Preparation Of Soap Using Local Raw Materials

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology SLT

Preparation Of Soap Using Local Raw Materials


Preparation of Local Soap involves the se of wood ash from the flowering plant of Daniello, Oliveri (Agba) Isoberllima doka (Achi), Parkia Clappertonwna (Ugba) and Eleasis guineensis (Nkwu) as the source for the caustic alkali were compared for performance. The woody tissue of the local trees were burnt at the temperature of 250 ” 700oc for a period of 3½ – 4 hrs. But the optimum temperature for maximum extraction of the alkali from the ash is 600oC for a period of 45 ” 1hr 30 min. Caustic alkali free from impurities was obtained by leaching the ash with water in a special fabricated filtrations apparatus. And this by hot process by which the filtrate was decanted to another container and filtered through a filter paper placed inside the funnel for filtrations and the presence of Alkali was tasted by the action on litmus paper. Change of damp red litmus paper to blue.

Recall that soap is manufactured by the alkaline hydrolysis reaction called saponification, which is the reaction of fats and oils with alkali.

C3H5 (COOR)3 + 3kcoH —> 3kOOCR + C3H5(OH)
Fat                          Alkali           Soap        Glycerine

So, according to the results, the filtrate obtained were found to be very daliguisenat. And the result of the influence of the alogestion on the PH showed that the longer the ash remained in water, the lighter the pH. So the result of soap produced was found to be free from impurities and has the ability to foam well and the soap produced was found to be market worthy and consumer oriented.

Table of Contents

  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Background
  • 1.2 Definition
  • 1.3 types of Soap
  • 1.4 Aim and Objectives
  • 1.5 Statements of Problems
  • 1.6 Hypothesis
  • 1.7 Significance
  • 1.8 Limitation of this Study

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Literature Review
  • 2.1 Sources of Wood Ash for Local Manufactures
  • 2.2 Synthetic Method for Caustic Soda
  • 2.3 The Solvay Process
  • 2.4 Liblance Process
  • 2.5 Chemistry of alkali
  • 2.6 Effect on Soap Manufacture

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Methodology
  • 3.1 Sample Collection
  • 3.2 Field Experimentation
  • 3.3 Areas Expected to Cover in Lab
  • 3.4 Fabrication of Equipment for Extraction
  • 3.5 Ignition of “NGU”
  • 3.6 Extraction Procedure
  • 3.7 Crystallization and Re-crystallization Process, Using Distillation Apparatus
  • 3.8 Determination of the PH Sample
  • 3.9 Physical Examination and Tests
  • 3.10 Determination of Caustic Strength of Solution
  • 3.11 Extraction of Caustic Different Digestion Time

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Presentation Of Results
  • 4.1 Presentation of Results for Extraction Styles of Caustic From Ash and Preliminary Test on Sample
  • 4.2 Titration Reading for the Determination of Caustic Strength of Sample
  • 4.3 How to Prepare 0.2ml HCL
  • 4.4 Result of Preliminary Test and Titration
  • 4.5 Qualitative Analysis

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Discussion Of Results And Conclusion
  • 5.1 Ashing of Wood
  • 5.2 Extraction of Caustic from Ash
  • 5.3 Determination of PH and Caustic Strength of the Caustic Solution
  • 5.4 Qualitative Analysis
  • 5.5 Conclusion
  • 5.6 Recommendations
  • 5.7 Summary
  • Reference

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