Preservation Of Palm Wine Using Ultraviolet Radiation

Project and Seminar Material for Chemical Engineering

Preservation Of Palm Wine Using Ultraviolet Radiation


This study was aimed at the preservation of palm wine using ultraviolet radiation. The experiments were done using an ultraviolet sterilizer at time intervals of 2, 4,7,25 and 29hours. The freshly tapped palm wine was first analyzed and result shows that the pH, sugar content, specific gravity titrable acidity, alcohol and total solids recorded values of 6.60, 5.40, 0.984g/m3, 0.66, 4.2(%by/v) and 10.5g/100ml respectively. On the other hand, the result of the sterilized palm wine shows that as time increases, the pH increases from 6.60-6.69. Also sugar content increases from 5.40 -6.82 as time increases from 0-29hours. However, the alcoholic content decreases from 4.20-1.50(%by/v) as time increased. Conclusively, the ultraviolet radiation was effective in stopping the fermentation of the palm wine.

Table Of Content

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Letter of Transmittal
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Aim/Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Scope and Limitation of the Study
  • 1.5 Method of Research
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 History of Palm Wine
  • 2.2 Physical Properties of Palm Wine
  • 2.3 Chemical Properties of Palm Wine
  • 2.4 Types of Palm Wine
  • 2.5 Composition of Palm Wine
  • 2.6 Physical Composition of Palm Wine
  • 2.7 Chemical Composition of plant wine
  • 2.8 Biological Composition of Palm Wine
  • 2.9 Production of palm wine
  • 2.10 Uses of Palm Wine
  • 2.11 Historical Development of Preservation
  • 2.12 Method of Preservation of Palm Wine
  • 2.12.1 By Canning Method
  • 2.12.2 Pressure Canning
  • 2.12.3 Pasteurization
  • 2.12.4 Refrigeration
  • 2.13 Yeast present in palm wine
  • 2.14 The acidity of palm wine stability, temperature And wine stability
  • 2.15 Kinetics of destruction of micro-organism Detoriation in palm wine
  • 2.16 Alcoholic content determination
  • 2.17 Distillation process

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Materials
  • 3.1.1 Samples Collection of Palm Wine
  • 3.1.2 Equipment Used
  • 3.2 Method
  • 3.2.1 Analysis of the Raw Palm Wine
  • pH Value
  • Sugar Content (Sucrose oBrix)
  • Specific Gravity
  • 3.2.2 Palm Wine Sterilization Using Ultraviolet Radiation

Chapter Four

4.0 Result and Discussion

  • 4.1 Characterization of Raw Palm Wine
  • 4.2 Discussion
  • 4.2.1 Effect of UV Sterilization on the pH of Palm Wine
  • 4.2.2 Effect of UV Sterilization on the Sugar Content of Palm Wine
  • 4.2.3 Effect of UV Content of Palm Wine Sample

Chapter Five

Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • Reference
  • Appendix I
  • Appendix II
  • Appendix III
  • Appendix IV

Chapter One


1.1 Background Of The Study

Palm wine is an important alcoholic beverages resulting from the spontaneous fermentation of the sap of which has been attributed to years and bacteria (Okafor, 1978).

Palm wine is consumed in parts of Africa, Asia and South America. In Nigeria, the two principal sources of sap for palm wine. Fermentation is the oil palm (Ecaeis guineesis) and the Raphia palms (Raphia SPP). It is highly perishable liquid consisting mainly of water, sugar, vitamin and mainly of aroma and flavor components in every small amount. Palm wine have several nutritional, medical, religious and social uses which have been reported elsewhere (Faparvunis, 1966). Odemiymi1977; (Ikenebomeh and Omayunil 1988; Uzogara et al., 1990, Iheonu, 2000).to have increasingly enhanced the demand for this natural product.

Fermentation begins immediately after collection as a result of natural yeasts in the air and wine within two hours, the alcoholic content reaches approximately 4%.

At this stage, the product is sweet while mildly intoxicating aromatic beverages continued fermentation for up to 24hours and sour white drink. This palm wine can also be distilled into whisky –like drinks with higher alcoholic content (up to 40%) beyond a certain threshold; the wine no longer gains alcohol (Adam, 1995).

Many factor including the species of the tree, the season of the year, time of day at harvest and type of soil impact the alcoholic content of the wine. In-fact, these factors play a key role in the characteristics of the final product as rudimentary storage and production facilities do little to preserve to avoid fermentation of micro-organism which can affect the pH values, sugar content, alcoholic content, refractive index and specific gravity. These can be affected due to micro-organism and bacterial that has contaminated with the product. If it carefully preserved, it will retains all nutritional values and last for a short periods of time, days and weeks.

Preservation can be achieved in the difference ways either by physical or chemical method, preservation method of palm wine has perfected locally, it involves pasteurizing and bottling of the palm wine which increase its shell life to over six months.

This method of palm wine preservation makes it more hygienic and consequently more attractive to the city dwellers (Rangana, 1986).

Physical preservation entails process such as refrigeration, drying, pasteurization, sterilization etc.

Preservation additives reduce the risk of product borne infection, decrease microbial spoilage and preserve fresh attributes and nutritional quality.

Some physical techniques include dehydration, U.V.C radiation, freezing, drying, refrigeration, pasteurization, sterilization etc. (Ran Gana,1986).

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Palm wine is an alcoholic beverages created from the fermented sap of various palm trees. It is collected (or tapped) from tall palm tree or raffia tree which is shorter and thus more accessible. There are reports that some people also collected sap from oil palm tree (Elaisguineenis). However, sap from a palm tree (Raffia tree) is milkier and sweeter. When palm wine is tapped fresh and not fermented, it is considered a fruit juice or drink as it contains no level of alcohol% which makes it highly nutritious and beneficial to the body.

Fermentation of palm wine begins immediately after collection as a result of natural yeasts in the air and wine.

Within two hours, the alcohol content reaches approximately 4%. At this stage, the product is a sweet while mildly intoxicating aromatic beverage continued fermentation for up to 24hours results in a more alcoholic acidic, sour and bacteria.

Formation of bacteria can be achieved by by preservation of palm wine using different method like physical which includes ultraviolet radiation, freezing and pasteurization, and chemical methods which involves introducing a chemical in the palm wine.

This research work seeks to x-ray the preservation of palm wine using UV radiation.

1.3 Aim / Objective Of The Study

The aim of the study is to preserve palm wine using ultraviolet rays.

This aim will be achieved through the following objectives.

  1. To study the characteristics properties of the raw fresh palm wine.
  2. To study the effects of process parameters like time, pH, specific gravity, alcoholic content, refractive index on the preservation.
  3. To study the characteristics properties of the palm wine after the preservation.

1.4 Scope And Limitation Of The Study

The following areas will be covered in the research.

  1. Collection of palm wine
  2. Characteristics of the palm wine
  3. Preservation of the palm wine using ultraviolet rays.
  4. Characterization of the palm wine after preservation.
  5. The use of ultraviolet radiation for palm wine preservation leads to poor penetrability.
  6. There is the possibility of a decrease in the taste and flavor of the palm wine after preservation.

1.5 Method Of Research

The information on this research project was gotten from chemical Engineering journals, chemical Engineering textbooks, internet exploration, and resource consultants in the field of knowledge as well as practical/experimental work.

1.6 Significance Of The Study

The following are the contributions of this research:

  1. To increase the sugar level and Reduction of the alcoholic content.
  2. Destruction of micro-organisms contained in the palm wine.
  3. Elongation of the shelf life of the palm wine
  4. Increase in the economic value of the palm wine.
  5. Availability of palm wine in and out of the season.
  6. Increase in the income earning of the palm wine dealers.

Chapter Five

Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

The effect of palm wine preservation using UV radiation was studied.

Results shows that the pH of the palm wine increased from 6.6 at time zero to 6.69 at 29hours of sterilization. The value of the sugar content of the palm wine was between 5.4 – 6.82 29hours of sterilization which is also increases.

On the other hand for percentage (%) alcohol content by volume increases in the sterilization time, decreased the alcoholic content from 4.2 – 1.5% v/v conclusively, UV radiation was effective in retarding the fermentation of the palm wine.

5.2 Recommendation

The following are recommended

  1. Further studies on the topic is recommended so as to get the optimum temperature for the sterilization.
  2. Equality in this research, precision and accuracy is very paramount for this reason high precision equipment should be used to attain accurate result.
  3. Palm wine preservation using UV is recommended as a viable means of round-the-year availability of palm wine for consumers.
  4. The process is recommended to business people in the wine industry with the intention of diversifying their wine production business.

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