Porosity Of Soil With Water Analysis In Three Different Land Uses

Project and Seminar Material for Soil Science

Porosity Of Soil With Water Analysis In Three Different Land Uses


This project centres on Porosity of soil samples and water quality gotten from three different land uses.

Porosity measures the amount of void spaces in materials, rock media and this is important in classification of a media (soil or rock) as a good reservoir Media. A porous medium is a substance that has tiny pores, or air spaces between solid material through which liquid and gas can pass through e.g. sand and soil.

The samples were collected from three different land uses, which were gotten from areas close to well.

Water quality refers to the chemical, physical and radiological characteristic of water. It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and to or any human or purpose.

The properties of these samples were determined in the laboratory. The comparative discussion on the analysis of the result show that earth samples gotten from the urban and urban-rural locations has the higher porosity than that of the rural factors, and that the Turbidity, lead content, total coliform potassium content etc. of the urban and urban-rural locations are also higher than that of the rural location.

Table of Content

  • Cover Page
  • Title Page
  • Certification Page.
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents

Chapter One:


  • 1.1 Background of Study
  • 1.2 Aim and Objective
  • 1.3 Significance
  • 1.4 Scope of project
  • 1.5 Basic Assumption

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Porosity
  • 2.1.1 Porosity or Void fraction
  • 2.2 Types of Porosity
  • 2.3 Measurement of Porosity
  • 2.4 Total Porosity and Its Component
  • 2.5 Measurement of Effective Porosity
  • 2.6 Water and Water Quality
  • 2.7 Examples of the Different Sources of Water
  • 2.8 Quality of Water
  • 2.9 Industrial and Domestic Use of Water

Chapter Three:


  • 3.0 Materials
  • 3.1 Source of Materials
  • 3.2 Procedure for Measuring Porosity
  • 3.3 Procedure for Measuring Water Quality

Chapter Four:


  • 4.0 Results and Discussion (Porosity)
  • 4.1 Results and Discussion (Water Quality)

Chapter Five:

Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion.
  • 5.2 Problems Encountered
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • Reference

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

Porous media refers to a substance that has tiny pores, or air spaces between solid material through which liquid and gas can pass. Examples of naturally occurring porous media include soil, and sometypes of stone, such as pumice and sandstone. Sponges, ceramics, and reticulated foam are also manufactured for use as porous media. The possible applications of these materials in science, industry, and everyday life are vast, although they are perhaps most commonly used as filters (Dullien, 1992).

Physically, a porous medium can be distinguished from other materials including other porous media by its porosity, or the size of its pores. Materials with low porosity are less permeable and typically have smaller pores, making it more difficult for gas or liquid to pass through them, while materials with high porosity have large pores and are easily permeated (Dullien, 1992). Porosity is an important consideration in filtering, since if enough to effectively trap them. Geologists also consider the porosity of the surrounding stone and soil when conducting observations of soil and natural gas reservoirs. Natural gas trapped in low-porosity stone is known as โ€œtight gasโ€ and is more difficult to access than other reserves (Athy, 1930).

Water quality refers to the chemical, physical, biological and radiological characteristics of water. It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose. It is most frequently used by reference to a set of standards against which compliance can be assessed. The most common standards used to assess water quality relate to health of ecosystems, safety of human contact, and drinking water.

1.1 Background of Study

Porosity or void fraction is a measure of void (i.e. โ€œemptyโ€) spaces in a material, and is a fraction of volume of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a percentage between 0 and 100%. There are many ways to test porosity in a substance or part, such as industrial CT scanning.

The term porosity is used in multiple fields including pharmaceutics, ceramics, metallurgy, materials, manufacturing, earth science, soil mechanics and engineering

Soil can be described in many different ways, such as heavy, light, sandy, clay, loam, poor or good. The relative proportion of sand, silt, clay determines soil texture and small rocks (pebbles) found in a given sample. The soil sample gotten from the urban-rural location was found to be gritty. The sample gotten from the Rural location was found to be smooth and slippery to the touch when wet and the individual particles are much smaller than those of the Urban. These individual particles can only be seen with the aid of a microscope. Clay is sticky and plastic like to handle when wet.

Porosity is an important measurement in areas where drinking water is provided by groundwater reserves (Horgan, 1998).

Testing the water allows a knowledgeable approach to address the specific problems of a water supply. This helps ensure that the water source is being properly protected from potential contamination, and that an appropriate treatment system is selected and is operating properly.

It is important to test the suitability of your water quality for its intended purpose, whether it is livestock watering, irrigation, spraying, or drinking water. This will assist you in making informed decisions about your water and how you use it. The purpose of this section of RWQIT is to provide water quality testing information that will assist rural residents using a private water supply. It provides information on the importance of water quality monitoring and how you can get it tested.

1.2 Aim and Objectives

The aim of this project is to determine porosity of the three main soil types which were gotten from three different land uses: urban, rural and urban rural. Determine the water quality gotten from three different well locations (urban, rural and urban-rural). Comparethese samples if they have same porosity and water quality in their different land uses.

The Objectives Are:

  1. To compare porosity of different types of soil from various land uses which ae urban, rural and urban rural.
  2. To compare the water quality gotten from various well use which are located at Urban, Urban-Rural and Rural.
  3. To identify the uses and various characteristics of different types of soil gotten from the three different land use.
  4. To discuss the role of porosity in the different types of soil from different land uses.

1.3 Significance of the Study

One obvious significance of porosity is that it is an upper limit of volumetric water content. It is similarly essential to the definition of degree of saturation, โ€œฦŸโ€ divided by porosity (Adamson and Gast, 1997).

Another significance is that within the pore space, the compliment to ฦŸ is gas content. That is, volumetric gas content is difference between ฦŸ and the porosity (Burdine et al., 1950).

We need to understand water quality in order to protect our health, and also the health of eco systems. Water quality helps us understand what is going on in the subsurface. What geochemical reactions are occurring?

1.4 Scope of Study

The extent of coverage of the subject matter includes:

  1. Porosity in earth sciences and construction
  2. Types of geologic porosities
  3. Experimental procedure of measuring porosity
  4. Water Quality
  5. Industrial and domestic use?
  6. Experimental procedure in determining water quality

1.5 Basic Assumptions

Apart from any other scientific assumption made in this report, the following were assumed:

  1. That all information supplied by the cited references are correct
  2. Data, samples and opinions gathered are reasonably good.

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