Practical Based Instructional Strategy And Students’ Academic Performance In Mathematics In Ikot Ekpene L. G. A.

Mathematics Education Project Material

Practical Based Instructional Strategy And Students’ Academic Performance In Mathematics In Ikot Ekpene L. G. A.


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine practical based instructional strategy and students’ academic performance in mathematics in Ikot Ekpene L.G.A. The study was specifically set to find out whether practical based instructional strategy facilitates effective teaching and learning of mathematics in Ikot Ekpene, investigate the extent teachers adopts the practical based instructional strategy during the teaching of mathematics in Ikot Ekpene, ascertain whether practical based instructional strategy helps to stimulate students interest and attitude towards mathematics subject, ascertain whether practical based instructional strategy helps in boosting students comprehension of mathematics subject and find out whether practical based instructional strategy helps to enhance the level of students retention of mathematics subject. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of students some selected senior secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene L.G.A. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 229 respondents and 210 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that practical based instructional strategy facilitates effective teaching and learning of mathematics in Ikot Ekpene. Furthermore the result of the findings reveals that the extent teachers adopts the practical based instructional strategy during the teaching of mathematics in Ikot Ekpene is high. Therefore, it is recommended that the government (local, state and federal) should, therefore, organize workshop training for mathematics teachers as well as the inclusion of practical work instructional approach in the teacher-trainee mathematics program. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Education is an instrument for the development of any nation in the world. Ideally, this is the belief upon which, philosophy of Nigeria education is based. The federal government of Nigeria, therefore set education to maximize the creative potentials and skills of the individual for self-fulfillment and general development of the society (FRN, 2013). This belief can be actualized through the implementation of the objectives of the Post-Basic Education and Carrier Development (PBECD) Education Program which include providing entrepreneurial, technical and vocational job-specific skills for self-reliance, and agricultural, industrial, commercial and economic development; and to provide trained manpower in the applied science, technology and commerce at sub-professional grades (FRN, 2013). More crucially, the FRN (2013) demands that the pursuance of goals of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET), the curriculum for technical colleges shall include, workshop practice, entrepreneurial training, among others. Basically, implementation of PBECD objectives demands adequate training of manpower for the acquisition of much needed entrepreneurial, technical and vocational skills most essential for “providing training that enables students to acquire continuous education that makes them self-reliant, wealth creator and providers of employment” (FRN, 2013; P. 32).Furthermore, to actualize the objectives, each student offering a subject.

In Senior Secondary School level (i.e. Post-Basic Education Curriculum) should select one Trade/Entrepreneurship subject listed in TVET syllabus covering science and mathematics, Technology, Humanities and Business studies. Specifically, entrepreneurship education aimed at covering Global System Mobile phone (GSM)Maintenance and Repairs, Animal Husbandry, Fishery, Marketing, and salesmanship. These entrepreneurial education subjects are aimed at providing students with skills and competencies to become self-reliant and wealth creators. Mathematics manipulation and outstanding mathematical ability is a precise entrepreneurship education need because without mathematics there is no physics and without physics,there is no room for acquisition of GSM maintenance and repairs skills and competencies. Obviously, an entrepreneur requires knowledge and skills of basic mathematics to enable him/her to authenticate the results which will certainly make an entrepreneur succeed; and facts could be presented by using frequency distribution, bar charts, pie charts, histograms, which are all in the domain of mathematics (Odomoso and Olusesan, 2016).An entrepreneur needs to be equipped with mathematical skills, knowledge and competencies to function effectively in communicating business ideas, forecasting, applying trend analysis, applying statistical techniques in the analysis of data, etc. More so, mathematical ability is crucial to entrepreneurs opting for animal husbandry and fishery farming.Because of the competencies required in the knowledge and application of mathematics in calculations of quantities, volumes, weighting/scaling, etc involved giving drugs, feeding of animals, fishes, birds, production of feeds, etc. Mathematics and statistics are also deeply involved in marketing and salesmanship which requires accurate decision-taking to succeed. Mathematics Education could positively influence the computational skill, problem-solving, analytical skill, abstract thinking skill and creative skill that encourage individual to make decisions that would benefit self and society (Odumosu; Olusesan and Adeniran, 2016). Probably because of the need for mathematics and statistics to entrepreneurs that mathematics and statistics programs such as Business Mathematics, Mathematics for Economists, Actuarial mathematics,etc have been designed to ensure competency in these areas of entrepreneurship.Obviously, to achieve success in acquiring science, technology and entrepreneurial skills demand being competent in manipulating mathematics very handsomely.Possession of Mathematics skills is a tool for achieving success in the entrepreneurial development of any nation. For instance, an entrepreneur may need to interpret results obtained from data analysis of sales. Cash flows, etc to be able to arrive at useful decisions which call for the knowledge of mathematics and so basic mathematics knowledge and skills are required to authenticate the results which will certainly make an entrepreneur succeed (Odomoso and Olusesan, 2016). Entrepreneurship education, invariably, is paramount in today’s world.Where economic recession is ravaging almost all countries of the world, and Nigeria, in particular,which is over-dependent on crude oil that its price is constantly dropping. Some important skills such as communication, decision making, innovation, analytical and creativity,which are essential ingredients for success in entrepreneurship activities can be acquired through competent manipulation of mathematics(Odomoso and Olusesan, 2016). Mathematics is a cognitive tool and indispensably an agent of development, wealth and vocational skills acquisition. Ideally, without mathematics there is no vocational skill acquisition, without vocational skill acquisition, there is no entrepreneurial skills acquisition and without entrepreneurial skill acquisition, there will be no economic self-reliance nation. It may be in due consideration of all these vital contributions and central position of mathematics to the science, technology, vocational skills and entrepreneurial development that the Nigerian government made mathematics a compulsory subject at primary and secondary school level of education in Nigeria (FRN,2013).21st-century secondary students cannot develop or acquire vocational skills or create wealth,because students’ poor performance on the subject among Nigeria primary and secondary school students is persistently reported.The Problem of poor performance in mathematics among Nigeria students have continued to be topical and attracts the attention of mathematics educators and researchers. Low attainment in mathematics among Nigerian secondary school students is a clear manifestation of this problem.Despite numerous methods, strategies and approaches infused into teaching the subject, reports are still raging on concerning persistent upward trend in students’ poor performance on the subject. Students’ persistent poor performance in mathematics is evidenced in the literature (WAEC Chief Examiners’ reports, 2010-2015 and NECO Chief Examiners’ reports, 2011-2017; Dogo, Keyeleve and Kurumeh, 2018).Specifically, despite the importance attached to mathematics by all stakeholders in education, senior school students still perform poorly in the subject. Moreso, the performance of secondary school students in mathematics in the West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) has remained consistently poor; and this phenomenon has remained a source of concern to the researcher, parents, education administrators and the Nation at large.Probably because of all these reports that Blogsport (2018) and Samanta and King (2018), all demanded that activity-based method should be used in teaching mathematics, because it makes the teaching of mathematics practical and experiential (FRN, 2013). The practical work teaching strategy is most appropriate in mathematical topics, especially geometry and measuration (Schwartz, 2014; and Unodiaku, 2018). Based on evidence and consistently poor performance of student on the subject, it appears that all methods, strategies and approaches used by the classroom teachers failed to reverse the trend. It becomes pertinent therefore to infuse practical work instructional approach in teaching and learning of mathematics as demanded by the FRN (2013).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Despite that mathematics is the principal determinant of scientific, technological and entrepreneurial development and sustainability in any nation of the world, and all methods/strategies/approaches infused into teaching and learning of the subject, there is persistent failure to reverse the trend of the poor performance of students on mathematics, especially in the areas of geometry (National Centre for Education statistic, 2016; and Schwartz, 2014) and mensuration (Edutopia, 2016; and Unodiaku, 2018). This situation is worsened by many obstacles posed by teachers’ inability to use instructional materials during mathematics lesson as demanded by WAEC Chief Examiner (2012); Samanta & King (2018); and Blogsport (2018),who all demanded that activity-based method (practical work approach) should be used in teaching mathematics, because it makes the teaching of mathematics practical and experiential (FRN, 2013). The question is, how can a practical work instructional approach be used in the teaching of mathematics among senior secondary school students? This question is the thrust of the problem in the study.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically examine practical based instructional strategy and students’ academic performance in mathematics in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Find out whether practical based instructional strategy facilitates effective teaching and learning of mathematics in Ikot Ekpene.
  2. Investigate the extent teachers adopts the practical based instructional strategy during the teaching of mathematics in Ikot Ekpene.
  3. Ascertain whether practical based instructional strategy helps to stimulate students interest and attitude towards mathematics subject.
  4. Ascertain whether practical based instructional strategy helps in boosting students comprehension of mathematics subject.
  5. Find out whether practical based instructional strategy helps to enhance the level of students retention of mathematics subject.

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Practical based instructional strategy has no positive effect on the academic performance of students in mathematics.
  • Ha: Practical based instructional strategy has a positive effect on the academic performance of students in mathematics.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The results obtained from this study will be of great benefit to the following: biology students, teachers, governments, curriculum planners/developers, textbook writers and future researchers. The study will be of relevance to mathematics students; when they understand more the importance of mathematics practical skills, they are equipped to secure employment, and this would in no small measure make them contribute meaningfully to the development of the society. Practical method of teaching can also increase the interest of the student to practical works.

The study will be of benefit to mathematics teachers, as it will help them in choosing appropriate instructional method and materials capable of releasing students‟ tension toward the subject. It will also motivate teachers to develop interest in utilizing modern instructional materials like using experiments in teaching topics that are experimental in nature and selecting suitable teaching methods that will be a possible means towards reducing failure in the teaching and learning of mathematics. The study will also sensitize mathematics teachers on the benefits of the use of practical techniques for teaching, as it will have a great effect on the academic performance of the students.

The study will serve as a revelation to the government, resulting in the proper equipment of secondary schools with necessary practical materials for the teaching of mathematics, and posting of qualified mathematics teachers to secondary schools based on their profession.

This study could also serve as a source of information for further research work on the topic. Additionally, the findings could augment the pool of data required by other educational researchers in their bid to design interventions for solving educational problems in sciences, and mathematics in particular. Finally, it is hoped that this study will contribute ideas for improving teaching and learning of practical mathematics in secondary schools, as well as technological policy formulation and development in the country.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally examine practical based instructional strategy and students’ academic performance in mathematics in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area. Thus, the study will be delimited to some selected senior secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.9 Definition Of Terms

Mathematics:

Is a very desirable tool virtually all spheres of human endeavors be it science, engineering, industry, technology, and even the arts it is a key subject in the school curriculum and is considered a knowledge that is indispensable to an educated person

Mathematics Practical

Mathematics practical are defined as the learning experiences in which students interact with materials or with secondary source of data to observe and understand the natural world.

Student Academic Performance:

Refers to the display of knowledge attained or skilled developed in school subject designated by test and examination scores or marks assigned by the subject teacher to the students. This shows a valued judgment placed on various means of evaluation of teaching-learning.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on practical based instructional strategy and students’ academic performance in mathematics in Ikot Ekpene L.G.A. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine on practical based instructional strategy and students’ academic performance in mathematics in Ikot Ekpene L.G.A. The study is was specifically carried out to find out whether practical based instructional strategy facilitates effective teaching and learning of mathematics in Ikot Ekpene, investigate the extent teachers adopts the practical based instructional strategy during the teaching of mathematics in Ikot Ekpene, ascertain whether practical based instructional strategy helps to stimulate students interest and attitude towards mathematics subject, ascertain whether practical based instructional strategy helps in boosting students comprehension of mathematics subject and find out whether practical based instructional strategy helps to enhance the level of students retention of mathematics subject.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 210 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are students some selected senior secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene L.G.A.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. Practical based instructional strategy facilitates effective teaching and learning of mathematics in Ikot Ekpene.
  2. The extent teachers adopts the practical based instructional strategy during the teaching of mathematics in Ikot Ekpene is high.
  3. Practical based instructional strategy helps to stimulate students interest and attitude towards mathematics subject.
  4. Practical based instructional strategy helps in boosting students comprehension of mathematics subject.
  5. Practical based instructional strategy helps to enhance the level of students retention of mathematics subject.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. The study indicated that the practical work instructional approach is effective in training students in the acquisition of mathematics skills necessary for entrepreneurial competency; providing equal footing for males and females students. Therefore recommended to teachers to adopt and adapt it for use in the teaching of mathematics for the enhanced achievement of the students on the subject.
  2. The Government (local, state and federal) should, therefore, organize workshop training for mathematics teachers as well as the inclusion of practical work instructional approach in the teacher-trainee mathematics program.
  3. Government should ensure that authors of lower basic mathematics textbooks include practical works, methods/strategies and materials to be used to teach mathematics, as instructional methods while writing mathematics textbooks.

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