Poor Sanitation And It Effects In The Urinary System

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

Poor Sanitation And It Effects In The Urinary System


Abstract


This research investigates the poor sanitation and it effects in the urinary system in secondary schools in Egor local government area of Edo State. The study examined poor sanitary condition in secondary schools and how it affects student’s health and academic performance. The topic was introduced in chapter one, a brief analysis on poor sanitary condition in secondary schools and its impact to students health.

This study in its literature review focused attention on the Concept of Sanitation, sanitation facilities in schools and how it is effectively used, Impact of Poor Sanitation, Importance of Good Sanitation in Schools, Diseases Related to Inadequate Sanitation etc.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of waste as well as the treatment and proper disposal of sewage or waste-water. Poor sanitation leads to hazards which can be physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agent of disease. Waste that can cause health problems including human and animal excreta, solid waste, domestic waste water (sewage or greywater) industrial waste and agricultural wastes. Most African cities are overcrowded, due to urban attraction. Little controlled urban growth lead to poor management of solid and liquid waste produced by cities. This leads to many problem of sanitation. The sanitation in these cities is generally dominated by self purification works. They often repress waste-water that trickles down in living quarter streets emitting strong foul odors. (strauss et al,2000).

The world health organization (WHO) define the term ‘sanitation’ as the provision of facilities and service for the safe disposal of human urine and feces. The world ‘sanitation’ also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and waste-water disposals. Poor sanitation which has always been associated with Africans has significant negative effects on the health of dwellers living on the environment. Lack of adequate sanitation in school as a major threat to student’s health. Many schools, particularly rural school had no latrine at all and of those with latrine most did not have separate latrines for male and female students. Lack of toilet especially separate toilet for girls was identified as the worst school experience for girls. This illustrate that the issue of poor sanitation is one of the special conditions which prevent female student from fuller participation and achievement in schools and to an extent force them out of school.

Following the recent implementation of the policy for universal primary education, the ratio of students to toilet facilities has reduced, which also discourage female students not attending class. Morbidity figures available according to update show that diarrhea, worm infection, eye and skin disease accounted for 25.5% of all outpatient visit to health centre, while malaria (another diseases related to poor sanitation) accounted for further 35.5% (ie a total of 59% of all outpatient visit are accounted for by poor sanitation). The level of nutritional stunting in the country is still among the worst rates of nutritional stunting in African and is partly attributed to the high incidence of diarrhea, due to poor sanitation.

The rate of poor sanitation condition in secondary schools in Egor local Government area of Edo State has increase in recent time due to some factors hindering adequate sanitation service within the school location. In most secondary schools in Egor local government area, poor sanitation gives a lot of infection the opportunity to spread; plarty of waste and excrete for the flies to breed on, and unsafe water to drink, wash with or swim in. among human parasite disease ranks second behind malaria in term of public health importance in tropical and sub-tropical areas.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Poor sanitation condition in secondary school in Egor local government area of Edo State has increase threat to the health of the students. The problem has persisted in spite of the enlightment toward the danger of poor sanitation in school environment. The extent of the condition in schools is only rarely investigated. This research work therefore is meant to fill the menace of environment pollution. Investment in environment safety is a serious issue, which needs immediate attention in order to reduce the spread of diseases among students in schools. It is therefore proper and appropriate to ensure that all sanitatary facilities in the school meant for sanitation should be put to use to reduce poor sanitary condition in schools in Egor local Government Area of Edo State.

The centre issues of the study therefore are; what are the factors that cause poor sanitation in schools? Does poor sanitation in schools leads to infection among students? What are the dangers of poor sanitation condition in schools? It is against this background that the study investigates the poor sanitation condition in secondary schools in Egor local Government Area of Edo State.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to investigate poor sanitation and it effects in the urinary systemin secondary schools in Egor local Government Area of Edo State. Specifically the study examined the cause and the effect of poor sanitation in school and it’s dangerous to the health of students.

The study also seeks to find out the factors responsible for poor sanitation and how it affects students’ health thereby reducing their academic performance.


1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions are raised to guild the study;

  1. Does poor sanitation leads to spread of infection among students in secondary school?
  2. What are the dangers associated with poor sanitation in secondary schools?
  3. What are the factors that result to poor sanitation condition in schools?
  4. Does poor sanitation condition affect the academic performance of students in secondary schools?
  5. Is there any different between poor sanitation condition and student hygienic state of health?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study will create public awareness and enlightment campaign to secondary school across Egor Local Government Area of Edo State. Also this study will create awareness on the danger of poor sanitation condition. Government, school authorities and stakeholders will be alerted on the existence of poor sanitation conditions in schools and its effect on students health and assist policy makers to enact laws to prevent the high rate of poor sanitation condition and also reduce it to minimum level.

The study would further provide a valid document for researchers and educators as the finding may stimulate further studies in the study of poor sanitation condition in schools in Egor local Government Area of Edo State.

There is no doubt that this study would add to the existing body of knowledge of sanitation.


1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study investigated the poor sanitation and it effects in the urinary system in secondary schools in Egor local Government Area of Edo State. The study was delimited to only five secondary schools in Egor local Government Area of Edo State.


1.7 Limitation of Study

Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in scouring for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (questionnaires).

Time constraint; the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.8 Definition of Terms

The following operational terms are used in the study and how it is applicable to the research;

Condition:

The state of something with regard to its appearance, quality, or working order; have a significant influence on or determine (the manner or outcome of something).

Disposal:

The action or process of getting rid of something; The action or process of getting rid of something.

Poor:

Lacking sufficient items or money to live at a standard considered comfortable or normal in a society.

Refuse Disposal:

System, technique for the collection, treatment, and disposal of the solid wastes of a community. The development and operation of these systems is often called solid-waste management.

Sanitation:

Conditions relating to public health, especially the provision of clean drinking water and adequate sewage disposal.

Health:

Is the level of functional or metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage


1.9 Organizations of the Study

The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.

The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

This research investigates the poor sanitation and it effects in the urinary system in secondary schools in Egor local government area of Edo State. The study examined poor sanitary condition in secondary schools and how it affects student’s health and academic performance. The topic was introduced in chapter one, a brief analysis on poor sanitary condition in secondary schools and its impact to students health.

This study in its literature review focused attention on the Concept of Sanitation, sanitation facilities in schools and how it is effectively used, Impact of Poor Sanitation, Importance of Good Sanitation in Schools, Diseases Related to Inadequate Sanitation etc.

The study was guided by research questions and questionnaire was designed from the research questions for teachers. The questionnaire consist of two (2) sections A and B. section A consist of teachers’ personal bio-data and section B comprises of twenty (20) items relevant to the study was given to twenty-five (50) teachers of the selected secondary schools and the relevant data and percentage was used in the tabulation.


5.1 Summary of Finding

The study clearly revealed that;

  1. A lack of adequate sanitation system in schools constitutes a range of pollution risks to students and the environment, especially the contamination of surface and ground water resources.
  2. Adequate sanitation is the foundation of social development. Neglect of sanitation exposes students to unhygienic conditions which leads to dangerous diseases especially diarrhea.
  3. The absence of sanitation exercise in school cause discomfort and slow academic performance among students.
  4. Knowledge about the important of sanitation helps students to know the danger of poor sanitation. Inadequate waste disposal in school leads to spread of diseases among students.
  5. Inadequate sanitation facilities, inadequate disposal of waste and poor sanitation practices in schools result in loss of privacy and dignity, exposure and increased risks to personal safety.

5.2 Conclusion

This study assessed poor sanitary condition in secondary schools in Egor local government area of Edo State. The study has examined the sanitary condition in secondary schools and has established that most of the students in the schools have access to tap water and dispose their refuse regularly. It can therefore be concluded that the sanitary condition in secondary school is moderate although there were still some negative environmental practices like dumping of refuse openly and lack of tidiness in latrines within the schools.


5.3 Recommendation

Based on the findings of this study, the following are recommended to enhance the sanitary condition in this study area and even in the State and Nigeria at large:

  1. Health education should be carried out on the need for the inhabitants to adopt the habit of regular hand washing after using toilets and before embarking on food preparation or taking meals.
  2. The SCHOOL authorities should endeavor to provide more refuse containers and place them at strategic positions IN THE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT. The various SCHOOL should be empowered with sanitation tools like spades, cutlasses, wheelbarrow etc. for effective participation.
  3. National and sub-national health programme priorities should take account of sanitation-related disease burden and ensure that sanitation and hygiene are fully integrated within disease specific and national health programmes
  4. Governments should ensure that sanitation is addressed within all relevant health policies, regulations, guidelines and procedures and establish targets and indicators for monitoring improvements in sanitation related diseases.

Poor Sanitation And It Effects In The Urinary System


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