Poverty Alleviation Through Cooperative Movement (A Case Study Of Ogbe Ahiara Microfinance Bank Limited, Ahiazu Mbaise, L.G.A.)


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Project and Seminar Material for Cooperative Economics and Management (CEM)

Project and Seminar Material for Cooperative Economics and Management (CEM)


Dedication


First of all, I dedicate this work to the Almighty God for His infinite mercy to the possibility of this project and for
His guidance and protection towards me during this my academic pursuit.

I also dedicate this work to my lovely parents Mr. & Mrs. B.C.N. Duru for the financial support and encouragement to ensuring that I have a sound academic up bring in life.


Acknowledgement


My eternal thankfulness and deep gratitude goes to God Almighty, he who holds my future and rules my life for making the crooked ways straight for me, the emergence of the project at this time is a testimony of His providence.
I am endlessly grateful to my supervisor Mrs. Pius Bendola for his inestimable contributions towards the success of this research work.

To my beloved parents, MR. and MRS. A.O ORJINTA, I really appreciate your immense efforts towards my life endeavors, Academic pursuit and for standing by me through the years and to my siblings Ngozi, Kennedy, Bobby, Vera, Nonye, Franklin, Juliet, Lawrence, Uche and my little angles D-boy, Chidera, my Chikalas, Chioma, Nuela, Nicole Dumebi and the unborn baby.

In the same vein, I remain indebted to Ehis Usigbe, Mr. Ikechukwu Okogbuo for their moral and financial support, my roommate Marita for her naughtiness and animation. My Cherub Nkem, my friends Nnaemeka, Ken De Cross, Obinna, Ifeoma, Blessing, Ogochukwu, Chidimma, The members of the Dominion Voices of the Chapel of Grace for their prayers and also to staff of the Ogbe Ahiara Microfinance bank Limited for their contribution.

Finally, many thanks to those who were not mentioned here owing to various constraints but have contributed in one way or the other.

My sincere prayers is that the Almighty God will reward you all abundantly.

Orjinta Clara U. 


Abstract


Against the background of high and increasing incidence of poverty in Nigerian, it is a known belief that lack of employment and empowerment of the poor and low capacity utilization in the nation has been attributed to the neglect of small and medium scale industries as well as cooperative in not given a proper framework to guide its operation.

With the activities of microfinance and cooperative organization which geared towards empowerment of small and medium scale business as well as poor people, If microfinance leverage is given to cooperative organizations, they will expand their business, stimulate local economic growth, resulting in fast economic development.

This research work is divided into five chapters, the overview of the study, the statement of the problems, purpose, limitations, scope, objectives, Significance of the study were treated and the terms used were also defined.

Chapter two into review of past related works in order to establish the existence of a knowledge gap to which this study is focused.

Chapter three focused on the research design and methodology, in chapter four, the data were presented, analyzed and interpreted. Finally chapter five highlighted the summary of the findings and also draw conclusion and give some recommendations on the study.


Table Of Contents


  • Title i
  • Approval Page ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgement iv-v
  • Abstract vi-vii
  • Table of Contents viii-x

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction 1
  • 1.1 Background of the study 1-2
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem 2-3
  • 1.3 Objectives of the study 3-4
  • 1.4 Research Questions 5-6
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis 6
  • 1.6 The significance of the study 6-7
  • 1.7 The scope of the study 7
  • 1.8 Limitation of the study 8
  • 1.9 Definition of terms 8-9

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Literature Review 10
  • 2.1 Concept and background of microfinance 10-13
  • 2.2 Microfinance Defined 13-14
  • 2.3 Objective of the Microfinance institution 14-15
  • 2.4 Operations of the microfinance banks as means of poverty alleviation 15-17
  • 2.5 Justification for the establishment of microfinance banks in Nigerians. 17-26
  • 2.6 Instruments and measures used in poverty alleviation by microfinance Banks. 26-29
  • 2.7 What is a cooperative society? 29-31
  • 2.8 Microfinance and cooperative as framework for development. 31-33

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Research design and Methodology 34
  • 3.1 Introduction 34
  • 3.2 Research design 34
  • 3.3 The population of the study/sample size 35-36
  • 3.4 Sources of data collection 37-38
  • 3.5 Method of data analysis 38-39
  • 3.6 Validation of Research instrument. 40

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Presentation and analysis of Data 41
  • 4.1 Introduction 41
  • 4.2 Data presentation, classification and calculation. 41-42
  • 4.3 Analysis of Data to test of Hypothesis 42-52
  • 4.4 Analysis of Data to test of Hypothesis 54-59
  • 4.5 Interpretation of Result/Conclusion. 60
  • 4.6 The Statistical Data of loans given out by the OAMB 60-61

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Summary of Findings conclusion and Recommendation 62
  • 5.1 Summary of findings 62
  • 5.2 Conclusions 63-64
  • 5.3 Recommendation 64-66
  • 5.4 Area of further study 66
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 General Overview Of The Study

Poverty alleviation until recently has been the first challenge which the microfinance institution faced. An estimated US $4 billion is invested annually on microfinance around the world. Robus economic growth cannot be achieved without putting in place well concentrated programmed to reduce poverty through empowering the people by increasing their access to factors of production especially credit. CBN microfinance policy framework (2005:sal).

Microfinance is relevant to the cooperative enterprises by interven(ing) directly to them though some people are not so sure of this, and called microfinance ‘a rather blunt tool’ for achieving the millennium development goals. The connection between microfinance and poverty alleviation is indeed considered straight forward within the microfinance industry of the eight (8) millennium development goals, microfinance is mainly assume to be directly related to goal number one which aim at eradicating extreme poverty and hunger.

Although success stories such as the grameen bank in Bangladesh and the Indonesians bank Rakyat have been widely used as evidence of the impact of microfinance on poverty reduction. The link between the two may not be that direct. The current debate is that microfinance benefits the less poor and that the poorest who are implied in the MDGS rarely benefit from microfinance.


1.2 Statement Of Problems:

There is concrete evidence that microfinance helps in achieving the cooperative enterprises goals. However I think it would be fools paradise to believe that microfinance alone will so. What microfinance can achieve is the reduction or eradication of extreme poverty and hunger. Hence there are some lingering problems which present its optimal operation, they include:

  1. Lack of appropriate framework and confidence in the enterprises.
  2. Lack of well defined operations and resolved regulatory/supervisory requirements
  3. High rate of interest
  4. Corruption among the high officers of recovering institution
  5. Poor management consultant of some microfinance scheme
  6. Some microfinance institution targets a segment of the population that have no access to business opportunities.

2.3 Objective Of The Study

Having identified the problems militating against the development of microfinance banks in carrying out their work effectively towards poverty alleviation. The objective of this study then include.

  1. To identify the areas of operations of microfinance bank in the state.
  2. To identify the strength and weakness of microfinance banking system in poverty alleviation.
  3. To find out how microfinance bank can help to alleviate poverty in Nigeria.
  4. To find out the relevant of microfinance bank in poverty alleviation and rural transformation.
  5. To make policy recommendations based on the findings.
  6. To identify possible strategies to adopt in order to enlarge the pool of micro credit facilities for the poor through partnership with the stakeholders.
  7. To find possible strategies to make financial service accessible to a large segment of the cooperative enterprises with no access to financial service.
  8. To promote linkage programmes between universal development and specialized institution and microfinance banks.

1.4 Research Questions

Based on the objectives as well as the problems, statement of the study, this research question are:

  1. How can microfinance banks help to alleviate poverty in Nigeria?
  2. Do Microfinance activities have any effect on cooperative business productivity?
  3. How do cooperatives receive their microfinance services?
  4. Do microfinance banks give or extend credit by proxy?
  5. Is there any hard evidence that microfinance can help to achieve the enterprise goals as well as the Millennium development goal?
  6. What are the objectives of the microfinance activities?
  7. What do you think are the weakness of the microfinance banking system in poverty alleviation?
  8. Do you think that the launching of the microfinance policy will achieve its intended objective especially in cooperative movement?

1.5 Hypothesis

  • HA: The microfinance service has contributed to the growths and development of the Nigerian Economy.
  • HA: The Microfinance Banks serves as a catalyst for the provision of micro-credit for economic development
  • HA: The Microfinance activities have an effect on cooperative business productivity.

1.6 Significant Of The Study:

This study will go a long way in helping people that is the potential productive people who want to wriggle out of poverty and who have the interest of the poor at heart as well as the betterment of the economy. It will be a great importance for those who have the cooperative business as a good factor of living. As such;

  1. This work will enable the reader to realize the role of microfinance in poverty alleviation.
  2. It will ginger the members of the cooperative enterprises who have been looking for a way out of poverty to do so with dignity.
  3. It will give a specific detail of the activities of microfinance institutions i.e. how loans are given out and the interest rate and also the conditions for the loans.
  4. It will go forth to distinguished microfinance banks from commercial banks.
  5. From this study, students shall derive pleasure when researching in future in similar topic

1.7 Scope Of The Study

The study covers the Ogbe Ahiara Ahiazu Mbaise L.G.A. Imo state. It will also examine the regulatory body of microfinance institution in the country (Nigeria)


1.8 Limitations Of The Study:

There were some constraints experienced in the course of this study which hindered the maximum achievement intended in this study such as:

  1. Financial constraint
  2. Poor experimental design.
  3. Poor questionnaire returns.
  4. Inadequate/non representative sample.
  5. High rate of literacy of the respondents.
  6. Time constraints.
  7. Poor attitude of the respondents.

1.9 Definition Of Terms:

Microfinance Institutions:

These are the institutions that provides microfinance services to the low income groups e.g microfinance banks

Microfinance:

This is the provision of wide range of financial services such as loans, deposit, insurance etc to the poor who are traditionally not served by the conventional banks.

Micro Credit:

This refers to small packaged loans provided to the poor to enhance their capacity to engage in productive activities

Alleviating:

This means making an unpleasant conditions or suffering or pain less or reducing it.

Cooperative Business Enterprises:

This is a business or organization which is owned and managed by the cooperative societies, they share its benefit and profit.

Cooperative:

Tt is a form of business organization which involves the coming together of individuals who have the same socio-economic problem, who then pool their resources together in order to help solve the problem.


I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic


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How to nail it on the head during your project defence


You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.


Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.


Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.


Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.


Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.


Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.


Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.


Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.


These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.


The structure of a good project work


Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are


1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.


4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.


5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


References:

This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.


Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic


Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.

SAMPHINA ACADEMY

SAMPHINA ACADEMY

Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy (samphina.com.ng) a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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