Poor Environmental Sanitation Practice Among Students In Female Hostel

Medical and Health Science Project and Seminar Material

Poor Environmental Sanitation Practice Among Students In Female Hostel


Abstract


This study was conducted to assess the poor environmental sanitation practice among students in female hostel, University of Benin, Edo state. To achieve the purpose of the study, two hundred and fifty (250) respondents were randomly selected and were administered a self-structured questionnaire. The researcher made use of 240 questionnaires for the research. The ex-post-facto research design was used. The data collected were analyzed using students t-test for the difference between Students in their health knowledge and environmental sanitation practice. Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used to determine personal and environmental sanitation practices of Students in University of Benin. It was found that; students in University of Benin had knowledge of environmental sanitation; There is a significant difference in the personal and environmental practices of Students who received instructions from health officials and those who did not. It was therefore recommended that the students should be encouraged to put the knowledge of environmental sanitation into action or practice. The management should provide health-promoting facilities such as toilets, water supply, refuse bins, hand washing facilities etc. for proper execution of environmental sanitation as well as health practices of students in University of Benin.

 


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background Of The Study
  • 1.2 Statement Of The Problem
  • 1.3 Purpose Of The Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance Of The Study
  • 1.6 Scope Of The Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Review Of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2 Environmental Quality And Human Health
  • 2.3 Concept Of Environmental Sanitation
  • 2.4 Theoretical Framework

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Sample And Sampling Techniques
  • 3.3 Instrument For Data Collection
  • 3.4 Procedure For Data Collection
  • 3.5 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Result And Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion Of Findings

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Environment is the totality of circumstances surrounding an organism or a group of organisms. Environment is defined by Anikweze (2012) as the physical and non-physical space in which human beings start their lives, mature, grow, develop and eventually die. Such environment according to Anikweze (2012) could be physical, mental, emotional or social. These views on environment implied that every single factor whether biotic or abiotic that affect the life of an individual constitutes the individuals’ environment. Thus, environment is a very important factor in the growth and development of an individual, as its’ influence can build or mar the individuals. According to Eboh (2013), environment refers to a person’s surroundings and the objects therein.

The impact of human activities on environment is on the increase. Ehrlich (2016), noted that the interconnected symptoms of assault on the environment and their consequences includes climate change, caused by emission of greenhouse gases which is a major environmental problem and land degradation. Ehrlich (2016) further explained that stratospheric ozone depletion has a number of harmful effects on environment which causes widespread injury to human, forest and crops. Land degradation, according to Ehrlich (2016) leads to decline in productive capacity of land or its ability to produce environmental services such as recycling nutrients as result of population pressure, rampart deforestation, overgrazing and misuse of agro-chemicals.

The World Health Organization (WHO, 2010) traced emergent diseases and leading causes of death globally to environmental change. The report further indicates that a number of factors currently contribute to the appearance and spread of contagious diseases. Patton (2002), noted that humans are causing the environmental change on a massive scale, cutting forests, impounding rivers, creating unhealthy urban surroundings and habitat change and elimination of predators favour disease carrying organisms, such as mice, rats, mosquitoes among others. In the same vein, Cunningham and Cunningham (2012) observed that nearly three quarters of the world major fish stocks are over fished or are being harvested beyond a sustainable rate, and soil degradation has affected two-thirds of the world agricultural land in the last 50 years.

Awareness and consciousness are in some respect synonymous. The Longman Dictionary of contemporary English (2013) defines awareness as the knowledge or understanding of a particular subject or situation, the ability to notice something using sense and also refers to someone’s idea, feelings or opinions about life, while consciousness is also defined by the above source as the condition of being awake and able to understand what is happening around you, the state of knowing that something exists or is true, and also implies someone’s ideas, feelings or opinions about life politics, environment etc.

Chinedu (2012) viewed awareness as the conditions of being aware and able to understand what is happening around one. In agreement with the above views, Wikipedia (2013) equates awareness with perception of, conscious of, acquaintance with, enlightenment with, mindfulness of, cognizance of something. In the context of this study and in agreement with the above views, awareness implies understanding and knowledge of the activities and events (such as desertification, land degradation, climate change, deforestation, atmospheric and land pollution, flooding etc.) going on around one’s environment.

Attitude according to Abini (2016) is an acquisitioned tendency, Abini further explained that pupils form attitude through either like or dislike, favourable or unfavourable towards event(s) in the environment. Good (2011) defined attitude as a state of mental and emotional readiness to respond to previously conditioned or associated stimuli. Williams (2010) described attitude as readiness to act in a certain way expressed by person’s words, gesture or facial expressions. The above view is upheld as action at times speaks louder than voice. Kent (2012) noted that attitudes is a mental and natural state of readiness organized through experience exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individual’s responses to all object and situation with which it is related. Therefore, environmental attitude means the way of thinking and acting by individual towards good quality of environment, land degradation, climate change, deforestation, atmospheric and land pollution, flooding among others. It shows the feeling and concern an individual could have with respect to such phenomena as mentioned above.

With respect to the above discussion attempt has been made to increase students’ awareness and attitude towards their environment. In secondary schools for instance, relevant curriculum content such as environmental pollution, environmental hazards, natural and human resources management, land degradation, climate change, sanitation, effects of industrial concentration, composition of atmospheric gases, weather and climate, classification of climate among others were infused into some subjects such as chemistry, physics, Biology, Geography, Agriculture and social studies. These subjects are used to promote student’s awareness towards their environment and at the same time develop in students the environmentally friendly attitude that will enable them live and interact with their environment in a friendly manner. In relation to the above, Ishaya and Abaje (2012) noted that secondary school teachers have been inculcating environmental contents infused into their various subjects to students in order to increase the knowledge of the environment as well as influence their attitude positively towards the environment. Againde (2016) noted that schools through classroom instructions are making effort to create awareness of major environmental problems like deforestation, climate change, land degradation, etc. Chinedu (2012) is in agreement with the view that the curriculum contents of most secondary school subjects could be effectively used to promote awareness of environmental problems as well as develop positive attitudes towards solving environmental problems.

However, it may take a longer time to reap the benefits of the effort through school instructions to promote awareness and attitude of students towards the environment. This is because apart from students, the greater proportion of the society’s population has continued to perpetuate acts detrimental to the health of the environment. Such human’s acts include bush burning, deforestation, burning of fossil fuel petrol, coal and crude oil that contribute to environmental problems. It is noteworthy that as these human actions which are detrimental to the health of the environment continue to exist so shall their consequences continue to redirect back to human beings in the environment. Therefore, there is need to determine the extent to which instructional delivery in schools through infusion approach has increased the awareness and attitudes of students towards their environment.

In order to determine students’ level of awareness and attitude towards their environment, there is need to take into consideration the influence of gender and location on students’ environmental awareness and attitude. Gender according Robert (2017) is a social construct which is not biologically determined but a concept equivalent to race or class. Lee (2011) noted that gender is an ascribed attribute that differentiate feminine from masculine socially. Gender is by this attribute seen as the categorization in the world of matter into sex. Ekeh (2010) is in agreement with the above view that gender implies the character of being male or female, man or woman, boy or girl. In the same vein, Kalusi (2010) described gender as a cultural construction that assigns roles, attitudes and values considered appropriate for each sex. Offorma (2014) viewed gender as a learned socially constructed condition ascribed to male and female. Offorma further noted that gender is enforced through cultural practices, as gender identity is the outcome of cultural learning, hence the expectations from male and female are dependent on their cultural milieus.

The way individual perceives environmental issues such as good quality of environment, desertification, atmospheric pollution among others could be influenced by these expectations (roles). Ekezie (2010) further noted that gender is an important variable in environmental discussion. Ekezie (2010) stressed that females appear to be closer to the environment than their male counter parts as the former need forest for food generation as well as for fuel wood used for cooking. Chinedu (2012) argues that the females relate friendlier with the environment than their male counterparts. For instance, the females merely engage the environment for agricultural purpose. On the other hand, the males engage the environment for different purposes that are more serious such as felling forest trees for timber, clearing forest for construction of road, building of homes and factories among others.

With regards to the above views, Ofoebe (2013) presented the view that environmental sensitization programmes in and outside the school should consider the gender differences or physiological differences between males and females which are obvious and invariably affect the ways both sexes respond to the environmental problems such as land degradation, flooding, desertification, population explosion among others. According to Oruonye (2011), the different ways female and male are socialized tends to determine their environmental exploration, degree of environmental manipulation and overall relationship with the environment, in addition to the general awareness and attitude towards environmental issues like desertification, flood disaster, deforestation, climate change, pollution, population explosion among others. The present study sought among other things to determine whether gender has influence on students’ awareness and attitudes towards environmental problems as enumerated above.

Achi (2012) observed that the method of transporting the waste allows for fall offs and further distribution of the waste from one zone to another. Uncollected and poorly evacuated wastes provide breeding grounds for disease vectors and have brought about deplorable environmental conditions in Nigeria. According to Mabogunje, (2016), Nigeria is reported to be the dirtiest, most unsanitary and least aesthetically place in the world. For any meaningful development to take place in any State, the health of its citizens is a prerequisite. Although, health is not everything, without it other things are valueless. Every State should be able to guarantee an appreciable level of health for its citizens. This is simply social justice. Good health only can ensure that people are socially and economically productive.

The stakeholders in the area of Environmental health should see to it that any policy on health is successfully executed. Many teaching staff and students fail to understand the importance of health and its practices. Some due to insufficient knowledge in this field, while others due to ignorance or abuse of the application of appropriate health knowledge and practice of environmental sanitation for the achievement of optimum health by the students. Environmental Sanitation is broadly concerned with environment and public health. It includes sewage disposal, personal and food hygiene, provision of clean water domestic disposal, industrial pollution, housing and control of infectious disease. According to Ahmed (2014), environmental sanitation is defined as the cleanliness of the environment, the removal of refuse and anything that is injurious to health, purification of air, the supply and protection of potable water, good housing, streets and environmental noise control. Also, Turner (2014) indicates that environmental health involves the control of adequate drinking water supply, sewage disposal only (human waste) and refuse disposal, protection of food we eat, housing, the control of insects, rodents and pollution generated from industrial wastes. Hence, the main concern here therefore is to investigate the practice of environmental sanitation amongststudents of University of Benin.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

The importance of environmental education is now well recognized and this fact is underscored by the involvement of the Federal Government, State Agencies, NGO and private individuals on environmental awareness creation. In Nigeria, the consequences of land degradation, deforestation, population explosion, desertification, water and air pollution amongst others have started manifesting in form of drought, temperature rise, flooding, low agricultural yield, drying up of water bodies, development of gully erosion etc. To curtail these environmental problems, environment related contents are infused into most secondary school curriculum.

Although, studies have been carried out in some parts of Nigeria such as Cross River, Kaduna and Imo States to examine students’ awareness and attitude towards environmental problems as a result of school instructions. The major concern of this study is that it appears that the magnitude or degree of such environmental problems is higher and more destructive in some other areas in the nation. Furthermore, it also appears that such crucial and contemporary study has not been done in University of Benin. The present study intends to fill this gap. Based on the above gap, the problem of the study is to assess the poor environmental sanitation practice among students in female hostel.


1.3 Purpose Of The Study

The general purpose of the study is to ascertain the poor environmental sanitation practice among students in female hostel of University of Benin. Specifically, the study intends to;

  1. Ascertain the environmental awareness level of female students of University of Benin.
  2. To find out whether University of Benin female students are knowledgeable about environmental sanitation.
  3. To find out whether University of Benin female Students put the health knowledge acquired into practices.
  4. To find out whether the university invite health specialists to educate the female students on their personal health and practices of environmental sanitation.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated based on the research objectives to guide the study.

  1. What is the environmental awareness level of female students of University of Benin?
  2. Are University of Benin female students knowledgeable about environmental sanitation?
  3. Do University of Benin female Students practice good environmental sanitation?
  4. Does the university invite health specialists to educate the students on their personal health and practice of environmental sanitation?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

The results of the study will help to support the functionalism theory by showing how negative attitude of people towards the environment affect the functioning of the planet earth and will further help to sustain the relevance of the theory. Furthermore, functionalism emphasizes the consensus and order that exist in a system, focusing on friendly interaction with the environment for the overall sustainable development of mankind and promotion of the health of the environment. From the above functionalist perspective, disorganization in the system (such as deforestation, land degradation, climate change, population explosion, flooding, pollution among others) leads to environmental problems. The system components must adjust through mitigation by man to achieve sustainability and stability.

The finding of the study will be significant to the students, teachers, implementers of environmental protection and conservation projects, government and curriculum planners. The students are afforded the opportunity to benefit from the study as it will give them the chance to appraise themselves particularly on their level of awareness, attitude and practice of environmental sanitation. The finding of the researcher would assist the Government in identifying the areas of weakness in the health education curriculum of universities and higher institutions as it pertains to environmental sanitation. The research would also be of benefit to the future researchers and the readers on environmental sanitation in University of Benin, Edo state. It would reveal the sanitary conditions of the University and this would assist in making the Government and school management discover the areas for improvement.


1.6 Scope Of The Study

The scope of the study was restricted to the poor environmental sanitation practice among students in female hostel of University of Benin. The study was carried out in University of Benin, Research State.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

The findings from this study revealed, among others, that there was the need for health officials to promote enlightenment on environmental sanitation among students in Madonna. Also, the study shows that students who are directly informed and enlightened have better disposition in their environmental sanitation and practice.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made:

  1. The students should be encouraged to put their knowledge of environmental sanitation into action or practice.
  2. The schools should invite health experts or specialists to inform and educate students about environmental sanitation.
  3. The school management should assist in providing health promoting facilities such as toilets, water supply, refuse bins, hand washing facilities etc. in University of Benin for proper execution of environmental sanitation as well as health practices.

Poor Environmental Sanitation Practice Among Students In Female Hostel


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