Preparation Of Soap Using Different Types Of Oils And Exploring It’s Properties
Soaps are the sodium salts or potassium salts of stearic acids or any other fatty acids. They are prepared by the saponification process, which is, reacting the oil which contain triglycerides with caustic soda (NaOH) to give the soap. However different oils have different composition of fatty acids which are responsible for different properties of soaps made out of them. In the present work 5 different types of oils are taken. They are blended in various ratios to prepare 14 different samples of soap. Different properties of these samples were analyzed to see which soap is the best one. The cleansing and lathering properties of all samples were compared. The blend of coconut oil and castor oil at 3:1 ratio is found out to be the best with 76.8% of TFM and 89.46% of yield. The best blend is analyzed for various properties and they were compared with that given in the literature. The saponification values, iodine values of coconut oil and castor oil were found out and these values were also found for the blend. It was found that the blend was having SAP value of 230.4 and iodine value of 40 which are higher than the individual values. Thus soap prepared using blend of both these oils has better properties than the soaps prepared by individual oils.
Soap was prepared using all varieties of oils including that of all the various blends of oils. The soap was tested for various properties and compared with detergents. One soap making oil in itself does not have all the properties. Therefore blends of oils are prepared taking 2 oils together because it would be easier for analysis. All necessary properties like Lathering power, Cleansing power, pH, Hardness, Total Fatty Matter, Moisture, Yield were all studied to select the best blend out of all the blends. The best blend was found out to be coconut oil and castor oil (3:1). Its TFM value was found to be 76.8% which lies in the range of toilet soaps. It had the maximum yield out of all soaps with 89.46%. It had excellent lathering as well as cleansing power. As coconut oil is a nut oil, therefore soap prepared with this blend was very hard. Analysis of this blend confirms to that given in the literature and the results of the above analysis. Saponification number of this blend of oil was found to be 230.4 and the iodine number was found to be 40. Both high saponification number and iodine number indicates this blend to be highly preferred for soap making. The soap prepared is not affected by high iodine number as the soap prepared is very hard. The acid value found that is 1.3, was also acceptable according to the literature. The unsaponifiable matter is also within the limits and oil blend can be used without being refined.
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