Poverty Alleviation; A Strategy In Economic Development (A Case Study Of Isiala Mbano L.G.A.)
This study examined poverty alleviation as a strategy for economic development with a case study of Isiala Mbano Local Government Area. The design adopted for the study was a case study. The population and sample size were 350 respectively. The sampling technique used was stratified simple random sampling. The questionnaire was the major instrument used in gathering the data. The data collected was analyzed using statistical method. The table was presented and analyzed in tables using percentages.
The data revealed major findings which includes; that if people feed well, get employed, live above poverty line to a great extent, they have contributed their quota to economic development without caring for the citizens. It was concluded that much of our problem is neither based on lack of natural resources nor human resources but mismanagement, greediness, corruption, nepotism, embezzlement of public funds and other fraudulent behaviours that drain our economy.
Recommendations were made based on the conclusion as follows: that there should be adequate social security for the workers in the council and that all hands must be on desk, the government, private sectors and individuals to alleviate poverty which will boost the nation’s economy.
Table Of Contents
- Title page
- Approval page
- Table of contents
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Statement of the problems
- 1.3 Objective of the study
- 1.4 Research question
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 History / Origin of Poverty In Nigeria
- 2.2 Poverty Alleviation Strategies
- 2.3 Strategies for Poverty Alleviation
- 2.4 Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria
3.0 Research Design And Methodology
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Sources of Data
- 3.3 Population Sample/Size
- 3.4 Method of Analysis
4.0 Presentation And Analysis Of Data
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Analysis of Data YES/NO/NO IDEA
- 4.3 Test of Hypothesis
- 4.4 Interpretation of Findings / Result
5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation
- 5.1 Introduction
- 5.2 Summary of findings
- 5.3 Conclusion
- 5.4 Recommendation
1.1 Background Of The Study
Considering the factors associated to the less developed nations, economically, politically and socially and the fact that any country that cannot provide sufficiently the basic needs of its citizenry, is not a developed nation and therefore is said to be operating under poverty.
Most countries of the world today in one way or the other have been faced with poverty of which Isiala Mbano Local Government Area is a part. Hence, the provision of the basic needs of the people is limited. When a country is self reliant and minimized its economic dependency and her citizens lives above the subsistent level, the country is said to have improved in its standard of living and the people oriented.
Therefore, any grassroots government who desires development must strive to get her citizens ridden of the state of hunger, starvation, illiteracy, immorality, laziness, demography and high rate of school dropout, etc. in this study, the researcher shall look into the historical background of the Isiala Mbano L.G.A to highlight the importance of poverty alleviation in economic development and situation of the council.
Mbano began as Mbano country council with the headquarter at Umuelemai in 1956, later in 1970, became division. It is made of four (4) clans Ugiri, Mbano and Ehime. In 1976, it became Mbano Local Government Area. Following the local government reform of 1976, Mbano local government was split into Isiala and Ehime L.G.A. was left with Osu, Ugiri and Mbano clans with its headquarters at Umuelemai. Since the creation 1989, Isiala Mbano L.G.A. has been administered by sixteen (16) different chief executives. out of these number, only three (3) were elected namely: Chief Augustine Nwaigwe (1991 – 1993) Chief Zik Nwachukwu (1999 – 2004) and High Chief Simeon Iwunze (2004 – 2007).
The rest functioned either as transition, caretaker or sole administrator. As at 1989, fourteen (14) autonomous communities with twelve (12) recognized traditional rulers but as at 31st December, 2007, there exist twenty seven (27) autonomous communities with twenty two (22) recognized traditional rulers.
The total INEC wards stands at (12) while ISEC wards is twenty four (24) as at 31st December, 2007. Isiala Mbano L.G.A. is located at a distance of about 44KM from the state capital. The total area is estimated at about 1.48KM with the population of about 128,013 in 1963. But as at 2006 National Census, the population is estimated at about 198,736103,832 male and female.
The council is bounded in the North by Onuimo L.G.A. In the South, it is bounded by Mbaitoli and Ikeduru L.G.A. All the autonomous communities have their markets. Majority of the residents are subsistence farmers, small percentage are engaged in tradition. Most of the households in all the communities rear and produces livestock at commercial level e.g. poultry, local birds and exotic birds like turkey. Many rear sheep and goats, some rabbits. The people are mostly peasant farmers because of the farmland is limited and so produces food and livestock for family consumption with little storage for future use or sale.
Storage facilities are limited, most of the individual farmers have small stores attached to their individual houses for temporary storage of their products before use or sales. Farmers usually record waste and losses during ripening period.
In the area of water resources available, most communities like Amaraku, Anara, Umunkwo, parts of Amauzari etc do not have natural water sources and so have no water. Agricultural facilities; most of them established by the government are presently abandoned e.g. local government poultry project at Umuelemai, local government oil mill at Umunkwo, government fish pond inside the Secretariat Umuelemai, state government veterinary clinic, under staffed and funded etc. these no longer functions (abandoned). Even most of the communities that can produce food in large quantity have no good roads to transport their farm products for sales. E.g. Obollo, Umuneke, Umuaro in Isiala Mbano L.G.A. and etc, support services are really lacking in these areas.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Considering the challenges facing Isiala Mbano Local Government Area. Therefore, this study tends to answer the following questions or has the following questions.
Farm work which is presently in the hands of ageing fathers and mothers needs a revise. Very few youths are involved in farming, making farm labour scare and very costly because those who accept to do it charge exorbitantly to meet up with the present needs of the society.
Leaching preventant in communities with sandy soil like Amauzari, Umunkwo, Anara, Amaraku, Oko, Umuozo and Ibeme has impoverished soil more which has led to low crop yield. Both erosion and leaching led to high acidity and or alkalinity of the soil involved making good yield impossible.
In communities like Obollo, Osuachara etc, erosion and flood have devastated the farm and crops in them. In some cases both farm road and commercial roads, are blocked especially within July, August and September, each year.
Owing to these, youths from the twenty seven (27) communities in Isiala Mbano migrate in greater number to other neigbouring communities and urban areas in search of greener pastures. The question and concern is “what should be done?”
1.3 Objective Of The Study
The purpose of this work is to examine poverty alleviation as a strategy in economic development.
- To know how poverty alleviation will contribute positively to the economic growth in Isiala Mbano Local Government.
- To analyze the impact of the programme towards the standard of living of the people.
- To know the contribution of the government to sustain the programme.
1.4 Research Questions
The questions presented by the researcher are to see how far the scheme ‘Poverty Alleviation Programme’ has been able to improve the living condition of the general people in Isiala Mbano Local Government of the area in Imo State and its contribution to the development of the area.
What are to be done to stabilize the programme and its purpose?
1.5 Statement Of Hypothesis
- Hi: Poverty Alleviation has direct positive influence on the economic development of Isiala Mbano L.G.A.
Ho: Poverty Alleviation has no direct positive influence on the economic development of Isiala Mbano L.G.A.
- Hi: More efforts should be directed to poverty alleviation programmes because the already established has significant impact.
Ho: More efforts should not be directed to poverty alleviation programme because the already established has no impact.
1.6 The Significance Of The Study
The importance of this study is to examine how poverty alleviation can help in the economic growth of Isiala Mbano L.G.A.
1.7 The Scope Of The Study
The study focuses on the impact of poverty alleviation program for the growth in the economic development in Isiala Mbano Local Government Area.
1.8 Limitations Of The Study
A lot of things tried to discourage this work, the work was so hectic. The area of study is wide. Sourcing out information was not easy, there was a situation where the researcher had to wait for too long before the relevant authority is seen for attendance. In some situations, the researcher had to visit for more than two times before meeting with the authorities.
Many heads of departments, out of ignorance were reluctant in releasing some vital information. Another is finance, the work really cost a lot of money.
5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations
Having considered the factors that militates developments in a nation and the fact that any nation that cannot provide sufficiently the basic needs of its citizenry, is not developed and therefore has need for poverty alleviation in other to increase the standard of living of the citizenry.
Before analyzing and recommending the programmes, it is necessary to once again list down these poverty alleviation programmes. These are: Operation Feed the Nation (OFN), Green Revolution (GR), Directorate of Foods, Roads, and Rural Infrastructures (DFRRI), Family Support Programmes (FSP), Better Life Programme for Rural Women (BLPRW), etc.
Operation Feed the Nation oriented people. It carried the people for which the programme was made along most of the peasant farmer were employed to work in the farm settlement and sometimes had to live their lives in the farm settlement. They sometimes received their payments thus, making food very much in abundant supply.
Green Revolution closely followed the OFN because during its time, there was also abundant food supply but the programme could not cross the masses. This is because most of these food items in abundant supply were imported
in the country. The peasant farmers were less involved in the production. One of the ill which Green Revolution did to the nation’s economy was that it made it to be more dependent on the foreign products thereby disregarding our local products in preference to the foreign – this contributed to high foreign exchange rate. We are yet to recover from this trauma.
DFRRI on the other hand made little impact on the areas where it operated because there were some parts of the community where only the name was heard without the people participating in the programme. It failed to create job opportunities to a large population. There were as a kind of random sampling that is to say there were some areas in the community that were favoured with water supply, electricity, good roads, while greater part remained unreached. Contracts and appointments were only given to the local bourgeois. Due to lack in technology to store food items, the foods that should have been stored got sold in the markets when it was harvest and surplus time making these foods to be scarce and costly where their season is over.
National Directorate of Employment (NDE) agreeably made some people self reliant by creating apprenticeship opportunities to the local and urban people many of our young people were trained in the programme.
Although the programme of poverty alleviation brought an improvement in the standard of living of the people yet the most reason for establishing the programmes were defeated. The teeming young school leavers who passed through the training scheme are still roaming the streets looking for employment. This is because the so called bourgeois and their counterparts dominated the peoples’ and the community banks. Only their loans and grants were received.
Another bank of failure is the issue of better life programme for Rural Women. The purpose of establishing this programme was shifted. Public money was rather spent on hosting the first ladies and their entourages wherever they are commissioning any project in the state or local government. Monies made out of donations and lunching was to enrich the purse of these hosts and their initiators.
Although the programme of poverty alleviation brought a positive change to the communities yet the economy of the nation had not improved.
However, the researcher recommends the operation feed the nation programme brought to the grassroots and the poor people. Really it was embraced by the people and it became part and parcel of the people. The researcher encouraged the wife of the president Mrs. Stella Olusegun Obasanjo for the commissioning of the “Child Care trust Foundation”. This will help in giving Nigeria children the basic orientation, encouragement` and social security network.
5.2 Summary Of Findings
Based on interview result, any poverty alleviation programme that has the interest of the masses at heart should be encouraged to continue and those that have not yielded any positive response to the sufferings of the people should be scrapped.
Any poverty alleviation programme shou7ld be targeted a te grassroots level. If people feed well, get employed, live above poverty line to a great extent, they have contributed their quota to economic development without caring for the citizens. When the poverty of the people is alleviated, it will create room for economic development.
Based on the above findings presented in this project, the researcher made the following policy recommendations:
- In the relationship with the local government allocation that is been generated through the federal government, the researcher recommend that:
- The government should pump in money to move useful poverty alleviation programmes and handover the management of th3ese programmes to tested individuals whose integrity will not be questioned.
In conclusion, the researcher suggested that much of our problem is neither based on lack of natural resources nor human resources but mismanagement, greediness, corruption, nepotism, embezzlement of public funds and other fraudulent behaviours that drain our economy. The researcher s of the view that if the available human materials resource is Isiala Mbano Local Government will be judiciously utilized, all her citizens will live above poverty line thereby making room for the councils economy to grow and develop.
The researcher passionately appealed to every citizens of Isiala Mbano Local government area to sanitize their conscience and have the economy of the government (the council) forward because if all hands be on desk, the government, private sectors and individuals, poverty in this will boost the nation’s economy.
However, the researcher also suggest that there should be adequate social security net for the workers in the council and advise the council chairman to implement the newly increased salary wages, this is part of the strategies to alleviate poverty.
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