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I dedicate this seminar work to God almighty who is the fountain head of knowledge.
I wish to use this medium to acknowledge my parents for their love and financial support, friends for their ideas and advice, fellowship members fore their care and prayers.
Most importantly, I am indebted to my seminar supervisor Engr. A.I Akwu who has been my source of inspiration and encouragement and for the pains he took to read and correct this work.
Finally this seminar could not have been a success without the overwhelming presence of God almighty he has been everything to me, am grateful.
The Power Line technology has received an increasing attention in the last decades due to its inherent benefits, mainly related to the reduction of cabling and associated costs.
Power Line Communication (PLC) was first employed in power utilities and since the 80s in home automation, too. However, its use in the automotive field received relatively little attention.
This seminar paper revisits the related work in using PLC technology for communication. Then, it focuses on the issues that need to be addressed when introducing the PLC in the automotive domain.
The final goal of this work is to carry out a practical assessment of the PLC technology in the referred domain that may open the way for future use in industrial scale.
Table Of Contents
- Title Page
- Certification Page
- Table Of Contents
- 1.0 Introduction
- 2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Background Of The Study
- 2.1 Concept Of Powerline Telecommunication
- 2.3 Long Haul, Low Frequency
- 2.4 Home Control (Narrowband)
- 2.5 Low-Speed Narrow-Band 15
- 2.6 Medium-Speed Narrow-Band
- 2.7 Advantages And Disadvantages Of Power Line Communication
- 2.8 Powerline As A Successful Educational Tool
- 3.0 Applications Of Powerline Technology
- 3.1 Plc And Automotive
- 3.2 Technical Challenges In Powerline Telecommunication Utilization
- 3.3 Standards And Regulations
- 4.1 Conclusion
- 4.2 Recommendation
- 4.3 References
Power Line Communication (PLC) aims at exploiting the power supply line to send/receive information without using separate dedicated wires. The PLC is nowadays adopted in many application domains, like power utilities to interconnect and control faraway units, automatic remote meter reading, and home and building automation.
The latter is, perhaps, the most promising field for PLC due to the large number of potential customers. Indeed it seems a natural way to connect intelligent home devices like lights, doors and household appliances, to a home control unit. In this field a number of widely adopted communication protocols have been developed, starting from the low speed low cost X10 technology up to recent implementations like HomePlug (Anderson,1998) which is also targeted to high speed communication, in order to support High Definition TV and VoIP.The PLC technology can be classified with respect to the transmission frequency, which determines, in turn, the transmission bitrate.
Low frequency transmission is well regulated in Europe, with a band range from 3 up to 148,5 kHz, and a maximum bitrate of 1 Mbps. Regulation for larger transmission range is ongoing (CENELEC SC205A WG10), allowing for operation up to 30 MHz, and higher bitrate (up to 200 Mbps); a number of devices and technologies are already available on the market.
A common feature of these applications is that the power carrier is AC 50/60 Hz at medium (power utilities) or low voltage (110 and 220 V for home). Conversely, in specific cases, such as the automotive domain, the powerline operates at lower DC voltage complying with batteries and electronic devices (e.g. 3.3, 5, 9, 12 and 42 V), which implies a different coupling technology. Two key aspects drive the research on PLC:(i) physical transmission of the modulated signal and (ii) the data link and upper layers to allow the correct communication among devices.
The former issue is related to the study of the noise and compatibility on the PLC line, which is prone to interference due to non-linear loads that can, for example, show impulsive behaviors (i.e., when a motor is switched on). The latter issue determines the flexibility and re-configurability available during the application design, set up and management. It also addresses the communication determinism in terms of guaranteeing the communication timing constraints, i.e., periodic transmission, end-to-end message deadlines, etc.
When looking at a potential automotive application there are a number of issues that PLC technology should address (Clark,1998). In fact, the automotive communication technologies used today are likely to impose requirements on the PLC technology proposed for automotive usage. There are two scenarios to explore:(1) providing a different communication system with respect to the current technologies used in existing automotive systems. In this case, it is important to provide adequate bandwidth, re sponsiveness, tolerance to EMI etc. (2) providing a physical replacement of existing field buses that is transparent at the application level.
In this case, the PLC should provide a similar, or the same, temporal behaviour as the original bus.The idea of using the power line as a communications path has been explored for decades with varying success. With new standards and technologies, it’s an even better choice than it was before. In fact, multiple chip and equipment vendors have adopted PLC
PLC (Power Line Communications) technology uses the existing public and private mains power wiring for the transmission of telecommunication signals, offering Internet access via electrical networks in the home and at work. The areas of developing data transmission solutions via powerlines include outdoor (local loop) and in-house (home networking) solutions.
The obvious advantage of PLC is that it is everywhere in the developed world. PLC can deliver high speed, low cost Internet access with ‘no new wires’, as well as the capability for in-building Local Area Networks.Deregulation has been a major factor in the development of Powerline (tele) communications:
- Deregulation in telecommunications allows new market entrants to provide services along electricity networks
- Deregulation in the power supply sector increases the demand for specific energy distribution related information systems.
Another opportunity for Powerline technology has been in the area of home-automation and in-house systems
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How to nail it on the head during your project defence
You are through with writing that project. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
- How am I going to start?
- I hope I will do well enough to get an A.
You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.
I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.
Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.
Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.
Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.
Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.
Prepare For The Questions:
Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.
These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.