Planning Implications Of Housing Development In Jos Jarawa District, Jos North, Plateau State, Nigeria
This study aims at examining the housing development in Jos Jarawa. 150 households were surveyed across the District employing simple random sampling technique in order to generate data on the physical, social and economics characteristics of households. The analysis revealed that residents are of high density zone with their occupation of householders being served as basis for establishing status.
It assumes that the status of a person translates into his earning, which also influences his choice of location and type of housing to reside. During the research, it was discovered that most residents live in inadequate housing that lack basic infrastructure and facilities. The high density neighborhoods are unplanned and unsafe with poor sanitary condition.
The condition of the neighborhoods allows us to conclude that such locations have suffered long neglect by government with respect to infrastructure development, provision of social amenities, and enforcement of development control standards. Based on the findings, the study proffered appropriate recommendations that there is need for policy of providing public housing for the low-income earners in Jos Plateau and as well as implement urban renewal programme for the area.
Table Of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Research Questions
- 1.4 Aim of the Study
- 1.5 Objective of the Study
- 1.6 Scope of the Study
- 1.7 Area of Study
- 1.7.1 Location and Population
- 1.7.2 Relief and Drainage
- 1.7.3 Climate and Weather
- 1.7.4 Topography and Geology
- 1.7.5 Vegetation
- 1.7.6 People
- 1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Concept of Housing
- 2.3 Housing Market
- 2.4 The Nigerian Housing Market
- 2.4.1 Housing Demand
- 2.4.2 Housing Supply
- 2.5 Housing Provision in Nigeria
- 2.5.1 The Private Sector
- 18.104.22.168 Individuals
- 22.214.171.124 Co-operative Bodies
- 126.96.36.199 Corporate Bodies
- 188.8.131.52 Estate Developer / Agents
- 184.108.40.206 Non-Governmental Organization and Voluntary Organizations
- 220.127.116.11 Foreign Partners/Investors
- 2.5.2 The Public Sector
- 18.104.22.168 The First National Development Plan (1962-1968)
- 22.214.171.124 The Second National Development Plan (1970-1974)
- 126.96.36.199 Third National Development Plan (1975-1980)
- 188.8.131.52 The Fourth National Development Plan (1981-1985)
- 184.108.40.206 The Year 1985 till the Present
- 2.6 Theories of Housing
- 2.6.1 Theory of Housing Adjustment (Morris and Winter 1978)
- 2.6.2 The Anarchist Theory of Housing (Pierre-Joseph Proudhon)
- 2.6.3 The Marxist Theory of Housing
- 2.6.4 The Housing Common(s) Theory (Hodkinson, 2012)
- 2.7 Concept of Planning
- 2.7.1 Planning Authorities
- 2.7.2 Planning Policies of Housing
- 2.8 Housing Development
- 2.9 Planning Implications of Poor Housing Development
- 2.10 Sustainable Housing Development
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Research Design / Method
- 3.2.1 Primary data
- 220.127.116.11 Questionnaire
- 18.104.22.168 Focus Group Discussion
- 22.214.171.124 Interview
- 126.96.36.199 Observation
- 3.3.2 Secondary Data
- 3.3 Population of Study
- 3.4 Sample size of the Study
- 3.5 Sampling Technique of the Study
- 3.6 Method Data Analysis
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Field Data Presentation
- 4.2 Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents
- 4.3 Housing Characteristics
- 4.3.1 Habitable Rooms per House
- 4.3.2 Households per House
- 4.3.3Room Occupancy Status
- 4.3.4 Facilities within the House
- 4.3.5 Stage of Completion of House
- 4.4 Housing Conditions
- 4.5 Maintenance of Housing
- 4.6 Utility Services Provision
- 4.6.1 Access to Water
- 4.6.2 Access to Public Electricity Grid
- 4.6.3 Access to Sanitation Services
- 4.7 Prevalent Disease
- 4.8 Rationale behind the Choice of Living
- 4.9 Staff of Statutory Housing Agencies
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 Summary of Findings
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
List Of Tables
- Table 1; Sex of Respondents
- Table 2; Age of the Structure of Respondents
- Table 3; Marital Status of Respondents
- Table 4; Educational Status of Respondents
- Table 5; Occupational Status of Respondents
- Table 6; Level of Income of Respondents
- Table 7; House Design
- Table 8; Duration of Staying of Respondents
- Table 9; Finishing Material of the Wall
- Table 10; Habitable Room of the Study Area
- Table 11; Households in the Study Area
- Table 12; Availability of Toilet Facilities
- Table 13; Availability of Kitchen facilities in the Household
- Table 14; Stage of Completion of House before Moving-in
- Table 15; Roof Leaking in Building
- Table 16; Maintenance of Housing in House in Study Area
- Table 17; Accessibility of Water
- Table 18; Source of Water Supply
- Table 19; Ventilated Improved Pit Sewage (Septic tank)
- Table 20; Distances from Dumpsite to house
- Table 21; Common Diseases found in the Study Area
- Table 22; Reason living in the Study Area
- Table 23; Distribution of Respondents by Housing Professional
- Table 24; Distribution of Respondents by Years of Experiences
- Table 25; Average Length of time for Land Allocation Approval
- Table 26; Average Length of time for Land Title Approval
- Table 27; Average Length of time for Building Plan Approval
- Table 28; Number of Inspection/Visitation to Building construction sites
- Table 29; Assessment of the bureaucratic procedure involved in Housing Process
- Table 30; Participation in training
- Table 31; Factors in effects performance of Housing Professional
- Table 32; Greatest challenges facing the Agency
List Of Figures
- Fig. 1; Map of Nigeria Showing Plateau State
- Fig. 2; Conceptual Framework for Understanding Sustainable Housing Development
- Fig. 3; Sex of the Respondent
- Fig. 4; Age of the Respondents
- Fig. 5; Marital Status of Respondents
- Fig. 6; Educational Status of Respondents
- Fig. 7; Occupational of Respondents
- Fig. 8; Level of Income of Respondents
- Fig. 9; House Design
- Fig. 10; Duration of Staying of Respondents
- Fig. 11; Materials of the Wall of the Study Area
- Fig. 12; Finishing Materials of the Wall
- Fig. 13; Roof Materials of Houses in Study Area
- Fig. 14; Number of Person per Room
- Fig. 15; Toilet Facilities of Respondent
- Fig. 16; Availability of Plumbing Connection in the House in the Study Area
- Fig.17; Access to Public Electricity Grid
- Fig. 18; Disposed Liquid Waste
List Of Plates
- Plate 1; Mud House in the Study Area
- Plate 2; Crack Wall at Joshua Itse Street
- Plate 3; 2-Storey Leaking Roof at Tina Junction along Duste Uku Road
- Plate 4; Waste Water Channeled directly into the Open Street close to Tina Junction
- Plate 5; Roll off Dumpster along Bauchi Ring Road
- Plate 6; Dump-site at Arin Street in Jos Jarawa
- Plate 7; Dilapidated house in Jos Jarawa
1.1 Background of the Study
In spite of the increasing knowledge of modern planning and number of planners, physical development in cities of less developed countries remains an array of chaos and disorder. This, as manifested in urban sprawl, poor access to dwellings, bad drainage, housing congestion, uncontrolled and increasing density of physical development, among many other problems, characterizes the high-density areas of Nigerian cities.
Right from time, food, clothing and shelter have been the three most basic requirements of man; among all these three requirements food and clothing are the two which influence man’s life more than the house in which he seeks shelter, security comfort and dignity. However, today, housing is known to play a crucial role in achieving integrated physical and economic development, natural disaster mitigation, employment generation, wealth creation and sustainable development.
The World Health Organization Committee on housing defines it as “the physical structure that is used for shelter including equipment and devices needed for physical and social well-being of the occupant”
The United Nations has defined Housing as the residential environment, neighbourhood, micro-district or the physical structure that mankind uses for shelter and the environs of that structure, including all necessary services, facilities, equipment and devices needed for the individual. It is clear for the physical health and social well-being of the family and the individual. It is clear from this definition that housing is not “shelter” alone.
Housing, in term of land use and provision of services is an outcome of the interacting social, economic and political environments of each country (Gilbert and Ward).Housing problem in developing countries are the product of rapid urbanization, which is bringing migrants from rural areas to industrialized centres and main cities in increasing numbers. In housing literature, settlement have been referred as “spontaneous settlement”, which means settlement lacks presence of government aid and control, lack of regulation, poor quality of construction; popular settlement in recognition of the fact that they are inhabited by low-income people which most of them intended not to care about planning existing standard requirement of housing development for their safety in present and in the future. Housing remains the most important land use in any city/urban settlement, accounting for 50% or more of the entire land-use (Tibaijuka 2009). Nigeria’s housing problem is derived from a historical lack of focus on housing development. Over the years, the country has not been able to develop a viable and sustained housing planning system either because of lack of expertise, unknowledgeable industry leaders especially in the policy making arms, lack of funding for relevant institutional agencies/departments, political and selfish gains. This scenario has resulted to diverse urban problems like overcrowding, deplorable environment, poor living conditions, inadequate and poor infrastructure, homelessness, increased rate of poverty and social vices among several others, individual negligence particularly for the low income group which has led to the emergence and proliferation of slums, which are amongst the most obtrusive of social evils and an epitome of poverty (Agbola, 2005).
For instance, some of the cities in Nigeria, like Lagos, Port Harcourt, Abuja, Kano are the most urbanized cities in Nigeria, has become so pathetic such that overcrowding, slum and substandard housing as well as unhealthy and poor environmental conditions. In Lagos, there is a wide gap between demand and supply of housing units. Housing problem has become worse in Lagos than any other city in Nigeria which grows at a rate of 12% annually with an estimated population of about 13 million in 2006. The inability of an average resident to own a secured residential plot or rent a decent housing has led to the proliferation of slums and squatter settlements. At present, there are 53 or more slums and squatter settlements in Lagos Metropolitan. The population of residents in those settlements run into hundreds of thousands (NEST 1991; Agbola and Agunbiade 2007). Even in urban area of Onitsha, the filth and infrastructural degradation has overtaken Onitsha is as a result of poor urban planning. The failure of land sub-division and servicing programmes with rapid urban growth has led to wide spread illegal and informal developments, hence the growth of centre as result squatter settlements or slum areas.
These problems of unplanned housing in cities in Nigeria are mostly owned by the majority of dwellings in the hinterland, which are the indigenes. Since housing remains a social responsibility of every government, and to a large extent, the health of a country and well-being of its people depends on the quality, condition and level of success in the housing sector.
The inhabitants of Jos-Jarawa district constitute the skilled and unskilled workers, the literates and illiterates. Some of them work outside their places of residence, receiving poor wages in their blue collar jobs, some are civil servants and some are self employed engaging in commercial and economic activities like carpentry, hawking and selling of various food items. Generally, only a few of the people are economically, socially, politically and culturally advantaged which affects the poor majority negatively in their life chances of good health, education and good food. Some of the houses can be described as shelter rather than housing, while the living room is the sleeping room, the kitchen as well as the store. Illegal houses are neither legally recognized nor serviced by the public authorities.
Many of the so-called landlords (individual) in these deprived zones have no title to land, all because some individual were chase out of the former resident by crisis. Some of the residents of the informal/illegal houses live in life and health-threatening homes because of the very poor housing conditions and the lack of adequate provision for safe, no sufficient water supplies, no provision for sanitation, where you will find bathroom and toilet outside the housing, bathing water and septic tanks busted, no drainage pathway and so on.
It is in view of this that the researcher is undertaking this study so as to revisit, examine with a special emphasis on the importance of planning implications of housing development in Jos-Jarawa in particular and Nigeria at large in order to create an aesthetic environment for the betterment of the inhabitants.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Ethically, the beauty of any environment lies on its good planning condition. In addressing the hydra-headed and multifaceted urban problems of Jos, the issue of housing is of central and strategic importance considering its vital linkages to other segments of the society. This is particularly so, since housing remains the most important land use in any city / urban settlement, accounting for 50 percent or more of the entire land-use. Tibaijuka (2009) confirms that housing is the major land user in urban centres.
However, inadequate proper guidelines of housing development have led to the emergence and proliferation of slums, which are amongst the most obtrusive of social evils and an epitome of poverty. These slums are overcrowded areas where people live in makeshift buildings or settlements, exuding all aspects of criminality, without lending themselves easily to spatial re-arrangements.
Jos Jarawa is characterized by unplanned and unauthorized settlement which is typified by houses of simple and usually low gravity construction often in a state of disrepair. This means that housing units in these settlements are not built according to town planner’s specification, but are rather scattered haphazardly. In spite of the government’s efforts at making the city conducive and well arrange, planned in Jos metropolis, people seem to be careless about their environment. Furthermore, regardless of the provision guidelines of housing development by the statutory government, many people still prefer building their abode where they considered convenient for them without considering provision guideline by the relevant authority. They seem not to be aware of the interrelatedness of slum and health challenge. It is against it that the researcher has embarked on this study to unravel the problem with the aim of proffering appropriate recommendations.
1.3 Research Questions
Planning implications of housing development is no doubt a matter of concern that urgent attention needs to be given. This has become highly pertinent for the researcher to embark on such study and comes up with the following researchable questions:
- What is the housing situation in Jos Jarawa area?
- What are the factors responsible for poor housing development in Jos-Jarawa?
- What are the effects of poor housing development in Jos-Jarawa?
- What are the planning implications of housing development in Jos-Jarawa?
- How can the housing situation in Jos Jarawa be improved?
1.4 Aim of the Study
The aim of this study is to examine the planning implications of housing development in Jos-Jarawa, Jos North Local Government Area (LGA) of Plateau State with a view to make recommendations that will improve the housing situation in the area.
1.5 Objective of the Study
- To examine the concept of housing.
- To examine the factors responsible for poor housing development in Jos-Jarawa.
- To examine the planning implications of housing development in Jos-Jarawa.
- To make recommendations that will improve the housing situation in the area.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study is delimited to the Planning Implications of Housing Development I, which intends to examine the inhabitant’s inability to maintain planning of houses in the study area and emergence of slum housing condition.
The geographical scope of the study is Jos-Jarawa District in Jos North Plateau State, Nigeria. The study covers some known streets which included: Tomatoes Market Street, Garba Atsen Street, Col. Kum Street, Ajiji Aware Street, Ada Ajikagwon Street, Hon. BitrusKaze Street, AdaziItsegok Street, Ezekiel Itse Street, Joshua Arin, and Tina Junction.
1.7 Area of Study
Fig. 1: Map of Plateau State showing Jos North
Source: Geographic Information System (GIS) Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics
University of Lagos
1.7.1 Location and Population
Jos is a colonial creation and its history and early growth are closely tied to tin mining industry on the Jos Plateau. Jos is a city found on the middle belt of Nigeria which on latitude 9°56′ N and longitude 8°53′ E/9.933° N 8.883°E. It is situated almost at the geographical centre of Nigeria and about 179km 111 miles from Abuja the nation capital. It is linked by road, rail and air to be rest of the country. The city is located on the Jos plateau at elevation off about 1238metres/4062 feet high above sea level. The total landmass area of Jos North is 291 km² (112square mi) with population of 429,300 (2006 census).
1.7.2 Relief and Drainage
According of the relief map of Nigeria regions, the city of Jos lives in the highest part of the northern plateau and is located on an altitude of around four thousand 4000 feet above sea level. It is also an erosion relics which covers an area of about three thousand square miles of an average elevation of about four thousand two hundred feet above sea level. Jos north is also bounded on the south by Jos South Local Government Area, west by Bassa Local Government and north-east by Jos East Local Government respectively. Apart from the south margin which is both very steep and rather regular in outline, the city ids boarded by an irregular margin with gentle slopes. For variety and scenic beauty, Jos North has a lot of tourist attractions. The Shere hill rises to 1,829m height of six thousand feet above sea level to the east of the city, escarpment and precipitous hills. The edges of the Jos plateau provide spectacular waterfalls and mountain torrents. The greatest of these is the River Farin-Ruwa, which descends in series of falls and cataracts a distance of two kilometres. Jos north has four many attracted tourist due to its natural and uniquely mild weather especially during the dry season.
1.7.3 Climate and Weather
The city of Jos lies in high plateau region with much more pleasant weather than that of the surrounding plains. Though situated in the tropical zone, a higher altitude means that Jos north has near temperature of between eighteen and twenty two degree centigrade, Harmattan wind causes the coldest weather between December and February. The warmest temperature usually occurs in the dry season months of March and April. The mean annual rainfall ids recorded in the west season of July and August. The average lower temperature in Jos north has led to a reduced incidence of dome tropical diseases such as malaria.
1.7.4 Topography and Geology
Jos north has an area of younger granites which erupt through an area of older granite rocks which make up the surrounding. The younger granites are thought to be about one hundred and sixty million years old. This creates the usual scenery of the Jos plateau. There are numerous hillocks with gentle slopes emerging from the ground like mushroom scattered with huge boulders. Also, volcanic activities of about fifty million years ago created numerous volcanoes and vast basaltic plateaus from lava flows.
According to Nigeria ‘soil map’ which has been prepared by federal surveyor several years ago, the Nigeria soil is roughly grouped into three zones, these are:the zone of alluvial soils, the southern belt of forests soil and the interior zones of laterite and northern zones of sandy soils.
Jos North lies in the interior zones of literate soils. In many parts of the soil plateau, three soils are closely related to the topography a well as the parent material of which a wide range exit. Climate is also an important factor in the formation of older soil which occurs in fairly level areas. The marked dry season and the open nature of the landscape provide suitable condition for the development of literate soils which are very common on Plateau surface.
In terms of geographical location, Jos north lies in the Guinea savanna belt, the vegetation consist only of grass except near some villages where thick hedge of cacti have been planted around the household form or compound lands. Small groves of male and atilis (canntrium) are also found around some villages but the main farm lands are completely devoid of trees and so are the flat roped lateritic hills. Fringing wood lands and bamboo thickets may still found along the valley of the mere isolated streams.
Jos north local government is inhabitant by many ethnic and linguistic groups. These groups include the predominant groups like the Berom, the Anaguta, the Afizere (Jarawa), and others like Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba, Edo, Idoma, Bini and Fulani.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
Planning is an arrangement, process, organizing, design or deliberate effort towards achieving stated activities in orderly sequence with the aid of establishing a goal.
1.8.2 Development Plan
A development plan is a legal policy and technical instrument which provide basis for fulfilling the yeaning and aspiration of the people carry out by local government.
1.8.3 Development Control
This is a comprehensive guidelines use for certain types of development or area for specific standard requirement within the region.
1.8.4 Space Standards
Space standards in building plan regulation is a means of specifying minimum requirement for residential development, institutional development, commercial development, public utilities, such Highways and roads, Electrical power lines, Gas and Oil pipe lines, Water bodies and gorges.
Slum are heavily populated urban area which are characterized by substandard housing and squalor with a bad state of repairs, inadequate services including poor sanitation, poor supply of electricity, irregular water supply among others and its inhabitant are often with low level of literacy.
1.8.6 Squatter Settlement
Any housing which contravenes existing legislations on the occupation of land or the construction of dwellings is referred to as squatter settlement.
In Nigeria, this refers to owners of houses.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Summary of Findings
It was found out that the average household size was 8 and 78.8% of the houses were occupied by at least 3 households. This implies that most of the houses are occupied by more than 24 people. It was also revealed that 63.6% of the respondents had 4-6 of their household members occupying one room. Jos Jarawa is suffering from filth due to poor environmental sanitation. Most of the drains were choked with polythene bags, sand and empty tins. Most of the drains were also not engineered and due to that liquid waste is unable to flow through smoothly thereby creating stagnant waters. There were pockets of weedy surroundings which served as breeding places for mosquitoes and other diseases.
In the same vein, about 83% of the houses need urgent maintenance since the last time maintenance was carried out more than eleven years ago and most of these houses were built with sandcrete characterized with cracked walls, exposed foundations, leaked roofs and ultimately the collapse of the buildings. This is as a result of the low income status of the respondents they were unable to carry out maintenance.
Jos Jarawa District is uniformly characterized by inadequate provision of basic infrastructures and other public services necessary to sustain health, such as inaccessibility, lack of quality water and poor structural quality of housing which makes slum dwellers vulnerable to infectious diseases like diarrhea, cholera, typhoid, malaria and other water-borne diseases affecting the lives of slum dwellers. Over half of house-owners of Jos Jarawa are averagely literate, while 51% engaged in the one job to another. The entire statutory approval process, which was adjudged to be highly cumbersome and complicated, and the attitude of agency staff described by 90% of the landlords as hostile, contributes to the obstacles to efficient housing development in Jos Jarawa where the less than 30% of dweller had land approval and land agreement title documents.
Problems of house development are the products of failed policies, bad governance, corruption, inappropriate regulations, unresponsive financial systems, and lack of fundamental political will. Each of these failures adds to the toil of slum dwellers deeply bummed with poverty and health challenges.
The state of most dwellings in informal/illegal settlements is unimaginably appalling. In some places, residents are characteristically high-densely, with very limited space and the rooms usually lack adequate ventilation.
Uncompleted houses that are being inhabited are common. Majority of the houses can be described as shelter rather than housing. For some residents, the living room is the sleeping room, the kitchen as well as the store. Illegal houses are neither legally recognized nor serviced by the public authorities. The study has established that slum growth in Jos Jarawa is basically a result of rural-urban migration which has fuelled urbanization in the state.
Unfortunately the urbanization in Jos-North has led to the growth of primate communities. The ever-increasing urban population has resulted in housing shortage. This coupled with the authorities’ inability to provide affordable housing for the low income urban dwellers has resulted in the creation of slums in the communities as part of the urbanization process.
Many of the so-called landlords in these deprived zones have no document title to land such as Right of Occupation (R of O) Certificate of Occupancy (C of O) amongst other. This is why the houses are characterized by absence or poor maintenance of basic public utilities and infrastructure such as water, sewage systems, waste disposal, passage, electricity, sanitation and drainage. The determinants of slum health are too complex to be defined by any single parameter. Yet, they arise from a common physical and legal pedigree that concentrates ill-effects of poverty, unhealthy environment and marginalization form the formal sector. It is recognized that broad economic, social and political forces play an important role in the creation, growth and pattern of house development in Jos Jarawa District.
There is the need therefore to deal with slum growth since it may not be possible to halt urbanization. The aforementioned suggests therefore that slum control in Jos Jarawa communities require a holistic and an integrated planning approach.
The experiences gained from literature and fieldworks throughout the research have made it possible for the following recommendations to be made:
- Building of houses with sub-standard materials should be discouraged in the communities. This should be done strictly enforcing the building regulations of Plateau State. All prospective developers must receive permits before they build and all who fail to secure permits should have their structures demolished and the owners prosecuted. The Building Inspectorate Unit and the Town and Country Planning Department of Plateau State should be properly resourced, trained and empowered to carry out this responsibility.
- The Ministry of Works should be empowered by the Ministry of Roads and Highways to take full control over all lands earmarked for road construction and protect them from encroachers. Offenders of such regulations should be prosecuted. All structures which are in the right of way should be demolished to give way for the expansion of the narrow roads. Failed local roads in the slum communities should be repaired and the unpaved ones constructed.
- The Jos Metropolitan Development Board (JMDB) should embark on urban upgrading as a policy agenda. This must aim at improving urban poverty and livelihoods, generating local economic growth, and preventing the growth of new squatter settlements by guiding development and growth. In doing this, the framework for improving living conditions in informal settlements should be designed in a participatory manner with the involvement of the slum inhabitants.
- At the national level secondary cities could be introduction by the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development as a counter-balance to the large primate cities which have resulted in slum growth. This is meant to be achieved through a reduction of the rate of migration from rural to large primate cities by redirecting some of the migrant population to secondary cities. The envisaged impact of this redirection on primate cities is the reduction of unemployment and pressure on urban services, and come up with policy that will enhance the affordability of new housing options by increasing access to housing finance through incentives for lenders in order to decrease the supply cost of housing and transaction costs of accessing it. This dual approach to improving affordability will minimize the size of public subsidies needed to make housing accessible to the poor.
- There is need for the revival of the policy of providing public/social housing for the low-income residents of Jos where residentswill be allow to pay for their homes over a long period of time.
- On-site upgrading of slums through the provision/improvement of infrastructure and social amenities at Jos North and other slums of Plateau. This remains the most economical and humane means of helping the urban poor obtain access to better housing. When it is inevitable, slum clearance should be carried out humanely and with proper regard for the rights of the individuals and families involved. This entails the issuance of sufficient notice to the affected people and the provision of adequate and functional alternative housing for those being re-located. Essential infrastructure and amenities like schools, health facilities, etc., should be made available.
- There is need for effective monitoring and development control by the Jos Metropolitan development board to proactively prevent the development of slum in the area.
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