Plumbing System Design For A Residential Block Of Flats

Project and Seminar Material for Civil and Environmental Engineering

Plumbing System Design For A Residential Block Of Flats


This study of plumbing system plan is aimed at planning a plumbing system that is compatible with clean water, waste water and rain water management for a residential block of flats, and meet 5 aspects of safety, security, simplicity, beauty, and economy. It applies water supply system which commonly used for flats. Plumbing system planning methods are collecting and analyzing fluctuation in water use, planning clean water and recycled water systems by endorsing alternative piping for clean water and recycled water. In addition to water supply, recycled water system that utilizes waste water to be recycled for flushing closets. Average daily water consumption is 268 m3/day for clean water and 44 m3/day for recycled water with the capacity of ground water tank for clean water is 564.54 m3 and recycled water is 62 m3.

Clean water supply system will implement roof tank system and recycled water will reutilize wastewater for flushing on toilet tank.

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications. Plumbing uses pipes, valves, plumbing fixtures, tanks, and other apparatuses to convey fluids.[1] Heating and cooling (HVAC), waste removal, and potable water delivery are among the most common uses for plumbing, but it is not limited to these applications. The word derives from the Latin for lead, plumbum, as the first effective pipes used in the Roman era were lead pipes [13].
A home’s plumbing system is a complex network of water supply pipes, drainpipes, vent pipes, and more. Because plumbing is complicated and one of the costliest systems to repair or install in a home, it pays to understand how the system works.

Understanding the fundamentals of a plumbing system allows you to better understand the types of problems that occur or, if you’re planning a remodel or new home, it helps you design a system that will work properly and pass plumbing codes.

Regarding planning for major plumbing work: A properly designed system will deliver water to the various faucets, fixtures, and water-using appliances efficiently and carry away waste water without clogs. Second, it may save you money. By planning wisely, you can often reduce the overall plumbing expense significantly by locating bathrooms, kitchens, or laundry rooms near one another so that they can share parts of the system everal different systems make up a house’s plumbing. Fresh water is delivered to a home through water supply pipes from the utility or a well and is then distributed to sinks, toilets, washers, bathtubs, and related fixtures. The drain-waste-vent system carries away used water and wastes to sewers or septic tanks. Natural-gas plumbing delivers this fuel to gas-burning cooktops, furnaces, water heaters, and clothes dryers.

1.1 Aim Of The Study

This work is at planning a plumbing system that is compatible with clean water, waste water and rain water management for a residential block of flats, and meet 5 aspects of safety, security, simplicity, beauty, and economy.

1.2 Objective Of The Project

At the end of the work student involved shall be able to design a good plumbing system for a residential blocks of flats that are capable:

  1. To supply safe drinking-water in adequate quantities,
  2. To remove liquid wastes efficiently, and
  3. To minimize risk of failure through vigilance and quality assurance.

1.3 Scope Of The Project

Plumbing, system of pipes and fixtures installed in a building for the distribution and use of potable (drinkable) water and the removal of waterborne wastes. It is usually distinguished from water and sewage systems that serve a group of buildings or a city. The water-carrying pipes and other materials used in a plumbing system must be strong, noncorrosive, and durable enough to equal or exceed the expected life of the building in which they are installed. Toilets, urinals, and lavatories usually are made of stable porcelain or vitreous china, although they sometimes are made of glazed cast iron, steel, or stainless steel. Ordinary water pipes usually are made of steel, copper, brass, plastic, or other nontoxic material; and the most common materials for sewage pipes are cast iron, steel, copper, and asbestos cement.

1.4 Importance Of Home Plumbing System

The importance of plumbing system at home is as follows:

Hot Water:

Plumbing system makes it possible to have hot water in our bath room via water heater.


There’s nothing better than a shower first thing in the morning, or even later in the day after a hard day at work. Showers are relaxing and make you feel so fresh and clean. They can give you a renewed outlook on life. No house will experience such unless with plumbing.


Flushing of toilet is possible today because of plumbing design in our residential block flats.


Remember when we used to have to wash dishes after every meal? What a pain! Now, we can just throw the dishes in the dishwasher and spend more time with the family in the evening. This is possible all because of plumbing design.

Washing Machines:

Without your washing machine, you’d be headed to the nearest river with a scrub board. But when you have working plumbing in your home, you can stick a load in the washer, kick back, and enjoy life while the machine does the work for you. This occurs like this because of good plumbing design in our home. Plumbing Importance In Everyday


Plumbing is everywhere. In fact, in some countries homes aren’t legal until they have indoor plumbing installed. When you go to work, there’s plumbing. If you go shopping, the stores are also equipped with plumbing design.

1.5 Problem Of Plumbing

Bacteria have been shown to live in “premises plumbing systems”. The latter refers to the “pipes and fixtures within a building that transport water to taps after it is delivered by the utility”. Community water systems have been known for centuries to spread waterborne diseases like typhoid and cholera. However, “opportunistic premises plumbing pathogens” have been recognized only more recently: Legionella pneumophila, discovered in 1976, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the most commonly tracked bacteria, which people with depressed immunity can inhale or ingest and may become infected with. Some of the locations where these opportunistic pathogens can grow include faucets, shower heads, water heaters and along pipe walls. Reasons that favor their growth are “high surface-to-volume ratio, intermittent stagnation, low disinfectant residual, and warming cycles”. A high surface-to-volume ratio, i.e. a relatively large surface area allows the bacteria to form a biofilm, which protects them from disinfection.

1.6 Limitation Of The Project

For distribution system pipes generally used are GI, copper, HDPE, CPVC, mostly now a days PVC plastic pipes are used as they don’t get rusted, light weight, easy installation and maintenance and economic.

1.7 Application Of Plumbing System

Plumbing fixture are used in the following areas:

  • Showers,
  • Bathtubs,
  • Lavatory basins,
  • Toilets but also such devices as washing machines,
  • Garbage-disposal units,
  • Hot-water heaters,
  • Dishwashers, and
  • Drinking fountains.

1.8 Significance Of The Project

Plumbing system is used for water supply in building .It supplies water to kitchen, toilet outlets via distribution system of pipes. Drainage system is used to get rid of human wastes through well-arranged network of drainage pipes. This study exposes students to the right and standard way of fixing plumbing fixture in the building.

1.9 Purpose Of The Project

The purpose of plumbing system at home is to have a neat or clean water supply to all part of residential flat.

1.10 Research Question

  1. What are the different types of plumbing systems?
  2. What is plumbing in construction?
  3. What is the purpose of plumbing?
  4. What is sanitary plumbing system?

Plumbing System Design For A Residential Block Of Flats

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Plumbing System Design For A Residential Block Of Flats


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