Poverty Alleviation And Economic Development In Nigeria (A Case Of Nkwere Local Government)
This research was embarked upon to investigate the strategies adopted to alleviate poverty and to proffer solutions to the economic development in Nigeria. The over dependence on our oil wealth which led to decline in agriculture coupled with absence of social amenities in the rural areas and poor implementation of policies and programmes true contributed to a high level of poverty in our society.
Table Of Content
- Title page
- Approval page
- Table of content
- 1.1. Background of study
- 1.2. Statement of the problem
- 1.3 Objective of the study
- 1.4 Research questions
- 1.5. Significance of the study
- 1.6 Scope of the study
- 1.7 Definitions of terms
2.0. Literature Review
- 2.1. Introduction
- 2.2 The concept of poverty
- 2.3 Causes and effects of poverty Economic underdevelopment, weak governance, over population, rural urban migration.
- 2.4 Strategies for poverty alleviation, improving the agricultural sector, capacity acquisition programme
- 2.5 Poverty alleviation programmes in Nigeria
- 2.6 problems of poverty alleviation
- 2.7 Prospects of poverty Alleviation programmes in Nigeria
3.0 Research Design and Methodology
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2. Research design
- 3.3. Sources/method of data collection
- 3.4. Population and sample size
- 3.5. Sample techniques
- 3.6. Validity/ reliability of measuring instrument
- 3.7. Method of data analysis
4.0. Presentation and Analysis of Data
- 4.1. Introduction
- 4.2. Presentation of data
- 4.3. Analysis of data
- 4.4 Interpretation of result
5.0. Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1. Introduction
- 5.2. Summary of findings
- 5.3. Conclusion
- 5.4. Recommendations
1.1. Background Of The Study
Poverty is an enemy of man; it humiliates and dehumanizes its victim. The paper examines poverty alleviation policies and programmes of government and came to the conclusion that these policies failed in the country. The reasons for these include corruption in government and neglect of the target group – the poor, who were never considered during the formulation of these policies.
The paper suggests that government should intensify the war against corruption and carry along the target group – the poor, in formulation of it’s programmes by making “pro-poor” policies it’s focus as a basis for poverty alleviation. Poverty has been a serious challenge to government in Nigeria. It’s effect, which include lack of deprivation in the basic necessities of life, is worrisome. Poverty humiliates and dehumiliates it’s victim. As Ukpong (1996) wrote, poverty has earned recognition in the extent of it’s ravaging society and the affairs of humanity at the international, national and local levels. The need exists nor for urgent actions towards it’s eradication and control indeed, poverty is a spare. It is dehumanizing, it must be eradicated (cited in Obadan (1996).
In a bid to overcome poverty, governments initiated different policies and programmes between 1986 and 2004 to alleviate it. These programmes include; Directorate of food, road and rural infrastructure (DFFRI), better life programme (BLP) Directorate of employment (NDE) people bank of Nigeria (PBN) community Bank (CB); family support programmes (FSP); family economic ancement programme (FEAP); poverty eradication programme (PEP); National poverty eradication programme (NAPEP) and National Economic Empowerment Development strategy (NEEDS) whose aim were to ameliorate the suffering of the people by providing them employment opportunities and access to credit facilities opportunities.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
The incidence of poverty remains very high, the existence of various programmes have been posed with a lot of challenges that renders all the effort meaningless.
- Has the poverty alleviation policies and programmes helped in alleviating poverty in Nkwere local government.
- What strategies can the government adopt in order to associate poverty in Nkwere local government.
- In which sectors (Agricultural, education industry) do you think that government should assist in order to reduce poverty.
Other Problems Are;
- Lack of accountability and transparency among the people executing this programme as most of them seen it as sharing of the national cake.
- Inadequate funding, excessive political interference and political programme as most of them seem to it as sharing national cake these have remained a serious problem confronting public policies in Nigeria.
This problem has made it difficult for several programmes to be adequately completed and also shortage of skilled manpower otherwise known as illiteracy, it has been a bame to alleviate poverty especially in such a rural place like Nkwere local Government where also almost 60% of the citizen are subsistence farmers.
Finally, other factors such as inadequate infrastructure, lack of involvement of beneficiaries in project design, implementation, monitoring and evacuation, corruption and mismanagement and absence of a serious problem to alleviate poverty in Nkwere local Government.
1.3 Objective Of The Study
To examine the causes of poverty in Nigeria using Nkwere Local Government as a case study and to know effort to be made towards showing the economic problem of those living in the rural areas. To x-ray if the poverty is actually existing in Nkwere local government to identify the impact of poverty reduction policies and programmes on rural communities in Nkwere local government.
To make sure that solution are been offered on how to alleviate poverty in the area and pave way for economic development in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
- Can unemployment lead to poverty
- How can the masses be alleviated from poverty
- Are the poor in Nkwere local government beneficiaries of the poverty alleviation scheme and if yes how?
- infrastructure, which of the following is available in tour area?
- Good Road
- Pipe-borne water
- None of the above
- All of the above
1.5 Significance Of The Study
This research work is vital because of it’s practical solution to inequality and disparity in the society. The study is based on the fact that poverty is a disease and a big problem that attributed to poverty and know how to alleviate them in order to improve the economy. It was also serve as a data bank where government and individuals will gather information for effective poverty alleviation.
It will serve as a guide to students of institutions of higher learning who are into research studies, measuring that it will serve as a proper consultative text to students and non-students who will like to widen their knowledge on what poverty is all about, the courses problems and solutions.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
The scope of this project encompasses Nkwere local government in poverty alleviation and economic development in Nigeria.
This research work was to tackle those factors that militates against poverty alleviation and to proffer/offer solution to it. It was further limited due to other factors like time constraints, shortage of finance and information and the period were used for lectures and examination.
1.7 Limitation Of The Study
A work of this nature is not easy to consummate or accomplish and as a result, there were certain barriers which prevented the research from extending her work as wished.
- Time constraints
- Financial constraints
- Inadequate material
1.8 Definition Of Terms
Obadan (Cited in Eminue, 2005:5050) defined poverty as referring to lack of physical necessities assets and income, a condition which results in deprivation, social inferiority, isolation, physical wilderness (disillusionment) vulnerability, seasonality, powerlessness, and humiliation.
According to Umeabali (2004) poverty alleviation is a means to reduce or alleviate if possible eradicate poverty in the society.
Poverty alleviation is a process of erasing hopelessness, financially poor, situation of distress, meaningless of life, absence of basic life needs inefficiency unavailability of resources inputs, low return of investment, low level quality of labour force, low education level, low level of development, low level of unemployment and political instability etc.
Economic development has to do with the establishment and promotion of an economic system and promotion of an economic system capable of itself to raise and maintain production and the income levels of all group in the society.
Economic development is defined as quality improvement in all over all standard of living of the people, as well as desired structural transformation in the distributive input and output system of the economy. This means that economic development is all above improvement generally in the standard of living of the people of a particular society Agoha (2004) Economic development is defined as the process whereby the real per capital income of a country increases over a period of time (Meier 1975)
5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation
Poverty alleviation in Nkwere local government has to be sorted out or eliminated.
5.2 Summary Of Findings
The main objective of this research work is to see if poverty can be alleviated strategically for economic development in Nigeria, using Nkwere local government as a case study.
The theoretical frame work is derived from development theory, the hypothesis have it’s focus on the main aspects of the presumes attitude and behavioural tendencies of the poor. This is to know if poverty exists in the area or if government has alleviated poverty in the area. The researcher was able to identify some causes of poverty and also proffer solution to them. The researcher made some findings which includes mostly the people living in the area are mostly dependents, lack of infrastructure, unemployment and low level of education, etc are these contributed to high level of poverty that is existing in the area.
Poverty is a disease but disease have causes and solutions but in this an temporary world the policies made to proffer solutions are diverted to another area and are mismanaged. This researcher has revealed some literature on poverty alleviation. The knowledge discovered gave rise to the hypothesis that guides the study based on the analysis the following conclusion were made.
That absence of basic life amenities and infrastructure in the rural area has contributed a higher rate of poverty in Nigeria. This is true because where these amenities and infrastructure in the rural areas has contributed a higher rate of poverty in Nigeria. This is true because where these amenities are lacking it reduce the standard of living of the people, encourages rural-urban migration due to lack of industries, unhealthy situation, high rate of morality that occurs due to lack of health care centre, lack of industries leads to unemployment etc. the abandoned sources of income such as agricultural sector should be encouraged to support the almighty crude oil so as to increase the financial strength of the economy and also create opportunities for the working class. Government should concentrate mostly on the implementation stage as that is where most of their policies fails. Finally according to Umeabali 2002 he said “it is only collective effort from government, non-government organization that individuals that can alleviate poverty”. Therefore all hands must be on deck to make Nigeria a better place for living.
Based on the findings of the research work the researcher deem it necessary recommend the following.
- The planning for alleviation of poverty by the appropriate authorities and agencies should hence make forth move beyond up service and match towards practical implementation by providing basic amenities/infrastructures such as pipe borne water, electricity, equipped health care centre, good road agro allied job opportunities especially in the rural areas in other to reduce rural-urban migration which will in turn develop the area and enhance economic development in Nigeria.
- Also, some of the amenities that were provided should not only be made accessible but affordable to all, especially the down trodden. Amenities such as education, electricity bill, pipe-borne, if possible the government should assist to give every Nigeria child free education at least up to secondary school level in the rural areas, it will help to liberalize the poor masses as they will be given a strong foot hold to step out for better tomorrow.
- Loans should be granted to small scale traders and that farmer especially those in the rural areas should be encouraged.
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