delta communities due to pervasive underdevelopment occasioned by blatant environmental pollution, despoliation and political marginalization. Oil related agitations commenced in the region in an attempt to compel the Nigerian state and MNOCs to remedy the injustices meted to the Niger Deltans since the discovery of crude oil. However, the mono-cultural, rentier Nigerian state in collaboration with the MNOCs, have consistently and persistently unleashed a reign of violence on the Niger Delta in a failed attempt to militarily suppress and crush legitimate protests as well as to dissuade them from constituting a hindrance to the continuous flow of its rents from oil exploration, exploitation and appropriation. However, Ogege (2019) revealed that, a twist from military response to amnesty became an alternative response, when the Nigerian state realized that military response has done little to curtail the Niger Delta militants. In this consciousness, according Oluduro(2019): The late President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN), Musa Yar’Adua, starts an Amnesty programme, granting unconditional pardon to the Niger Delta’s militants. The pardon which was effective from June 25, 2009 to October 4, 2009 required the militants to surrender every weapon and ammunition in their possession as well as to publicly denounced militancy. Nevertheless, Dudu and Odalonu (2016) unfolded that the granting of amnesty to ex-militants initially reduced the spate of violence and invariably increased oil production in the region, as it helped to cut attacks on pipelines and restored oil production from 700,000 barrels per day between 2007 and mid-2009 to between 2.4 million and 2.6 million in late 2009. But the relative peace sustained at the onset of the Amnesty programme later dwindled. This study therefore, the presidential amnesty programme for peace building initiatives in the Niger Delta region


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The Niger Delta violent conflict can be explained as a microcosm of the larger Nigerian state within the context of equity, access to oil resources and power by oil-rich communities, self-determination, ethnic autonomy, lackof political participation and democratic accountability, underdevelopment and widespread poverty(Rummel, 207). Traced to the colonial era, the struggle over the sale and regulation of the prices of palm oil pitted British traders and Niger Delta indigenous traders against each other. The struggle, which led to the death of many natives and almost wiped out an entire community, created the milieu for the Niger Delta subjugation that has lasted till now.


1.3 Objective of the Study

This study examines the presidential amnesty programme for peace building initiatives in the Niger Delta region. The specific objective is as follows:

  1. To identify the causes of militancy in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria,
  2. To discuss the components of the amnesty programme for the militants in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria,
  3. To ascertain the extent to which the amnesty has served as a peacebuilding mechanism in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria,
  4. To highlight measures capable of promoting peace in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study

  1. What are the causes of militancy in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria?
  2. What are the components of the amnesty programme for the militants in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria?
  3. What is the extent to which the amnesty has served as a peacebuilding mechanism in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria?
  4. What are the measures capable of promoting peace in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

The following hypothesis have been formulated for the study

H0: The extent to which the amnesty has served as a peacebuilding mechanism in the Niger Delta region is low

HA: The extent to which the amnesty has served as a peacebuilding mechanism in the Niger Delta region is high


1.6 Significance of the Study

This study is significant to the Nigerian government as it will be exposed to the challenges the Niger Delta region is going through which leads to the issue of militancy fighting for the rights of people in the region.

The study will be of benefit to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will identify the causes of militancy in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The study will also discuss the components of the amnesty programme for the militants in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The study will further ascertain the extent to which the amnesty has served as a peacebuilding mechanism in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Lastly, the study will highlight measures capable of promoting peace in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work


1.9 Definition of Terms

Amnesty:

An official pardon for people who have been convicted of political offences

Peace Building:

The development of constructive personal, group, and political relationships across ethnic, religious, class, national, and racial boundaries.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was on the presidential amnesty programme for peace building initiatives in the Niger Delta region. The study specifically was aimed at highlighting the causes of militancy in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, discuss the components of the amnesty programme for the militants in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, ascertain the extent to which the amnesty has served as a peace building mechanism in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, and highlight measures capable of promoting peace in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from resident of Niger delta region.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:

  1. The causes of militancy in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria is the lack of local control of resources, underdevelopment, relocation of local government headquarters, poverty, marginalization and environmental pollution
  2. The components of the amnesty programme for the militants in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria is disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration
  3. The extent to which the amnesty has served as a peace building mechanism in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria is high
  4. The measures capable of promoting peace in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria is corporate Responsibility, human Capital development and employment and good governance

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Marginalization and deprivation must be critically looked into. A comprehensive development plan for the region must be put in place. The Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC) must be well funded and monitored to ensure that funds released are judiciously utilized for the right purpose.
  2. Policies and programmes that have the capacity of addressing unemployment among Nigeria youths, in general, must be put in place and implemented vigorously. This, by extension, will reduce the activities of unemployed youths in the Niger Delta region that are restoring to militancy as a means for survival.

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