The Practice Of Monthly Sanitation Exercises Among Residents Of Owerri Municipal, Imo State
This study investigated the practice of monthly sanitation exercises among residents of Owerri Municipal, Imo State. Over the recent times, Owerri metropolitan city is experiencing speedy urbanization leading to overcrowding and the development of slums and unorganised settlements with impoverished waste management practices. Urban denizen generally burn more resources than rural denizen, and so produce large amount of solid wastes. The research used quantitative research techniques to determine the status of municipal solid waste management practice in Owerri and Environs. A total of 664 Owerri metropolitan residents responded to the online interview evaluating their knowledge and perception toward waste management practice. The result showed that very high and significant proportion of the respondents do not carry out solid waste segregation at the point of generation (66.9%) likewise their neighbours (53.6%). According to the survey results, waste management is not due to lack of awareness but weak institutional arrangement and capacity of local council who are in charge of municipal solid waste management at the metropolis. This paper suggest the encouragement of waste segregation at source of generation and activities that promotes sustainable waste to wealth practices.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Significance of the Study
- 1.6 Scope of the Study
- 1.7 Limitations of the Study
- 1.8 Definition of Terms
- 1.9 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Discussion of Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background to the Study
Poor environmental sanitation practices exhibited in the disposal of solid waste, wastewater and excreta, cleaning of drainage including personal, household and community hygiene significantly contribute to infant and child mortality (Mmon and Mmon, 2011; UNICEF, 2007; Amadi and Iwuala, 2005; WHO, 2005; UNICEF, 1999; EHP, 1999). This is contrary to the notion of environmental sanitation which aims at developing and maintaining a clean, safe and pleasant physical environment in all human settlements (IRC, 2006; FRN, 2005). Environmental sanitation comprises the disposal and treatment of human excreta, solid waste and wastewater, control of disease vectors, and provision of washing facilities for personal and domestic hygiene which work together to form a hygienic environment (Schertenleib et al, 2005).
Environmental sanitation should be greatly improved \while embarking on health education programmes as a component of all water and sanitation programmes, improving sector institutional capacity, and ensuring sustainable predictable and adequate financing to the sector. Ensuring efficient management of water resources also requires pursuing trans-boundary water resources strategies and co-operation in the sub-region vis-a-vis enhanced legislation developed and implemented lor efficient water resources management. (Carlo, 1998) Furthermore, climate change adaptation should be factored into water resource management mechanisms and measures to support encourage and promote rainwater harvesting.
With respect to the provision of safe water in rural and urban areas, there is the need to provide investments for the construction of new and rehabilitation and expansion of existing water facilities and also strengthen public-private and NGO partnerships in water provision as well as improve community-owned and managed water supply systems. Other strategic include facilitating the extension of distribution networks, especially to law income consumers, intensifying hygiene education in water service delivery and encouraging public-private partnerships in water services delivery. (Cipolia, 1998) Strategies aimed at improving environmental sanitation should include promoting the construction and use of appropriate and affordable domestic latrines, integrating hygiene education into water and sanitation delivery, supporting public-private-partnerships in solid and .quid waste management, promoting cost-effective and innovative technologies for waste management and also developing disability-friendly sanitation facilities. (Burnett, 2000)
In realizing the objective of implementing health education as a component of all water and sanitation programmes, the major strategy That should be employed is the incorporation of hygiene education in all water and sanitation programmes.
An equally important strategy will be the promotion of change behaviour in relation to ensuring open defecation-free communities. Other strategies should include the promotion of hand washing with soap at critical times, promoting hygienic use of water at the household level and promotion of hygienic excreta disposal methods, (Georgej 2002} The policy objective to improve sector coordination would be achieved through the adoption of a sector-wide approach to planning, .mplemcntation, monitoring and evaluation of sector activities. The Water Directorate and the Environmental Sanitation and Hygiene Directorate should be strengthened with adequately trained number of personnel and other resources to enable them take ownership and lead roles in the sector, (George, 2002).
Waste management is a serious challenge for cities in developing countries, owing to the increasing waste generated, driven by population growth, industrialization and urbanization (Ekeu-wei et at., 2018). According to the World Bank (2013) report, population of developing nations is likely to be twofold from 2 to 4 billion between 2000 and 2030. UNEP (2013) estimated that the expected population growth of the world will be intense in the urban area of the developing nations until year 2050. Rapid urbanization evolution has resulted in a number of land uses and infrastructural challenges including municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Developing and emerging countries suffer constant, continuous and uncontrolled waste disposal as a result of human activities which generate serious pollution that affects the terrestrial and aquatic domain (Vogdala et al., 2019). Nationals and municipal governments in developing countries are often having insufficient fund to meet the growing demand of solid waste management. The solid waste management is the single largest budget item for many cities (UNDP, 2013). In most of the developing nations the explanations for lack of capacity of governments to mediate the effect of population increases with economic growth and reduction of poverty incidence remain the major challenges of the urbanization in those countries.
As the generation of solid waste increase, the cost of its removal increases too. Solid waste management is not an isolated phenomenon that can be easily compartmentalized and solved with innovative technology or engineering (Naibbi and Umar, 2017). It is particularly an urban issue that is closely related, directly or indirectly, to a number of issues such as urban lifestyles, resource consumption patterns, jobs and income levels, and other socio-economic and cultural issues. Given this situation there is need to promote complimentary alternatives such as community initiatives to manage garbage in a sustainable manner in addition to being a potential source of income for the poor. In lower income countries, as well as poorer parts of middle-income nations such as Owerri and its Environs, an estimated of 40 to 60% solid waste produced in the areas is left uncollected. Some viral and other infectious diseases are associated with waste and also serve as habitat formation for breeding insects and mosquitoes (Issa et al., 2021). The major solid waste management processes start at solid waste production, storage and followed by waste segregation, solid waste collection, transportation and transferring.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Owerriand its Environs has faced inefficient management of solid wastes. However, municipal solid waste is collected through the door to door collection system from households by Micro and Small Enterprises (MSE) often twice a week and this waste is conveyed to a designated solid waste storage container (skip point). Owerriis facing rapid urbanization per annum, leading to overcrowding and the development of slums and informal settlements with poor waste management practices. Urban dwellers generally consume more resources than rural dwellers, and so generate large quantities of solid waste and sewage (Ejati et al., 2018). Waste management in these areas is hampered by multiple land tenure system with many tenants not having a right to the land and therefore not able to manage waste domestically and also the urban authorities are overwhelmed by the sheer volumes if garbage generated (Emmanuel et al., 2018, Gutberlet and Uddin, 2017). Consequently, a few generated solid waste in the city is left uncollected and dumped in unauthorized areas such as road, drainage channel, fields, ditches, and streets. Some people in highly dense populated areas have no access to local government disposal skips point and private collectors are too expensive for these poor households hence forced to practice indiscriminately disposed-off garbage in drainage channels, road sides and abandoned buildings (Asibor and Edjere, 2017).
1.3 Research Objective
The main objective of this study is to investigate the practice of monthly sanitation exercises among residents of Owerri Municipal, Imo State. Specific objectives of the study include to:
- Assess the impact of environmental sanitation on waste management practices in of Owerri Municipal, Imo State.
- Examine the waste management Practice of the residents of of Owerri Municipal, Imo State.
- Investigate the waste management perception of the residents of of Owerri Municipal, Imo State.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions are evaluated in this study:
- What is the impact of environmental sanitation on waste management practices in of Owerri Municipal, Imo State?
- Is there any form of waste management Practice among the residents of of Owerri Municipal, Imo State.?
- What is the waste management perception of the residents of of Owerri Municipal, Imo State?
1.5 Significance of the Study
As the development of environmental sanitation services continuous to gain more relevance in government policies and programme and more funds are being channelled towards this effort there is the need for more information on the environment sanitation situation to be accessed in the poorer parts of the big cities in Nigeria. This study would help to examine the accessibility and utilization of the environmental sanitation services and hygiene facilities in the communities. The study would serve to identify some of the bottlenecks and helps to mark the hygiene risk practices in households. There have been various interventions and policies in Nigeria to meet these goals, some of which, , include the development of the National Community Water and Sanitation Programme and the subsequent creation of the Community Water and Sanitation Agency. The establishment of the Water Resources Commission, the creation of a Water Directorate and an Environmental Health and Sanitation Directorate, as well as the formation of the Coalition of NGOs in Water and Sanitation, have all tremendously promoted and facilitated coordination in the sector (MWRWH, 2007). Despite these interventions water supply and its related sanitation issues in terms of constant water supply, water quality, water treatment and access to proper waste disposal had since persisted especially in the periurban communities in the major cities in Nigeria. The results of the data collected from the research will help inform the activities of the environmental sanitation awareness programme of the Metropolitan assembly to best achieve its goal of improved environmental practices through better water and sanitation services utilization.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study covers the practice of monthly sanitation exercises among residents of Owerri Municipal, Imo State. The study also looks at the waste management practices of the inhabitants of Owerri. The perception of the residents of Owerri with respect to how they see and handle waste were investigated in this study.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
This study is limited by issues like the completion time, which seems insufficient to carry out this investigation successfully and efficiently. This study is further constrained by the paucity of materials on the subject, which appears to be quite rare. The quality and scope of this study were greatly influenced by the lack of compliance of the teachers and students who participated in the research.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Public health conditions related to clean drinking water and treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage. Preventing human contact with feces is part of sanitation, as is hand washing with soap. Sanitation systems aim to protect human health by providing a clean environment that will stop the transmission of disease, especially through the fecal–oral route.
A human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as cities, towns, conurbations or suburbs. In urbanism, the term contrasts to rural areas such as villages and hamlets; in urban sociology or urban anthropology it contrasts with natural environment. The creation of earlier predecessors of urban areas during the urban revolution led to the creation of human civilization with modern urban planning, which along with other human activities such as exploitation of natural resources led to a human impact on the environment. “Agglomeration effects” are in the list of the main consequences of increased rates of firm creation since. This is due to conditions created by a greater level of industrial activity in a given region. However, a favorable environment for human capital development would also be generated simultaneously.
Waste Management or Waste Disposal:
The processes and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal. This includes the collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste, together with monitoring and regulation of the waste management process and waste-related laws, technologies, economic mechanisms.
Waste can be solid, liquid, or gases and each type has different methods of disposal and management. Waste management deals with all types of waste, including industrial, biological, household, municipal, organic, biomedical, radioactive wastes. In some cases, waste can pose a threat to human health. Health issues are associated throughout the entire process of waste management. Health issues can also arise indirectly or directly: directly through the handling of solid waste, and indirectly through the consumption of water, soil and food. Waste is produced by human activity, for example, the extraction and processing of raw materials. Waste management is intended to reduce adverse effects of waste on human health, the environment, planetary resources and aesthetics.
The introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form of any substance (solid, liquid, or gas) or energy (such as radioactivity, heat, sound, or light). Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Although environmental pollution can be caused by natural events, the word pollution generally implies that the contaminants have an anthropogenic source – that is, a source created by human activities. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution.
1.9 Organization of the Study
There are five chapters in this study, the first of which discusses the background, statement of the research problem, aims, research question, and research hypotheses as well as the study’s significance, scope, and limitations. Chapter 2 contains conceptual, theoretical, and empirical reviews. The study methodology is covered in Chapter 3. This chapter covers the research design, the study’s population, the sample size and methodology, the data collection source and method, the study’s instruments, the data analysis method, and the validity and reliability of the study.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Summary of Findings
The generation of waste and subsequent disposal is one of environment challenges that is of considerable concern to inhabitants of any locality as well as the local, state and federal government, and the world in general. This concern triggered huge responses from the Owerri residents on their knowledge and perception on waste management in the course of the online survey. The demographic characteristics of the respondents were similar to that obtained by Igiekhume et al. (2021) in the assessment of public-privateparticipation of solid waste management in Owerri as high responses were obtained from people with formal education, male, older ones, and civil servants. Based on this, efforts towards improved waste management could be achieved as sensitisation/public awareness campaign in Owerri would yield the desired result with targets on younger generation (especially of feminine gender), singles as well as the uneducated. Aminu and Ibrahim (2015) in the study of evolving knowledge management solution for municipal solid waste management problems in Nigeria highlighted the need for adequate information sharing on waste management benefits. When such an approach is implemented in Owerri, there are tendencies for wealth generation from the resources assumed as waste. Very high proportion of the respondents opined that people make living from transacting waste items.
The transformation of the existing trends in municipal waste management is critical for a developing nation like Nigeria to ensure sustainable environments and associated benefits. From the result of this study, it is obvious that very high proportion of the respondents were aware of the inherent benefits that municipal waste could be converted into useful material as well as reused and recycled. Waste management practices such as source segregation was strongly supported by the respondents to be beneficial to health but high proportion of the respondents do not carry out solid waste segregation at the point of generation. The result of this study showed that the required awareness for proper waste management in Owerri and environ is achievement but there is still needs for enforcement of sustainable municipal waste management practices and producers’ involvement in municipal waste management. In the past, quite a couple of approaches and interventions have been established for tackling municipal waste concerns but with little or no progress (Aminu and Ibrahim, 20) Efficiency in management of municipal waste would requires application of knowledge management tools and intensification that assure sustainable environment and socio-economic progress. “Municipal solid waste management is an important part of urban infrastructure that ensures the protection of environment and human health” (Aliyu, 2010).
In conclusion, this study unveiled that significant proportion of the resident therein were aware of waste management processes but do not segregate waste at the point of generation. The existing poor status of municipal solid waste management could be due to weak institutional arrangement and capacity of local council who are in charge of municipal solid waste management at the metropolis and they should encourage waste segregation at source of generation and activities that promotes sustainable waste to wealth practices.
The finding of the study shows that the existing municipal solid waste management practice in Owerri and Environs was insufficient and the services given by the concerned sanitation administration were inadequate in terms of sustaining public health and accessibility. Therefore, the following very important measures are forwarded to overcome MSWM problems and improvement of the system for sustainable service delivery of MSWM in Owerri and Environs:
- There should be careful plan on carrying out the attitudinal change of people for waste management system sustainability.
- Engaging the MSE and creating effective channels of communication.
- Give continuous awareness creation or education for the public among schools, institutions, NGOs, businesses and popular individuals via the different medium of communication about MSWM in general and ISWM in particular.
- Creating favourable conditions for continuous public participation and impartial enforcement of rules and code enforcement service regulations
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