The Practice Of Staff Selection And Induction In Union Bank Of Nigeria Plc

Project and Seminar Material for Human Resource Management (HRM)

The Practice Of Staff Selection And Induction In Union Bank Of Nigeria Plc


Abstract


With the rapid development of today’s global market, organizations are continuously seeking ways to grow and keep competitive through deliberately planned, implemented and monitored activities. One of these activities is induction programs which is a form of training. However numerous studies conducted reveal that in spite of the substantial benefits, induction programs can bring to an organization; many managers do not give it the attention it deserves. This study therefore sought to assess the practice of staff selection and induction programs on employee job performance in Union Bank Plc (UBN). The study was guided by Uncertainty Reduction Theory (URT) by Falcione and Wilson (1988). The Study targeted all the 215 employees of the bank. Data was collected through questionnaires and interviews and analyzed descriptively. The results were presented in frequency distribution tables, graphs and percentages. The findings of the study were that induction programs existed in UBN and their goals included: providing new employees with information, conveying employees’ expectations and relieving the new employees’ anxieties about the job. Challenges facing induction programs included: lack of clearly stated goals for induction, failure to balance the needs of the employees against the needs of the bank, inability to deliver appropriate and accurate information to new employees, lack of re-orientation when employees are transferred to new stations or when they are promoted. Strategies for enhancing induction programs included: giving the employees the information they need about the organization, building workplace relationships, making induction programs relaxing, allowing two way interactions, ensuring that the programs give a healthy balance between the needs of the bank and those of the employees. Based on the above findings it was concluded that induction programs enhance employee job performance. The study recommends that the immediate supervisors should be trained and equipped with skills and knowledge necessary for conducting effective induction programs, the employee handbooks should be given to employees at the time of induction, managers should accord induction programs the seriousness it deserves. The study is significant to UBN management and any other organization that may wish to use it in policy and decision making.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The practice of staff selection and induction in most organization had been seen as most importance functional activity of personnel department in the organization which the purpose is to a collection of familiar items or persons from which some are taken or accepted and also to give employees at all level sufficient instruction and guidelines to enable them to be productivity, effectively and efficiently for promotion.

According to Agbo (2001) in the larger organization, there is likely to be several different jobs and position vacant at a particular time and there are many applicants who are interested in employment with the organization so that the selection program should be designed to provide qualified personnel on a continuing basis for a wide variety of jobs while the matching of talent and job specifications at best is often a compromise, it is essential to building an efficient and productivity work force. Applicants who have been selected carefully usually learn job tasks easier, become better producers and are usually happier in their jobs than those who are selected on causal basis. Obviously the induction and selection process is intimately connected with the over all manpower system.

Some organization particularly those with limited promotional opportunities emphasize selection. They seek fully trained employees capable of staring to work at once, many professional organization example, schools, consulting firms, banks etc fit into this category with short-run job.

Graham (1981) defines “induction” as the process of introducing employee to the activities, customers and tradition of the organization.

Nevertheless, the progress of many organization being it service oriented or otherwise depends on their level of productivity.

The high productivity and efficiency is depends on the quality of employee or staff recruited into such organization.

This is highly affected by the policy of the organization as regards staff selection. It is apparent that the management of any organization should map out a nice strategy in selecting their staff. This will enhance both the quality of the staff and their performance.

More so, it does not end in selecting the staff. The performance of some on depends freely on his conversant with the new environment as well as their work rules.

The essence of induction is to familiarize the staff with the new environment in their place of work (offices).

After staff selection, induction and recruitment, the newly recruited staff and strangers in the organization are look like novice. This will definitely affect their performance.

Induction is then carried out to expose them to the environments, the organization work rules and a lot of other needed information. It was on this background that the researchers have chosen to carryout this research on this topic, the practice of staff selection and induction using Union Bank as her case study.

The concept of God father in Nigeria today is absolutely eating into the bone marrow of every system in the society including the practice of selecting and induction staff.

The issue has remained WHO Do You Know? WHO is Your God Father and not quality or merit anymore, it should be realized that the Banking System is expected to be above board in selecting their staff.

Their practice should be different from other service organization because of nature of work. Quality and competence should be their watchword. Godfather syndrome should not be welcomed. It is on this basis that the researcher has decide to place the emphasis in this study on the practice of selection and induction in this recent time, which has prompted many organizations in closing very appropriate places for conducting seminars lectures for the benefit of the staff.

This study will be carried out using Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, formerly known as Baclays Bank International, which come into the country in the year 1971 as one of the commercial banks.

Baclays Bank was formed by a goldsmith family in Britainas an up giant of the goldsmith receipt used as a exchange on the dealing involving trade by barter.

However, the era of indigenization open (second phase) in 1917 made in mandatory that foreign owned company should diversity their ownership based. Bank which were classified among the service sectors be longs to the owners ratio of participation of 60%Nigeriaquote in “Union Bank” came into existence until when the name was changed from Baclays Bank to Union Bank of Nigeria Limited in 1979 and then they came a quoted company in 1990 when it went public.


1.2 Problem Statement

The business challenges of an organization will be to realize the impacts of staff selection and induction, most especially in Union Bank of Nigeria Plc. The problem of the study is to understand how staff selection and induction should operational in Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, setting.

It is easy to advocate policies but often difficult to implement them. How does a business integrate staff and induction in its management with all the functional departmentalization that are found in the organization? Many studies conducted reveal that managers of organizations do not appreciate the weight that induction programs exert on organizational effectiveness. This study therefore sets out to assess the effectiveness of staff selection and induction programs on employee Job Performance in Union Bank Plc Limited.


1.3 Main Objective

The main objective of this study was to examine the practice of staff selection and induction in Union Bank of Nigeria plc.

1.3.1 Specific Objectives
  1. To establish the existence and goals of induction programs in UBN.
  2. To examine the perception of employees on induction programs in UBN
  3. To identify the challenges of conducting induction programs.
  4. To find out the strategies for enhancing effectiveness of induction programs and their likely impact on employee job performance.
1.3.2 Research Questions
  1. What are the goals of induction programs in UBN?
  2. What is the perception staff on induction programs in UBN?
  3. What are the challenges faced in conducting induction programs?
  4. What are the strategies for enhancing induction and what are their likely impacts on employee job performance.

1.4 Significance of the Study

This study is an important contribution to the literature on induction in Nigeria. The study is also expected to provide recommendations for company managers and other stakeholders to consider in formulating policies and programs relating to induction. Information regarding major influences on induction can help in planning relevant programs that can help to improve the effectiveness of induction and training in
UBN


1.5 Significance of the Study

An extensive review of existing literature indicates that induction has a lot of benefits in improving employee performance and that few studies have focused on the effects of induction programs on employee job performance in Nigeria. Hence there is a gap in literature that this study hopes to fill by assessing the effectiveness of induction programs in organizations, focusing on UBN.


1.6 Assumptions of the Study

The study assumed that respondents were truthful and gave the researcher honest feedback. It was further assumed that the bank in which the study was conducted would accord the researcher adequate cooperation and take the research outcomes positively and implement them in order to benefit from them. Last but not least, the researcher assumed that environmental factors would remain conducive throughout the research period and that budgeted costs of carrying out the research would remain unchanged.


1.7 The Scope of the Study

The researcher tends to understudy the human resources department of Union Bank of Nigeria Plc which takes care of selection and induction programmes in the bank. Despite the fact that Union Bank is very big bank with network of branches scattered across the nation and carrying out the study as a whole will be very time consuming and cumbersome. Hence, the researcher tried to cover human resources department of the bank based in Lagos state.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

There were several sources of bias which included possible self-selecting nature of respondents at the point in time when the study was conducted. This being a case study, it would allow for generalization of the outcome to other organizations. The researcher attempted to overcome the limitations through careful planning.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.0 Overview

This chapter presents a discussion of findings, conclusions and recommendations about induction programs in UBN and their effects on employee performance. The chapter shows what was established by the study and comparing the same with practices established elsewhere by scholars as reviewed in chapter two.


5.1 Summary of Findings

With the development of today’s global market, organizations are continuously seeking ways to grow and keep competitive through several deliberately planned, implemented and monitored activities. One of these activities is through induction which is a form of training. The findings are discussed here under subheadings; respondents personal characteristics; goals of induction and its effects on job performance; role of induction on job performance; challenges faced in induction and strategies of enhancing induction programs. One hundred and eighty two respondents filled and returned the questionnaires from a population of two hundred and fifteen employees of UBN. This was 84.7% of the target population.

5.1.1 Role of Induction on Job Performance

First it was desirable to find out what the respondents understood by the term induction and job performance. Majority, 47.3% stated that induction is familiarizing new employees with the bank policies, safety rules, and work expectations, 13.7% of the employees stated that induction is the process of acquainting the new employees with the existing culture and practices of the organization, 22% of the respondents indicated that induction is the introduction of new employees to a new work environment, 11.5% indicated that induction is welcoming new employees to the bank and integrating them with the organization staff. The findings collaborate with French (1994) who defines induction as the process of familiarizing new employees with the organization and the job. This suggests that the respondents view on induction is more less the same as French’s (1994) definition.

On the meaning of job performance 24% of the respondents stated that job performance is how an employee carries his/ her daily office activities, 29% indicated that it was the way employees work to achieve set targets of the bank, 27% indicated that it is how well or badly an employee does a job. The definitions by the respondents are more less like those given by Brars and Rece(2002) that job performance is the degree of accomplishments of tasks and that it reflects how an employee fulfils the requirements of a job. Induction guides and directs the employees behavior and expectations and this leads to improved job performance.

On the goals of induction, 66.5% of the respondents indicated that the goal of induction was to provide new employees with information, 76.3% indicated that the goal was to paint a precise picture of the departments, 59.9% indicated that the goal was to convey employees expectations, 100%, all the respondents indicated that the goal was to relieve the new employees’ anxieties about the job.69.4% indicated that the goal of employee orientation was to inspire new employees to have a good attitude towards the organization. This implies that if organizations practice induction with the aim of achieving the mentioned goals among others, performance is expected to improve. When one begin a new job, transferred or get a promotion he/she is required to make adjustments so as to adapt to the new environment, different work activities, a new boss, a different or diverse group of coworkers and probably a different set of standards for what constitutes good performance Decenzo and Robbins(1996) agrees with the respondents’ responses that induction strongly influences employee performance and organizational stability by providing an adequate special attention to put the new employees at ease, provides an adequate amount of information to reduce uncertainty and ambiguity.

Job performance depends to a considerable degree on knowing what one should or should not do and understanding the right way to do a job indicate proper induction. The findings on the effects of induction programs in the study shows that induction helps employees to know what is expected of them as reported by 77.8% of the respondents, 90.4% reported that it provides a roadmap to work place success, 80.6% reported that it helps new employees know the bank rules and finally 87.5% reported that it created a positive first impression about the bank. There are however a number of responses given by the managers as to what the effects of induction programs was. The responses given were that induction makes employees adopt well and feel accommodated in the bank hence improving work effectiveness and productivity, it created a positive impression on the organization hence retention of employees and therefore high productivity and reduced costs on replacements, training and disruptions, others said that induction helps new employees understand the bank and be able to undertake their job roles. Induction “builds a positive attitude towards the bank and its stakeholders, states Chhababra (2005), this concurs with the respondents suggestion that induction programs created a positive first impression about the bank.

5.1.2 Challenges of Induction

The study established that the common challenges in induction are lack of clearly stated goals for induction, reported by 156(86.1%) of the respondents; failure to balance the needs of the employee against the needs ofthe bank reported by 72.5%, this is supported by Chhabra (2005) who states that orientation may be viewed as a socializing process by which the organizations seeks to make an individual agent for the achievements of its objectives and the individual seeks to make an agency of the organization for the achievement of his /personal goals. inability to deliver appropriate and accurate information to new employees reported by 77.9% of the respondents; how to reduce the new employee anxiety and make him or her feel welcomed in the bank reported by 73.6%, lack of re-orientation when employees are transferred to new stations or when they are promoted reported by 77.9% of the respondents. The managers gave the following as the challenges of induction, diversifying of the organizational structures, lack of qualified staff to undertake induction, lack of structured ways of conducting induction; it is time consuming and is costly in terms of training and stationery. Armstrong agrees with the managers’ response that supervisors who are entrusted with the job of induction are not trained or may be too busy, hence may not train the new employees as is expected.

5.1.3 Strategies for Improving Induction Programs

On the strategies for improving induction programs the suggestions included giving employees the information they need about the organization, with 81.9% of the respondents agreeing, ensuring the programs content gives a healthy balance between technical and social aspects reported by 88.8% of the respondents, allowing a lot of two way interaction reported by 91.6% of the respondents, building workplace relationships reported by 94.4% of the respondents, giving the best impression on the first day reported by 88.1% of the respondents, having the induction done by the immediate supervisor reported by 91.7% of the respondents, providing assistance to new employees in house hunt and involving the spouse in the program reported by 91.7%, allowing new employees adequate time to get their feet on the ground before demands on them reported by 87.4% of the respondents, making the programs relaxing reported by 75.1% of the respondents, having the induction done by colleagues reported by 87.4% of the respondents, taking the employees for formal classroom training reported by 93% of the respondents. However, some of the respondents reported that letting the new employees to learn on their own was not a strategy for improving induction, with, 66.6% of the respondents reporting against the statement. The findings are in line with Aswathappa (2002) who stated that induction is designed to provide new employees with the information he or she needs to function comfortably in the organization. This is in agreement with the suggestion given by respondents that induction gives new employees with the information they need in the organization.


5.2 Conclusions

From the study it can be concluded that induction exists in UBN but it takes a short time. The objectives of induction in the bank are right in that the respondents indicated that the goals of induction are; it helps employees know what is expected of them, provides a roadmap to workplace success, help employee know the bank roles, and relates a positive first impression. The study established that the induction programs in UBN is effective as given by the respondents that; it provides a new employee with information, paints a precise picture of departments, conveys employee expectations, relieves the new employees’ anxieties about the job and inspires the new employee to have a good attitude towards the organization. According to the respondents, induction is conducted on the job by the immediate supervisor and employee handbooks are not given to new employees during the induction program
On challenges facing induction, the respondents agreed the following as the challenges; lack of clearly stated goals for induction, failure to balance the needs of the bank and the employee, inability to deliver appropriate and accurate information to new employees, how to reduce the new employees’ anxiety and make him/her feel welcomed in the bank and lack of re-orientation when employees are transferred to new stations or when they are promoted.

The respondents agreed on the following as the strategies of improving induction: giving employees the information they need, ensuring the program content gives a healthy balance between technical information and social aspects, allowing a lot of two way interaction, building workplace relationships, giving the best impression on the first day, having induction done by the immediate superior, providing assistance to new employees in house hunt and involving the spouse in the program, by allowing new employees adequate time to get their feet on the ground before demands on them, making the program relaxing, having induction done by colleagues and taking the employee for formal classroom.


5.3 Recommendations

Following the study findings it is clear that induction is vital in order to enhance individual/employees performance in organizations. To achieve maximum benefits from induction, the following recommendations are advanced.

  1. Induction should be deliberately planned and a clear budget for the program
  2. All new employees and those transferred to new stations/departments or on promotion should undergo the induction process.
  3. Coordination of induction should be assigned to the Human Resource department and should liaise with the respective supervisors and line managers.
  4. There should be feedback on the induction program so that employees may know how they have performed and what they need in order to improve.
  5. The management in any organization must be part of the induction process, the managements support is necessary for its success. Therefore induction should be an integral part of an organization.
  6. The induction handbooks should be given during induction programs.
  7. The managers and supervisors should be trained on how to conduct the induction program, so as to make it effective.

5.4 Suggestions for Further Studies

The study brings out clearly the fear of the employees citing the challenges of induction as lack of clearly stated goals for induction programs, failure to balance the needs of the employee and that of the bank, inability to deliver appropriate and accurate information to new employees to name but a few. It may therefore be necessary to carry out further research on induction programs to establish;

  1. The type of training that can be given to the immediate supervisors/line managers to ensure the right information is given to the new entrants into the organization.
  2. The comparison between the job performance of employees who undergo induction and those who do not.

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