Policy Making And Implementation A Tool For An Efficient Management System To Achieve The Objective Of An Organization

Project and Seminar Material for Business Administration and Management BAM

Policy Making And Implementation A Tool For An Efficient Management System To Achieve The Objective Of An Organization


Abstract


Policy making and implementation is one issue that cannot be over-emphasized because of the important role it plays in the lit of any organization willing to survive and to growth in the face of the changing global village (world).

Based on the need for organizations to achieve their objectives, the researcher decided to conducted a research study on the topic “policy making and implementation a tool for an effective management system to achieve objective of an organization” with a particular reference to Michael Okpala Federal University of Agriculture Umudike Abia State.

The objective of these studies to show importance of policy making and implementation in the achieving the organizational corporate objective.

In chapter two the researcher reviewed the literature of some eminent scholars that are related to this research topic under study.

In chapter three, the researcher discussed on the methodology of research in which various method applied in conducting the research were discussed such as primary and seconding methods of data collection, the simple percentage method the random sample and chance method while chi-square are employed for the test of hypothesis.

In chapter four, the research also analysed and interpreted the responses of the respondents by using tabular form for easy understanding and interpretation while the chi-square is used to test the hypothesis stated in chapter one.

Finally in chapter five, the researcher made the summary on his findings and conclusions, recommendation and suggestions.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

The task of achieving the objective of an organization is one that has for many years remained a hard not to crack by the management of most organization, and as such left most of the organization either dead or stagnet.

The need for policy making arise due to the nature of business firm that opeates in this era. A firm which has originally commenced operations in a single product line catering for a unique set of customer in a limited geographical area, expanded in one or more dimension. Informal control and co-ordinations became partially irrelevant as expansion took place and the need for integrate functional areas arose. This integration functional area arose. This integration brings about framing of policies to guide managerial action. Policymaking became the prime responsibility for effective management system.

The implementation phase in strategic management process consist of a set of activities by which the top management assures that the strategic choice is communicated and related to both the organization and its people. This is to say that implementation encompasses the activity of developing the organizational structure and climate best suited for the implementation of the chosen or adopted policy.

This task which is so much important in the life of and organization wishing to survive and to grow cannot be over-emphasized considering the dynamic nature of the world we are in today. However, for management system to effectively carry out this task of achieving the objective of an organization, that management system must aim itself with the tools of policy making and implementation to enable it to adjust to the environment changes surrounding them.

It is based on this important note that the researcher in conducting a research on the topic “policy marking and implementation a tool for efficient management system to achieve the objective of a organization” with a particular references to Micheal Okpara Federal University of Agriculture Umudike.


1.1 Statement of Problem

The management of most organization in the world today have been facing the problem of not knowing how they could achieve the objective of their organization in the face of the changing world, so that their organization will survive and grow.

This problem which has defile may management approaches is what the researcher is aimed at solving.


1.2 Statement of Purpose

The purpose of the research problem include to following:-

  1. To ascertain the effect of the policy and its implementation on organization performance.
  2. To bring out the relationship between policy and its implementation on efficient management system.
  3. To determine the nature of problem militating against effective policy and its implementation in achieving organizational goals.
  4. To make useful recommendation based on the findings of the study.

1.3 Objective of the Study

The objective of this study by the researcher is:-

  1. To find out the important role of policy making and implementation plays in achieving an organizational objective.
  2. To improve the mental ability of the managers and enable them to link theory with practical such ability is important in making policy where large numbers of factors have to be considered.

1.4 Hypothesis

  1. Ho: The efficient management system does not depend on policy making and implementation for attainment of organizational objective,
    Hi: The efficient management system depends on policymaking and implementation for attainment of organizational objective.
  2. Ho: Effective implementation does not contribute to an efficient management system.
    Hi: In some banks, implementation of polices contribute immensely to an efficient management system.

1.5 Significance of the Study

The importance of policy making and its implementation cannot be over-emphasized. It can be viewed in different context where it proves to be helpful.

  1. This study will enable management student to know the process of policy making and implementation and the important roles it plays in achieving the objective of the organization.
  2. This study will help in training of the future managers by showing how things should be done.
  3. It will enable public policy makers to provide guidelines for the achievement of the objective of government establishment.
  4. It will help managers to economies their time, since polices direct future action, managers do not engage in daily guiding of sub-ordinates.
  5. It will enable the general readers to be acquainted with the process of making policies.

1.6 Scope of the Study

This study is limited to the topic “policy making and implementation a tool for efficient management system to achieve the objective of an organization and the organization here is Micheal Okpara Federal University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Objectives

They are the basic economic and social purposes for which an organization exists. They are also defined in an organization.

Policy

A predetermined guide established to provide directions to decision making. A policy defined as area within which the decision can be made but it does not take the decisions.

Efficient

The ability to achieve a result with minimum input.

Management

The efficient utilization of the human, material and financial resources of an organization to achieve the objective of an organization.

It can also be defined as body or group of person who see to the efficient utilization of the human, material and financial resources of an organization to achieve the objective of the organization.

It can be also be defined as a business enterprise which arrange resources, define responsibility and authorities to individual to enable them perform their duties.

Organization

A business unit, set up to achieve objective.

Policy Making

Is a purpose of developing an-effective policy?

Policy Choice

Is a chosen policy from among the alternatives?

Policy Implementation

The process of implementing a chosen policy.

Tool

An instrument for achieving an objective.

Environmental Appraisal

Is the process of examining the environment of an organization for the identification of opportunities and threats and strength and weakness?

Evaluation

Is the process of examining the performance of policy in achieving a given or objective.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion, Recommendation and Suggestion

5.0 Summary

From the analysis of interpretation of the response made by the staff of Micheal Okpara Federal University of Agriculture, Unudike, Abia State, the researcher was able to make some useful, finding, which are stated below:

  1. That the objectives of the university are well defined to enable the policy makers to have a sense of direction to know the appropriate policy to make and to achieve the objective of the university.
  2. That the management system of the university is efficient in the use of the resources of the university in achieving its objectives.
  3. That polices are made in the university by a body known as the senate which is regarded as the highest academic policy making body in the university which is made up of the personnel who are qualified and effective in their duty of policy making to ensure that the objective of the university are achieved
  4. That the policies made and implementation in the university are programmed policies, and that the policies are normally in due with the objective of the university and that before the policies are implemented, they are normally communicated to the personnel’s of the university, it was realized that the policies are effective in the objective of the university.
  5. That there is a free upward and downward flow of information in the university, which deals with polices, made to be communicated within the university.
  6. That the management system of the university uses policy making and implementation to achieve the objective of the university.

5.1 Conclusion

In this project work, the researcher had, despite his limitation and constraints discussed, the idea of policy making and implementation as a tool for an efficient management system to achieve the objective of an organization with a particular reference to Micheal Okpara Federal University of Agriculture, Umudike Abia State.

During the course of the study, the researcher visited the organization a good number of times for approval and distribution of questionnaire. The researcher also visited the school libraries and the library of the university under to obtain relevant information’s that could help to the study.

However, despite all the difficulties encountered by the researcher in the course of study, one must say that the exercise has been an interesting one. Very educative and information revealing to the practicing managers, student of public and business administration and management, government industrialist and individuals on policy making and implementation.

In the final analysis, we can still contend that organizations would be better off if policies are made prior to action taken. Some authorities has been citied to support this contention, with an overview of this research work, more light is thrown on how it is done, and how it could be done to help improve organization effectiveness.


5.2 Recommendation

From the findings and conclusion made, the researcher is making the following recommendation:

  1. That the management system of any kind of organization should endeavour to be efficient in the use of the resources of the organization to achieve the objective of their organization.
  2. That management of organization should employ policymaking and implementation as a tool to achieve the objective of the organization.
  3. That the management of organization should ensure that their objectives are well defined.
  4. That the management of the organization should ensure that qualified and efficient personnel are employed to make and implement the policies in their organization.
  5. That the management of the organization should ensure that policies made are inline with the objective of their organisation.

5.3 Suggestion

For due to the various constraint and limitation that affected the researcher from carrying out extensive and comprehensive study on the topic “policy and implementation” the researcher is therefore making the following suggestion.

  1. That the further study be carried out on the process of policymaking
  2. That the further study be carried out on the process policymaking implementation.
  3. That further study be conducted on the process of policy evaluation.
  4. That the study of the effect of policymaking and implementation in other organization be done.

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Frequently Asked Questions


What is the policy implementation process?

“Policy Implementation can be defined as the stage where government executes an adopted policy as specified by the legislation or policy action. At this stage, various government agencies and departments, responsible for the respective area of policy,…

How to develop an organizational policy?

How to Develop Organizational Policies. 1 1. Identify the Need for it. A policy can be developed for two reasons: in anticipation of a need and in response to a need. This is why an … 2 2. Determine Who Takes the Lead. 3 3. Gather Information. 4 4. Create a Draft. 5 5. Consult with Stakeholders. s

What should be considered before implementing a policy?

Before implementation starts, everyone needs to be clear about the goals of the policy. Identify resources that can help you implement the policy. This can include necessary funding, staffing, and infrastructure. Define who is involved and who does what during implementation.

How do policymakers ensure that objectives are achieved?

A closer examination of this approach reveals the conditions which policymakers rely on to ensure that objectives are achieved: the ease with which problems can be solved, the policy’s ability to structure its own implementation, as well as external variables such as consensus and socio-economic conditions.

What is the importance of policy implementation?

Underlining the importance of virtual education, the President said that universities should increase the component of virtual education so that a maximum number of students could benefit from the cheaper mode of learning.

What is policy implementation theory?

Policy implementation is seen as a tension generating force in society. Tensions are generated between and within four components of the implementing process: idealized policy, implementing organization, target group, and environmental factors. The tensions result in transaction patterns which may or may not match

How to develop policies that benefit the entire organization?

In other words, aim to develop policies that benefit your entire organization. Before you develop any policy, it is important to research the topic to ensure there is a real need for the policy. Make sure you are clear on the of the policy’s objective.

What are the tips for creating effective policies and procedures?

Tips for Creating Effective Policies and Procedures 1. Purpose. The purpose explains the goal of the policy. For example, a health and safety policy has the goal of… 2. Scope. The scope of the policy reveals to whom the policy pertains. Depending on the size of your company, some… 3. Statement. …

How do you write a policy for an organization?

1 Prioritize a policy list. You can’t write every policy at once and some are more important than others, so create a list of policies that need to be done first. 2 Conduct thorough research. Take a look at your existing procedures to zone in on how things are currently done. … 3 Write an initial draft. … 4 Validate the procedures. …

How to ensure policy compliance in your organization?

In order to ensure policy compliance, you should make certain that you: Create policies that cover every detail of the organization’s work process you want to effectively manage. Train and teach your employees about the policies, its rules, and the risks involved. Implement the policy by creating a team to do so.

How to implement effective policies and procedures?

Step-by-Step: How to implement effective policies and procedures Step 1: Consultation. When developing your policies and procedures, you must consult with all relevant stakeholders,… Step 2: Tailor the policy to your business. The policies and procedures you adopt need to be tailored to the needs …

How do you ensure compliance with policies?

The first step to ensuring compliance begins with involving the leaders of each section of the organization. Policies are often created by someone within an organization that does not have a comprehensive understanding of the daily tasks within each department.

What do you need to know before creating a policy?

You need to know what a policy is, why you should create one, the pros and cons of having a policy, what good policy looks like, and your responsibility as a policy owner. This knowledge gives you a clear picture of what developing a policy entails and prepares you for the task ahead. So, let’s start from the very beginning.

How do you implement a new policy in the workplace?

Implementing a new policy that is difficult or even impossible for rank-and-file employees to carry out will just mean the policy will be abandoned in short order. Involve key stakeholders in the planning process, before implementation. Get feedback from managers and from employees who would be subject to the new policy.

How can policy makers ensure the direction of organisational policies?

Policy makers must ensure that policies linked to the overall direction and goals the organisation. The overall framework of the business will provide some strategic direction, and will be important in assessing the direction of the organisational policies.

What is the intended purpose of the policy?

The intended policy is to achieve a specific outcome is outcome needs to be effective in terms of the impact that it has on the organisation. Part of the consultative process is undertaken appropriately will help identify areas where the policy may not be effective I within the organisation.

What are the challenges faced by policymakers during policy implementation?

Another challenge is that policymakers may temporarily accept compromise for the sake of reaching an agreement, but many times hostilities resume during the phase of policy implementation; implementers of policy must solve problems that decision makers have left unresolved in…

How do you ensure policy outcome meets the expectations of leaders?

Have the leaders expectations being addressed and realised in the policy outcome. It serves little purpose of the policy is tabled at a board meeting to find the majority of the board in fact do not support the policy intent or specific outcomes. 

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