Planning And Decision Making In The Nigerian Public Service
The purpose of this project is to examine the important and influence of planning in the Nigerian civil service with special focus on federal polytechnic Nekede. In pursuant purpose, the statistical techniques used for the analysis of the type of information and data required for the investigation of this research work the findings established includes;
- There is effective planning and decision making in selected organization on school in the federal polytechnic Nekede, Owerri.
- That there are positives impact of planning decision making on selected organization or school in the federal polytechnic Nekede Owerri.
1.1 Background of the Study
In designing an environment for effective performance of individuals working together in groups, the most essential task is to see that the purpose and objective and methods of attaining them are clearly understood Mullins (1993). If group effort is to be effectively accomplished within the time frame work, this is the work of planning the basis of all he managerial function. It evolves for enterprise as a whole and for every departmental goals and determining ways of achieving them (Image 1996).
Robert Apple –by (1974) planning thus provides rational approach to present objectives, if strongly implies managerial innovation and ability to create something new. Kast and Rosenzweig (1985) planning is deciding in advance what to do, when to do, who is to do it and how result can be evaluated. It makes if possible for things to occur would not otherwise happen.
Although the future can seldom be predicted and the facor beyond control may interfere with the best laid plans until the planning events are left to chances.
Heinz Weinch and Hanold Koontz (1994) planning I an intellectual demanding process, I requires the conscious determination of course of action and he basing of decision on purpose, knowledge and considered estimates. He managerial revolution of the past three decade has been tremendous on enterprises or business, government, education and other production managers discovered early that without planning by them mistakes should up within days as production lines came to half because as misfit part or absence of a needed component. Generally speaking planning as a widely function is a fairly recent development.
Nearly everyone plans into the future, we are in an economic, technological, social and political era in which planning like other functions of the manager has become requisite for enterprise survival change and economic growth, opportunities, but they also bring risk especially in an area of world wide rivalry to market resources and influences. It is a task of planning to minimize risk while taking advantage of opportunities.
On the part of decision making process is viewed by man as one of the efficient managerial functions even I ordinary life, an individuals focus before leaping to action. Whatever he/she does in an organization, he does through he making of decision that has tremendous impact on the future existence of the enterprise.
Today, problems no longer need to be solved on the basis of lunch precedent or self interest for new tools of production and control are available which are capable of turning problem solving into a precise science. Even if a leader does not understand the new techniques, there is usually somebody in the organization that does obviously, decision about such critical matters as organization stock control, future fire casting or strategic planning should be taken after consultation with people who have the interest quantitative skills.
The growing complexity of business problems has coincided with the development of technical tools for handing them. Information can now be gathered and systematically processed on the scale never possible before. By making use of such tools via the appropriate specialist, the leader can make for better decision.
All level of management require basic information for decision making but the higher the position held in the hierarchy the need for that information is to be qualified and reliable too.
However, today’s decision making faces a multiplicity of factors estimates and value judgment, the impact of these variables can be pervasive and staging, the inevitability of approaching each decision situation with the most vital and helpful resources, he possesses one best judgment, all relevant information and fundamental economic tools concept and methodologies. Hence, the making of right decision is fundamental to good management practice. Ho develop effective and efficient decision strategy, the right question must be asked in order to get answer. But the question is what is the best approach to be adopted in finding the right question if the right answered is desired.
It is therefore, the finding of the answer is this unknown, that is the object of this research.
A Brief History of the Federal Polytechnic Nekede
The federal Polytechnic Nekede was established in 1978 by Edict No. 16 of the Imo State government enacted by the Col. Sunday Ademnu Government. It was then known as a college of technology Owerri, it was humbly began at government technical college Owerri as a temporary site. The Imo State government amended the edict established the institution in 1987 and renamed it, the head of the institution changed from Poincipal to Rector. No sooner than later, the institution was taken over from Imo State government by the federal government of Nigeria after which it become what is today Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri (Mr. Sam Ogonna 1982) the Registrar Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri. Like every other organization, the Federal Polytechnic Nekede is bedeviled with several management problems ranging from decision-making to effective implementation strategy.
With students indicial population of 275 at the inception to 20,000 in 2005/2006 session, he Polytechnic had the contend of frustrative problems, hence inadequate of no sects and social amentias within the institution. Almost all the management position were in acting capacities.
Ag. Reactor, Ag. Registrar, Ag. Bursar and no government council. This makes decision making so slow as of then, ever since the assumption of Engr. Onyekwere Nwankwo as Rector of the Polytechnic. The story has changed. The institution can now be called a citadel of learning from temporary site to permanent site. The more manpower employed and administrative decision making more complicating.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1. Is lack of planning the rational behind failure of business concerns?
With the popular saying that “who fails to plan, plans to fail” it can be said that lack of planning can contribute to the reasons behind the failure is most business concerns.
2. Does planning help in reduction of uncertainty in organization?
The future is always full of uncertainties and a business organization has to function in these uncertainties. It can operate successfully if it is able to predict the uncertainties by undertaking systematic forecasting. Thus, planning helps in foreseeing uncertainties which may be caused by change in technology, fashion, taste of people, government rules and regulation etc.
3. Is planning a factor towards sound decision making and success of a firm?
According to Billy, E. Goetz. “Plans cannot make an enterprise successful. Action is required and the action should be based on the best selected alternatives, he further stressed that planning is fundamental and a planning problems arises when an alternative course of action is discovered.
4. What could be he factor behind bad decision making?
Some leaders often times rely too much on past experiences that seems useful but actually sometimes dangerous. Lack of planning and clarity of purpose are other factor that can contribute to bad decision making.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The objectives of this research is to
- Examine the importance of planning towards achieving sound decision making
- The role played by planning in an institution.
- To examine the rational why poor planning hampers institutions objectives.
- How to feature difficulties from planning and decision making.
1.4 Research Hypothesis
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: there is no importance of planning towards achieving sound decision making.
H1: there is importance of planning towards achieving sound decision making.
H02: there is no role played by planning in an institution
H2: there is role played by planning in an institution
1.5 Significance of the Study
The findings from this research work is expected to
- Improve our understanding and approach to the decision making process.
- To know the importance of reviewing plans by managers and other stakeholder.
- To understand the importance of making rational decision in organization
- To learn better techniques and method of making decision so that we can improve on our decision making.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This research will primarily focus on planning and decision making in Nigerian public service. We will take Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri, as our case study. This study will also examine the vital role played by planning and decision making in a public service institution. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational Privacy:
Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.8 Definition of Terms
These terms are specifically defined for a better clarification and understanding of this project work. They are as follows:
This is analytical process, which encompasses an assessment of the future the determination of desired objectives in the context course of action to achieve such objectives.
Effectiveness is achieved when an organization attained its desired goal or objectives.
A mathematical tools for the determination of opinion, solution to cases in which a linear relationship exist among the variables.
This is process of choosing, by scientific means, a specific course of action from among several possible alternatives.
Plan is the predetermined course of action an arrangement for toing something in advance.
Rule in a very precise term whether in a specific situation something to be done or not done. They are the simplest type of plan.
This is a basic type of plan which is sometimes like policy, but which is specific situation. They are guide to action.
This can b regarded or serves as statement of guide to decision making.
This is a long method that is usually adopted to achieve organizational goals and objectives.
These are the goals and aims which management administration wish to achieve.
This is the criteria of performance; they are the selected or slated printed in an entire planning programme where measures of performance are made so as to give managers signals as to know whether things are going without them having to watch of every step in exclusion of plans.
People working together with the view of achieving a common goal.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain planning and decision making in the Nigeria public service. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of planning and decision making in the Nigeria public service
This study was on planning and decision making in the Nigeria public service. Four objectives were raised which included: Examine the importance of planning towards achieving sound decision making, the role played by planning in an institution, to examine the rational why poor planning hampers institutions objectives, to ascertain how feature difficulties from planning and decision making. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri, Imo state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection.
Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made heads of department, lecturers, senior staff and junior officers were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
As highlighted in this study, it was found that a process of decision making can be planned. This planning may involve a greater control over the process to address new or recurrent problems, as well as focus the attention on the main elements of a decision problem, objective, alternative and consequences. When a decision-making process is planned, actions to be developed along the decision-making process are defined and focused on what is or is not known to the decision maker in relation to these elements.
The systemic view of the public establishment had a considerable impact on the planning of the decision-making process. (Senge, 2009) believes that organizations that develop of the tool of a systemic view in their employees, besides the development of learning disciplines related to collection and application of systemic vision can make a difference, creating innovation and a collective rethinking. It is registered, in this regard, recommendations for training and management development for organizations.
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