Predictors Of Domestic Violence As Expressed By Married Adults In Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State

Project and Seminar Material for Guidance and Counselling

Investigating The Predictors Of Domestic Violence As Expressed By Married Adults In Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State


Abstract


Domestic violence affects men, women and children. It is a serious problem that transcends racial, economic, social and religious lines. More so, it affects human health, undermines human dignity and in the long run become a major drawback to economic development. This study investigated predictors of domestic violence as expressed by married adults in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara state.

The study was a survey research. The population of this study comprised all married adults in Ilorin metropolis while sample size of 385 respondents was used in the study. A questionnaire entitled “Predictors of Domestic Violence Questionnaire” (PDVQ) was used to collect data for the study. The variables taken into consideration were gender, age, educational qualification, religion, years of marriage and type of occupation. Percentage, mean and rank order were used to answer research questions while the six null hypotheses formulated were tested using t-test and ANOVA statistical techniques.

The findings of the study revealed that predictors of domestic violence include: partner failing to perform his/her expected duties; lack of self-control by either spouse; and partner’s arrogance. It was also found that no significant difference exist in the expression of married adults in Ilorin metropolis on the predictors of domestic violence based on gender, age, educational qualification, religion affiliation, years in marriage and type of occupation.

Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that premarital counselling should be given to intending couples on how to manage their marital relationship. Marital counsellors should counsel married adults on how to understand their own behaviour pattern, types and the behaviour pattern of other persons which could serve as a predictive factor of domestic violence. Government should enact a law against domestic violence and punish the offenders found guilty of domestic violence.


Table of Contents


  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • Background to the Study
  • Statement of the Problem
  • Research Questions
  • Research Hypotheses
  • Purpose of the Study
  • Significance of the Study
  • Operational Definitions of Terms
  • Scope of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Related Literature

  • Preamble
  • Concept of Violence
  • Concept of Domestic Violence
  • Predictors of Domestic Violence among Married Adults
  • Empirical Review of Studies on Domestic Violence and Predictors of Domestic Violence
  • Summary of Review of the Related Literature

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • Preamble
  • Research Design
  • Population, Sample and Sampling Techniques
  • Instrumentation
  • Psychometric Properties of the Instrument
  • Procedure for instrument Administration and Data Collection
  • Procedure for Scoring
  • Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four:

Results

  • Preamble
  • Demographic Data
  • Hypotheses Testing
  • Summary of the Findings

Chapter Five

Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • Preamble
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • Implications for Counselling
  • Recommendations
  • Suggestions for Further Studies
  • References
  • Appendix

List of Tables


  • Table 1: Percentage Distribution of Respondents Based on Gender
  • Table 2: Percentage Distribution of Respondents Based on Age
  • Table 3: Percentage Distribution of Respondents Based on Educational Qualification
  • Table 4: Percentage Distribution of Respondents based on Religion
    Table 5: Percentage Distribution of Respondents based on Years in Marriage
  • Table 6: Percentage Distribution of Respondents based on Type of Occupation
  • Table 7: Mean and Rank Order Analysis of the Respondents’ Expression on the Predictors of Domestic Violence
  • Table 8: Mean, Standard Deviation and t-value of the Respondents’ Expression on the Predictors of Domestic Violence Based on Gender
  • Table 9: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showing Respondents’ Expression on the Predictors of Domestic Violence Based on Age
  • Table 10: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showing Respondents’ Expression on the Predictors of Domestic Violence Based on Educational Qualification
  • Table 11: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showing Respondents’ Expression on the Predictors of Domestic Violence Based on Religion Affiliation
  • Table 12: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showing Respondents’ Expression on the Predictors of Domestic Violence Based on Years in Marriage
  • Table 13: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showing Respondents’ Expression on the Predictors of Domestic Violence Based on Type of Occupation

Chapter One


Introduction

Background to the Study

According to the World Health Report on Violence and Health (2009), domestic violence refers to any behaviour within an intimate relationship that causes physical, psychological or sexual harm to those in the relationship (Bernama, 2017). Domestic violence can take a variety of forms including physical assault such as hitting, slapping, kicking and beatings; psychological abuse, such as constant belittling, intimidation, and humiliation; and coercive sex. It frequently includes controlling behaviours such as isolating a woman from family and friends, monitoring her movements, and restricting her access to resources (Bernama, 2017).

Alhabib, Nur and Jones (2010) defines domestic violence as a threat or physical, psychological and / or emotionally violent act; that is, any kind of violence against others with the intention of injuring or demonstrating power and exercising control over them (Flury, Nyberg, &Riecher-Rössler, 2010). The United Nations defines violence against women as “any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life” (Women’s Aids Organisation, 2017).

Marcus and Braaf (2007) defined domestic violence as a pattern of coercive tactics that can include physical, psychological, sexual, economic, and emotional abuse, perpetrated by one person against an intimate partners, with the goal of establishing and maintaining power and control. Domestic Violence occurs in all kinds of intimate relationships, including among married couples, people who are dating, couples who live together, people with children in common, same-sex partners, people who were formerly in a relationship with the person abusing them, and teen dating relationships. Laing and Bobic (2002) stated that domestic violence is control by one partner over another in a dating, marital or live-in relationship. The means of control include physical, sexual, emotional and economic abuse, threats and isolation. Domestic violence occurs in adult or adolescent intimate relationships where the perpetrator and the victim are currently or have been previously dating, cohabiting, married or divorced. They may be heterosexual, gay, or lesbian. They may have children in common or not. The relationships may be of a long or short duration (Kishor& Johnson, 2004).

Some recent researchers (Chang, Lin, & Liu, 2017) stated that domestic violence includes physical, mental or economic harassment, control, threats, or other illegal attacks; and these violent acts are imposed on family members i.e. intimate partner, children, youth and the elderly. The types of domestic violence include physical, psychological, sexual, economic or financial and spiritual (Women’s Aids Organisation, 2017). Its impact stretches beyond those women who are the victims of violence themselves, since it also affects families, friends and society as a whole. It causes a myriad of physical and mental health issues and in some cases results in loss of life.

Domestic violence has in the last few decades become a public health issue of immense significance all over the world. Such violence has been associated with serious health consequences including physical, sexual and reproductive health, psychological and behavioural problems, as well as fatal health outcomes such as homicide, suicide, and maternal mortality. (Campbell, 2002; Bonomi, Anderson, Rivara& Thompson, 2007).

Aihie (2009) identified various forms of domestic violence to include physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, economic abuse, emotional abuse and spiritual abuse. Alcohol consumption and mental illness can be co-morbid with abuse and present additional challenges in eliminating domestic violence (Markowitz, 2000). Prevalence, awareness, perception, definition and documentation of domestic violence differ widely from country to country, and have evolved from era to era.

Population-based studies from various countries indicate that between 10% and 75% of women report that an intimate partner has physically abused them at least once in their lifetime. The lowest figures of 10% were reported in Paraguay and Philippines while the highest prevalence rates were recorded in Bangladesh (Bonomi, 2002; Garcia-Moreno, Jansen, Ellsberg, Heise& Watts 2006). Overall, at least 1 in 3 of the world’s female population has been physically or sexually abused by a man or men at some time in their life (Silverman, Gupta, Decker, Kapur, &Raj, 2007). Research has shown that physical abuse is often associated with psychological or emotional, and sexual abuse (Heise, Ellsberg & Gottmoeller, 2002)

In Malaysia, the statistics of domestic violence occurrences against women continues to rise in a concerning and in ever increasing number. A total of 57, 519 cases of violence against women were reported since 2010 to 2016, which include 23,212 cases (40%) of domestic violence involving women as victims while 28,365 cases involving child abuse (Bernama, 2017). In view of this alarming statistics, the issues of domestic violence against women is starting to get substantial attention not only from the authority and Non-Governmental bodies, but also from academicians (GarcĂ­a-moreno, Claudia, et al, 2005). Past researches have shown that the predisposition factors (e.g., substance abuse, exposure to parental violence, gender ideologies etc.) are positively related to domestic violence against women and victim factors (e.g., possession of resources, witnessed violence experience, personality integration, positive attitude toward violent behaviour etc.). In further support to that, a number of past researches (e.g. Reingle, Staras, Jennings, Branchini, & Maldonado-molina, 2013) have also found that victim factors and perpetrator factors are positively correlated.

Laws on domestic violence vary by country. While it is generally outlawed in the Western World, this is not the case in many developing countries. For instance, in 2010, the United Arab Emirates’ Supreme Court ruled that a man has the right to physically discipline his wife and children as long as he does not leave physical marks. The social acceptability of domestic violence also differs by country. While in most developed countries domestic violence is considered unacceptable by most people, in many regions of the world the views are different (UNICEF, 2000).
According to a UNICEF (2000) survey, the percentage of women aged 15–49 who think that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife under certain circumstances is, for example: 90% in Afghanistan and Jordan, 87% in Mali, 86% in Guinea and Timor-Leste, 81% in Laos, 80% in Central African Republic. Refusing to submit to a husband’s wishes is a common reason given for justification of violence in developing countries: for instance 62.4% of women in Tajikistan justify wife beating if the wife goes out without telling the husband; 68% if she argues with him; 47.9% if she refuses to have sex with him (Clarke, 2013). 80% of women surveyed in rural Egypt said that beatings were common and often justified, particularly if the woman refused to have sex with her husband (UNFPA, 2005).
Various predictors of domestic violence have been extensively reported in literature. In broad terms, they can be classified as, drug abuse,socio-economic status, individual behaviour, partner attitude to marriage and societal characteristics to mention but a few. At the level of the individual (victim), it has been reported that young women and those below the poverty line are disproportionately affected (Ellsberg, Pena, Herrera, Liljestrand & Winkvist, 2000). Low socioeconomic status has also been identified as a predictor of domestic violence (Cunradi, Caetano & Schafer, 2002). Women who contribute a greater proportion to the family income have been identified to be at risk, possibly because the woman’s economic power questions the man’srole as provider (Ellsberg, et al, 2000).
On the part of the drug abuse as a predictor of domestic violence, men or women who abused alcohol and other psychoactive substances were more likely than those who did not abuse alcohol to perpetrate domestic violence (Stickley, Timofeeva & Sparen, 2008). Witnessing parental violence or being a victim of physical violence as a child has also been associated with men who perpetrate domestic violence. Also, women who were exposed to childhood violence and witnessed domestic violence are at higher risk of being victims.11 At the level of the couple, dysfunctional, unhealthy relationships characterized by inequality, power imbalance and conflict can lead to domestic violence (Clark, Silverman, Shahrouri, Everson-Rose &Groce, 2010).

Domestic violence is reportedly associated with gender inequality as well as social norms supportive oftraditional gender roles, and patriarchal male dominance. Similarly, the lack of institutional support from police and judicial systems and weak community sanctions are other factors known to be associated with domestic violence (Heise, et al., 2002).

Gender differences in reporting violence have been cited as another explanation for mixed results (Chan, 2011). According UNFPA (2005), in 2004 survey carried out in Canada, the percentages of males being physically or sexually victimized by their partners was 6% versus 7% for women. However, females reported higher levels of repeated violence and were more likely than men to experience serious injuries; 23% of females versus 15% of males were faced with the most serious forms of violence including being beaten, choked, or threatened with or having a gun or knife used against them. Also, 21% of women versus 11% of men were likely to report experiencing more than 10 violent incidents.

Around the world, at least one out of three women is beaten, coerced into sex or otherwise abused during her lifetime. Most often, the abuser is a member of her own family (WHO, 2004). UNFPA (2002) reports that more than 60% of women worldwide have been abused. In 48 population-based surveys around the world, 10 to 69% of the women reported assault by an intimate partner (Krug, etal., 2002). In addition, the prevalence of violence during pregnancy ranges from 4 to 20% in developing countries (Nasir, et al., 2003).

Some sociologists have investigated risk factors and predictors of domestic violence. These factors include age, sex, socio-economic variables, social stress, race and ethnicity (Gelles, 2003). Gelles and Cornell (2000) proposed that factors such as work pressures, unemployment, poverty and poor housing caused frustration and stresses at the individual level and as a consequence lead to violence in the family. However, some writers argue that this is a limited view since violence is not confined to families in the lower socio-economic groups but is spread across the class spectrum (Browne & Herbert, 2007). Sociologists also viewed family structure as a social institution that creates a high risk for violence (Gelles, 2003). Another sociological explanation of domestic violence is the resource theory proposed by Jasinski(2001). Jasinski (2001) suggested that violence is a resource used to derive power so that a person lacking of power will utilize violence (resources) within the relationship. Although sociological perspectives employ psychological variables, family factors, and the broader social context as the predictors of domestic violence as a social issue.


Statement of the problems

Domestic violence affects men, women and children. It is a serious problem that transcends racial, economic, social and religious lines. More so, it affects human health, undermines human dignity and in the long run become a major drawback to economic development. When families get involved in domestic violence, a lot of time is spent in settling of disputes and nursing psychological and physical wounds of violence (Siemieniuk,Krentz, Gish & Gill, 2010).

The impact of domestic violence is far reaching having physical and mental health implications. Murder represents an extreme consequence of domestic violence which is not uncommon (Abasiubong, Abasiattai, Bassey&Ogunsemi, 2010). A major challenge associated with domestic violence is the fact that in some settings it is still a culturally acceptable practice with many women and men including children suffering in silence being held back by family secrecy, cultural norms, shame and fear (Aihie, 2009).

Several researches have been carried out on domestic violence. For instance Acevedo, Lowe, Kenneth, Gilbert (2013) conducted a study on predictors of intimate partner violence in a sample of Multiethnic urban young adults in Brazil. It was found that lifetime violence-related behaviours, number of lifetime sexual partners, and number of children were significant risk factors for intimate partner violence. Igbokwe, Michael and Kelechi (2013) carried out a study on domestic violence against women in Enugu state and found that verbal abuse (80.95%) and the physical forms of violence (beating, battering, slapping) (69.05%) constituted the major forms of domestic abuse. The greatest socio-cultural factors that promote domestic violence include failure to give the husband a male child (83.33%) and silence of the women about incidence of domestic violence (70.95%). It was found that the greatest forms of domestic violence experienced by women in Nsukka LGA are physical and emotional forms of domestic violence.

Data from the United States shows that an estimated 32,101 pregnancies were as a result of rape each year, the majority of them among adolescents. Fifty percent of these ended in abortions and 5.9% placed the infant for adoption (Holmes,Resnick, Kilpatrick & Best, 2006). There is also a close relationship between violence and mental ill health (Elsbergh,Pena, Herrera, Winkrist&Kullgren, 2009).

According to National Research Council (2006), domestic violence is responsible for 51.7% of male deaths and 24.5% of female deaths in United States. However, in women, death from homicide is known to be associated with a history of domestic violence. A high proportion of women are killed by people known to them, particularly partners and ex partners. Many of these deaths may take place around the time that a woman decides to look for help, or to leave the abuser. Alsoin Canada, 5,373 women died as a result of homicide, six out of every ten of them were murdered by someone they knew; about half were murdered by a spouse or someone with whom they had been intimate (Johnson, 2006.) Between 1976 and 1996, for persons murdered by intimates, the number of male victims was an average of 5% per year, and the number of female victims went down to an average 1% (U.S. Department of Justice, 1998).

Furthermore, some researchers focused on an array of issues bothering on prevalence of domestic violence; against women; on gender based violence; and as well as relationship between violence and death of women (Ahiie, 2009; Yusuf, Arulogun, Oladepo&Olowokeere 2011; Oladepo, 2011; Adebayo &Kolawole, 2013). Indermaur (2001) who found that married women aged 19 to 40 years had experienced more of domestic violence from their partner than older married women. Uskun, Nayir and Kisioglu (2012) found that level of education has an inverse relationship with domestic violence. McQuigg (2011) found victims of domestic violence are mostly women and children. Kwamboka (2002) found significant difference in the forms of domestic violence based on years of marriage. He asserted that married adults in their early marriage experienced several forms of domestic violence such as frightening, intimidating, terrorize, manipulate, hurt, humiliate, blame, injure or wound someone in Kenya.
However, to the best of the researcher’s knowledge, none of the previous researchers had worked on the predictors of domestic violence in Ilorin metropolis. Therefore, this present researcher intends to fill the gap left by the previous researchers to investigates the predictors of domestic violence as expressed by married adults in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara state.


Research Questions

The under listed research questions were raised to guide the conduct of this study:

  1. What are the predictors of domestic violence as expressed by married adults in Ilorin metropolis,Kwara state?

Research Hypotheses

The following null research hypotheses were formulated and tested in the study:

  1. There is no significant difference in the predictors of domestic violence among married adults in Ilorin metropolis based on gender.
  2. There is no significant difference in the predictors of domestic violence among married adults in Ilorin metropolis based on age.
  3. There is no significant difference in the predictors of domestic violence among married adults in Ilorin metropolis based on educational qualification.
  4. There is no significant difference in the predictors of domestic violence among married adults in Ilorin metropolis based on religion affiliation.
  5. There is no significant difference in the predictors of domestic violence among married adults in Ilorin metropolis based on years in marriage.
  6. There is no significant difference in the predictors of domestic violence among married adults in Ilorin metropolis based on type of occupation.

Purpose of the Study

The major purpose of this study is to investigate the predictors of domestic violence as expressed by married adults in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara state. Specifically, the study seek to find out if moderating variables of gender, age, educational qualification, religion, years of marriage and type of occupation will influence the expression of married adults in Ilorin metropolis on the predictors of domestic violence.


Significance of the Study

The finding of this study would be of immense benefit to married adults, would be couples, marriage counsellors, psychologists and future researchers.

The result of this study would assist married adults or parents and would be couples to be aware of the predictors of domestic violence; and haven been exposed to those predictors, it might guide them on how to build stable marriage devoid of domestic violence. It might assist them in their preparation for wholesome families and may also promote healthy and stable family relationship that will be of profitable mode of marital behaviours that may be quote essential

Marriage counsellors could find the results of this study helpful. The findings could groom the counsellors more in addition to the knowledge of marital counselling. The findings of study could supply relevant data that might help marriage counsellors in finding solution to the problems of domestic violence in Ilorin metropolis and Nigerian society as a whole.

Lastly, the study may serve as future reference, be a source of aspiration to new researchers who may be interested in studying domestic violence and related topics.


Operational Definitions of Terms

For the purpose of clarity and understanding terminologies used in this study, the following terms are operationally defined as used in the study.

Domestic Violence:

The act of inflicting or physical or emotional injury by one spouseon another.

Married Adults:

Literate men and women who are psychologically, socially, and mentally matured and in marital relationship based on societal acceptance.

Predictor:

An act or incidence which predicts domestic violence among married adults.

Violence:

The use of physical force or emotional abuse to harm a spouse.


Scope of the Study

This study is aimed at finding out the predictors of domestic violence as expressed by married adults in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara state. Kwara state has sixteen local government areas with 737,577 married adults, it will be difficult for this researcher to cover all the married adults across the state due to lack of time and resources (both human and material resources). Thus the study is going to be limited to selected married adults in Ilorin metropolis. The study investigatedthe influence of moderating variablesof gender, age, educational qualification, religion, years of marriage and nature of occupation on respondents’ view about predictors of domestic violence. A total of 385 respondents formed a sample for the study. An instrument entitled “Predictors of Domestic Violence Questionnaire” (PDVQ) was used to gather data for the analysis. The data will be analysed using percentage, mean and rank order for demographic data while t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistic tool was be used for the null hypotheses.


Chapter Five


Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations

Preamble

This chapter discussed the results of the analysis of data collected for the study. The conclusion was based on the findings; the recommendations as well as the suggestions for further studies were clearly stated. The researcher used a-20 items questionnaire to obtain information on the predictors of domestic violence as expressed by married adults in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara state. The data were subjected to ANOVA and t-test analysis. The entire hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level of significance.


Discussion

The finding revealed that predictors of domestic violence include: partner failing to perform his/her expected duties; lack of self-control by either spouse; partner’s arrogance. In all kinds of intimate relationships, domestic violence occurs between married couples, people who are dating, couples who live together, people with children in common, people who were formerly in a relationship with the person abusing them, and teen dating relationships (Marcus &Braaf, 2007). The finding of the study supports the submission of Uzoma(2015) who asserted that abdication of one’s duty to provide food, clothing, shelter, medical care within the family unit or other roles as husband or wife can causes domestic violence among couples. The finding also corroborates the study of Howells, Day and Thomas-Peter (2004) identified that partner’s arrogance and poor self-control of incidences that provoking anger was seen as a trigger factor for violent acts against women.

Hypothesis one revealed that there was no significant difference in the predictors of domestic violence among married adults in Ilorin metropolis based on gender. This implies that respondents expression were not different on the predictors of domestic violence. This might be due to the fact that male and female experience domestic violence in one way or the other. The finding supports the finding of Igbokwe, Michael and Kelechi (2013)who found no significant gender difference in the socio-cultural factors that promote domestic violence among married adults.
Hypothesis two revealed that there was no significant difference in the predictors of domestic violence among married adults in Ilorin metropolis based on age. This implies that the age difference among the respondents have no difference on the predictors of domestic violence. This might be due to the fact that domestic violence is not limited to particular age group. The finding negates the finding of Indermaur (2001) who found that married women at different aged group had experienced domestic violence from their partner. Nikbakht, Hossein and Mehrdad (2014) indicated that age was a factor contributing to the intensity of domestic violence.

Hypothesis three revealed that there was no significant difference in the predictors of domestic violence among married adults in Ilorin metropolis based on educational qualification. This implies that respondents were not different in their responses based on their educational qualification. This may be due to the fact that the domestic violence is not limited to one particular educational background. This finding negate the finding of Tjaden and Thoennes (2000) who found that significant difference exist based on education qualification. It was concluded that married adults with different educational backgrounds experience domestic violence in different ways.

Hypothesis four also revealed that there was no significant difference in the predictors of domestic violence among married adults in Ilorin metropolis based on religion affiliation. This means that respondents were not different in their expression based on their religion affiliation on the predictors of domestic violence. This might be due to the fact that domestic violence is inevitable irrespective of religion affiliation. This submission does not corroborate with the finding of Hines and Saudino (2002) found who found no different in the factors responsible for intimate partner violence among religious married adults in Swedish.

Hypothesis five also revealed that there was no significant difference in the predictors of domestic violence among married adults in Ilorin metropolis based on years in marriage. This means that respondents were not different in their expression based on years in marriage on the predictors of domestic violence. This might be due to the fact that predictors of domestic violence are not different irrespective of number of years couple spend together. This submission corroborate with the finding of Chan (2011) who reported that mitigating environmental factors, low levels of socioeconomic, lack of marital experience and partnership skills, as well as inability to resolve marital disputes are also considered as part of the causal factors associated with domestic violence as couples continue to leave together.

Hypothesis six revealed that there was no significant difference in the predictor of domestic violence among married adults in Ilorin metropolis based on type of occupation. This implies that respondents were not different in their responses based on nature of occupation. The finding support the finding of Obi and Ozumba (2007) who found that factors responsible for domestic violence were not different based on type of job. It was found that majority women interviewed at different workplace attested to similar factors responsible for domestic violence.


Conclusion

This research work examined the predictors of domestic violence as expressed by married adults in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara state. The study revealed that predictors of domestic violence include: partner failing to perform his/her expected duties; lack of self-control by either spouse; partner’s arrogance; stubbornness of either spouse; inadequate show of love by a spouse to the other partner among others. There was no significant difference in the expression of married adults in Ilorin metropolis on the predictor of domestic violence among married adults in Ilorin metropolis based on gender, age, educational qualification, religion affiliation, years in marriage and type of occupation.


Implications for Counselling Practice

The findings of this study have implications for counselling practice. The study concluded that domestic violence is caused bypartner failing to perform his/her expected duties; lack of self-control by either spouse; partner’s arrogance among others. The implications of the findings are that married adults need to be exposed to understanding of their behaviour pattern and the behaviour pattern of their spouses as well as their roles. There is however the need for adequate counselling services for married adults and would be couples, educating them regarding adequate information about their behaviour patterns and their partners’ so that they will know how to handle the situation when they get married and avoid domestic violence.

Marital counsellors can organise individual and group counselling session for perpetrators and use Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) to help individuals understand themselves and their partners. Counsellors can assist in treatment of perpetrators by providing guidance and counseling services to minimizing risk to the victim.


Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that:

  1. Marriage counsellors should counsel married adults how to understand their own behaviour pattern type and the behaviour pattern type of other persons which could serve as a predictive factor of domestic violence. By so doing, they will appreciate their individual differences which will enhance marital adjustment.
  2. Premarital counselling should be given to intending couples on how to manage their marital relationship.
  3. Seminars and workshops, where trained counsellors would assist in propagating the anti-domestic violence campaign, should be organized. There is the need to create awareness at these forums, to underscore the fact that violence in the home serves as a breeding ground for violence in the society. The need to regard domestic violence from a psychological rather than a socio-cultural perspective should be emphasized.
  4. Young people planning to get married should be guided on the ways to avoid violence in the intimate relationship of marriage.
  5. Government should enact a law against domestic violence and institute punishment for the offenders found guilty of domestic violence.
  6. The government should establish and fund counselling centres at the community, and Local Government levels and employ professional counsellors to help victims and perpetrators of domestic violence.

Suggestions for Further Studies

This study investigated the predictors of domestic violence as expressed by married adults in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara state. Thus, subsequent studies or research work may be considered in the following areas:

  1. Roles of counsellors in reducing domestic violence among married adults.
  2. Future researchers could replicate this study in other states in Nigeria.
  3. Future researchers could increase the number of respondents to six hundred (600).

Predictors Of Domestic Violence As Expressed By Married Adults In Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State


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Predictors Of Domestic Violence As Expressed By Married Adults In Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State


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Reinforce your findings to conclude your defense. The finale of your presentation should focus on proving the work that has been done. You may need to recap on what has changed and remained unchanged, if is necessary.

5 . Listen:

Before you get defensive or recite a particular answer, make sure you truly understand the question being asked. Being a good listener is an important quality, because providing an inaccurate or off-topic answer will also weaken the validity of your paper.

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