Policy Making An Implementation As A Tool Of Achieving Organisational Goals (A Study Of Selected Establishment In Owerri)

Project and Seminar Material for Business Administration and Management (BAM)

Project and Seminar Material for Business Administration and Management (BAM)


Abstract


Policy making and implementation is one issue that cannot be over emphasized because of the important role it play in the life of any organization worship to survive and to grow in the face of the changing world. Based on the need organization to achieve their objective the researcher decided to conduct a research study in the topic policy making and implementation as a tool for an effective organizational goals realization, with a particular reference to Michael Okpara, Federal University of Agriculture Umudike Abia state.

The objective of this study is to show the importance to policy making and implementation in achieving the objective the organization, in chapter two, the researcher revealed to the literature of some emanated scholar that are related to the topic under study, in chapter three, the researcher discussed on the research methodology in which the various method applied such as primary and secondary method the random sampling and chance method which were used in selecting the organization.

In chapter four, the research analyzed and interprets the responses of the respondent by using the tabular form for easy understanding and interpretation. Finally in chapter five the researcher made the summary of the finding, conclusion recommendation and suggestion.


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Approval page
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Significance of the Study
  • 1.5 Research Questions
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms.

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Overview of Policy Making and Implementation
  • 2.3 Definition of Policy
  • 2.4 Impact of Policy Making on Workers Behaviour and over all Performance

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Population and Determination of Sample Size
  • 3.3 Method and Sources of Data Collections
  • 3.4 Validity and Reliability of Instrument
  • 3.5 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary of findings
  • 5.2 Conclusions
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • 5.4 Suggestion
  • Reference
  • Appendix
  • Questionnaire

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

The task of achieving the objective on an organization has for many years remained a hard nut to create by the management of most organization either dead or stagnant. This task, which is so much important in the life of any organization which to survive and grow, cannot be over-emphasized considering the dynamic nature of the world we are in today.

However, for any management system to effectively carry out this task of achieving the objectives of an organization, that management system must arm itself with the tool of policy adjustment to the environment changes or react to the demand of the environment.

It is based on this important note that the researcher is conducting research on the topic! Policy making and implementation as a tool of accomplishment of organizational goals.

The selected establishment was established as a specialized organization by the federal government of Nigeria to carry out the objective of encouraging the advancement of learning and to hold out to all people without distinction of race, creed, sex or political background.

Also to develop and after academic and professional programmes leading to the award of diplomas, first degrees, post graduate research and higher degree which emphasized planning, adaptive, technical, maintenance, development and adaptive skills in agriculture, agricultural engineering and allied professional discipline which will produce socially mature person with a capacity to improve on these disciplines and develop new ones and also to contribute to the scientific transformation of agriculture in Nigeria.

This organization act as agent and catalyst through post graduate training, research and innovation for the effective and economic utilization, exploration and conservation of Nigeria’s natural, agricultural, economy and human resources and to offer to the general population as a form of public service, the result of training and research in agriculture and allied discipline and to foster the practical application of result.

It also establish appropriate relationship with other national institutions involve in training, research and development of agriculture and to identify the agriculture problems and needs of Nigeria and find solution to them within the text of overall national development.

It also provide and promote sound basic scientific training as a foundation for the development for agriculture and allied discipline taking into account indigenous culture, the need to enhance national unity, need to vastly increase the adequate preparation of graduation of self-employed in agriculture and allied profession.

It also promotes and emphasizes teaching; research and extension service and out-reach programmes.

In service training, containing education and on form adaptive research. Also offers academic programme in relation to the training of manpower for agriculture Nigeria and organizations research relevant to training in agriculture with emphasis on small scale farming.

It also organizes extension services and out-reaches programmes for technology and integration for training research and extension activities. It also establish appropriate relationship with other national tertiary institutions and identity and possibly proper solution to such a problem.

Finally, to undertake and see to the actualization of any other activities appropriate for university of agriculture.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

The management of most organization in the world today have been taking the problem of not knowing how they could achieve the objective of their organization in the face of the changing world so that their organization can survive and grow. This problem which has defied many management approaches is what the researcher is aimed at solving.


1.3 Objective Of The Study

The objectives of the study by the researcher as follows;

  1. To find out whether the objective of the organization are well defined.
  2. To ascertain the type of policy made in the organization
  3. To investigate whether the policies made is in line with the objective of the organization.
  4. To examine if the policies made in the organization is effective enough to achieving the objective of the organization.

1.4 Significance Of The Study

The important of these studies is to enable practicing management to know the important role. Policy making and implementation, plays in the achieving the objective of an organization.

Secondly, it will enable management student to know the process of policy making and implementation and the important role it plays in achieving the objective of an organization.

Thirdly, it will enable public policy makers to provide guidelines for the achievement of the objectives of government establishment or institution.

Finally, it will enable the general readers to know the process of policy making and the implementations, the important role it plays in achieving the objective of an organization.


1.5 Research Question

It is the aim of the researcher to find answers to the following questions.

  1. What type of policy is made by the management to achieve the objective of the organization
  2. Who are responsible for making the policy in the organization
  3. Are those who made the policy effective

1.6 Scope Of The Study

The study is limited to the topic policy making and implementation, as a tool for an effective organizational goal realization and to the selected establishment in the course of this research works, the researcher encounters a lot of problem which include critical unwillingness of the authorities of the organization to allow the researcher to conduct the research for fear of revealing their secrets.

The unwillingness of some of the employees to foil the questionnaire for years of being victimizing queried or asked.


1.7 Limitation Of The Study

Despite the limited scope of this research, it was affected with certain constraints, which are as follows.

  1. Time:- In research of this type, a lot of time is required but given the short time allowed for thistudy, it was not possible to do all was required and necessary.
  2. Non-available of research materials which limited the researcher from getting enough information for the literature review.
  3. Financial constraint, which limited the researcher from putting up more comprehension approach to the study.
  4. Information constraint, getting the needed information was not easy, this is probably because of stingy manner in which manager handle information especially those bordering the life of the organization.

1.8 Definition Of Terms

Objectives:- They are the base economic and social purpose for which an organization exist they also defined the ends an organization seeks to achieve.

Policy:

A plan of action achieved and objective.

Efficient:

The ability to achieve a result with minimum input.

Management:

The efficiency utilization of the achieved objective of the organization

Organization:

A business unit, set up to achieve certain objective.

Policy Making:

Is the process of developing an effective policy, the ability to achieve a result with minimum input.

Policy Implementation:

Is the process of implementing a chosen policy

Tools:

Is an instrument for achieving an objective.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary Of Findings, Conclusion, Recommendation And Suggestion

5.1 Summary Of Findings

From the analysis and interpretation of the response made by the staff of Michael Okpara Federal University of Agriculture Umudike; Abia state, the researcher was able to make some useful finding, which are stated below;

  1. That the objective of the university is well defined to enable the policy makers to have a sense of direction of know the appropriate policy to make and appropriate policy to make and to achieve the objective of the University.
  2. The policies are made in the University by a body known as Senate which is regarded as the highest academic policy making body in the University which is made up of the personnel who are qualifies effectively in their duty of policy making, to ensure that the objective of the University are achieved
  3. That the policies made and implemented in the University are programmed policies and that the policies are normally in line with the objective of the University and that before the policies are implemented. They normally communicated to the personnel of the University. That the management system of the University use policy making and implementation to achieve the objectives of the University.

5.2 Conclusion

In this project work, the researcher had despite his limitation and constraints, discussed the idea of policy making and implementation as a tool fro an effective organizational goal realization, with a particular reverence to Michael Okpara Federal University of Agriculture, Umudike Abia State.

During the course of the study, the researcher visited the organization a good number of times for approval and distribution of questionnaire the researcher also visited the school library and the library of the university under study to obtain relevant information that could be of help to the study. However, despite an the difficulties encountered in the course of the study, one must say that the exercise has been an interesting one very educative and full of formation revealing to the practicing manger, students of public and business administration and practicing manger, students of public and business administration and management, government, industrialist and individual on the policy making and implementation in the final analysis we can still contend that organization would be better off if policies were made prior to active taken some authority has been cited to support the contentious with an overview of the researcher work, more light is thrown on how it is done and how it could be done to help improve organizational effectiveness.


5.3 Recommendation

From the findings and conclusion made the researcher is making the following recommendation.

  1. That the management system of any kind of organization should endeavour to be efficient in the use of the resources of the organization to achieve the objective of the organization.
  2. That management of an organization should employ policy making and implementation as a tool for an effective organization goal realization.

5.4 Suggestion

For due to the various constraint and limitation that affect the researcher from carrying out extensive and comprehensive study in the topic; Policy making and implementation.

The researcher is therefore making the following suggestions.

  1. That the study of the effect of policy making and implementation in other organization be done.
  2. That further study is conducted in the policy evaluation.
  3. That further study is carried out on the process of policy making and it implementation.

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Frequently Asked Questions


How do you implement a policy in an organization?

Keep the desired outcomes in mind. Before implementation starts, everyone needs to be clear about the goals of the policy. Identify resources that can help you implement the policy. This can include necessary funding, staffing, and infrastructure. Define who is involved and who does what during implementation.

Why do policies fail to be implemented?

Poor policy design is a common reason for poor implementation. Likewise, a well-designed policy can be poorly implemented (Gold, 2014). Thinking about how a policy will be implemented should be an integral feature of the policy development stage.

What is effective policy implementation?

In the context of this work, effective policy implementation, therefore, entails implementing a policy in such a way as to produce, attain or realize the goals and objectives of the policy. In essence, if a policy is effectively implemented, the designed and planned development goals and objectives are realized.

What are the similarities between implementing policies and other types of interventions?

There are many similarities between implementing policies and other types of interventions. Implementation enablers are important for policy implementation. Examples include leadership, communication and feedback mechanisms. Leadership is needed at all levels of the system for policy implementation.

What is the importance of policy implementation?

Underlining the importance of virtual education, the President said that universities should increase the component of virtual education so that a maximum number of students could benefit from the cheaper mode of learning.

What are the reasons for policy implementation failure?

Three Reasons Why Policy Implementation Might Fail 1 Strategy to Implementation. Factors that affect policy implementation include how the policy is implemented at the onset. … 2 Weak Foundational Support. … 3 Lack of Management Backing. … 4 Inconsistent Administration. …

Do we need a new approach to public policy failure?

This would require, however, a change in society’s and the government’s mentality towards public policy, as the strategy necessarily involves error and failure. The traditional approach to public policy see’s failure not as a means to learn and reveal information, but as incompetence and something that must be averted and punished.

What is a “failed policy”?

One definition due to McConnell (2015, p. 221) states that “a policy fails, even if it is successful in some minimal respects, if it does not fundamentally achieve the goals that proponents set out to achieve, and opposition is great and/or support is virtually non-existent.”

What are the problems of implementation of Public Policy?

Some implementation problems identified in the study include corruption, lack of continuity in government policies, inadequate human and material resources, all of which often lead to implementation gap, i.e. the widening of the distance between stated policy goals and the realization of such planned goals.

What is the importance of policy implementation?

Underlining the importance of virtual education, the President said that universities should increase the component of virtual education so that a maximum number of students could benefit from the cheaper mode of learning.

How to differentiate between clinical and implementation interventions?

Further, attention to study design, the use of theory, and adoption of reporting guidelines can assist in distinguishing between the clinical intervention and the implementation intervention. However, certain aspects may remain unclear in analyses of hybrid studies of clinical and implementation interventions.

How do policy implementation policies interact with each other?

Policies may interact with each other, producing new, unplanned and sometimes unintended consequences. More complex governance and accountability arrangements are required to oversee policy implementation. What enables implementation of policy?

What is an example of an implementation intervention?

Examples of implementation interventions include computer prompts, audit and feedback, internal facilitators, and in-house training [16, 17]. In this paper, the implementation intervention will be illustrated by a leadership program, as a means to support behaviours suggested to facilitate knowledge implementation.

What are the challenges of policy implementation?

This can make policy implementation very challenging and diffuse. Priorities and actions need to be clear and during the policy development process, to ensure that diverse stakeholders can interpret and implement them consistently at a national level. The context for policy implementation is crucial. 

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