The Place Of Marketing Information System In An Organisational Decision Making

Project and Seminar Material for Marketing

The Place Of Marketing Information System In An Organisational Decision Making


Abstract


The scope of research is mainly on the place of marketing information system on organisational decision making, taking GUINNESS Nigeria Plc as our case study. Various texts are reviewed and quoted in the text to get the fact of what the study is all about. Samples were taken from the population and using the random sampling techniques. Questionnaire were served to the chosen from the population samples and information generated were analysed using the percentage method, findings generated were used as the basis upon which recommendation are made.


Chapter One


General Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Marketing information is the lifeblood of marketing process; marketing decision won’t be taken in the absence of marketing information. Marketing decisions are affected by many internal and external environmental variables, so the marketing decision maker needs a great deal of information related to these variables, to predict their directions and their expected effects on the internal activities of the organization and the market, in order to make the rational marketing decisions in an uncertainty environment facing the marketing administration.

The marketing success in the organization depends basically on the availability and the accuracy of marketing information from its multiple sources. All marketing organizations trying to find out and determine the nature of the markets and their trends needs and changes that occur in these markets, as well as trying to know the competitors, prices, options and other marketing information which is the key to success for any marketing decision. The components of marketing information system (internal records, marketing research, and marketing intelligence) are the most important sources in obtaining marketing information.

Information is the key to successful business. Organizations are now realizing that next to people, information is the valuable resource they have. Managers and administrators must make decisions every day about how a business is run and what direction its operation will take in the future. Information plays a major role in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of human decision making process.

Therefore there is a need for timely and accurate business information. Generally in the past, it has been undervalued, under estimated and under used. But today it is very well understood that after human element, it is a manager’s important source for marketing information. Major problem facing today’s managers is the volume of information crossing their desks. It is so voluminous as to be almost unmanageable yet good planning and control over operations via effective decisions must be based on as steady flow of quality up-to-date information.

Marketing information system with the help of computers enables business people who are separated by building space or large geographical areas to talk or to communicate to each other electronically and this facilitate in their quick decisions. Computers with their availability of more sophisticate computer hardware have led to development of large companies. Particularly the most current forms of marketing information systems labeled marketing decision support system (MDSS). Such system used in data base information that are compiled from variety of sources and that may be accessed by the marketing decision makers using appropriate hardware and software.

Decision making is the point at which plans, policies and objectives are translated into concrete actions. Planning leads to sound decision-making and that implies the selection from alternatives course of actions. Decision making is the core of planning, for instance, choosing of objectives, policies, procedures, programs, rules, strategies and tactics etc., require the entire process of decision-making. Therefore, the quality of marketing management decision is linked with the quality, quantity, adequacy and speedy availability of data. The purpose of decision making as well as a planning is to direct human behavior and effort towards future objectives. In the entire process of marketing activities, making decisions is always essential .Managerial function is exercised through decision-making.

Decision-making spreads through all elements of marketing management. Example, production, marketing, finance, personnel, administration. Whatever marketing managers do, he does it through a decision making after considering thoroughly the available alternative course of action.

In Africa and Nigeria in particular marketing managers of some companies make decisions based almost totally on their own judgment with very little hard data. But with the benefits associated with marketing decision support system, relate to the interactive nature of the system, data are collected and continuously added to the system from variety of internal and external source, these data may then be accessed by managers combined with data from other sources and presented in a form that addresses a marketing problem in a manner that should be of interest to other department of company as well.

Marketing information system has helped much in making data accessible, but we must distinguish the difference between the information that is accessible and information that is not accessible. Managers find some information such as details of competitor’s plans is just not available but not with time consuming collection. Such information is not really accessible. Likewise some information may be accessible but managers do not access them fully to make them available. For example a company may have records of customer purchases what was sold sales reps last month, what are in the warehouse? But, if a manager can’t get this information when it’s needed, then it is not useful. Therefore it is realized that it doesn’t pay to wait until they have important questions they can’t answer, they are working to develop continual flow of information and to make it more accessible to managers whenever they need it.

According to McCarthy and pearreault [1993:144-145] stated that marketing managers don’t know in advance exactly what question they have or when needed, but they do know what data they have routinely used or needed in the past, there can foresee what types of data might be useful and communicate the needs to manager in concern so the information is there when needed.

As time goes on, marketing managers have realized tremendous impact on the organization’s market share due to marketing information system. They realize how to improve all aspects of planning, blending individual Ps, combining the four Ps into mixes, developing and selecting plans. Further they can monitor the implementation of plans comparing against the past plans and making necessary changes quickly. Of course not every firm has complete MIS, and in some firms that do, managers don’t know how to use the system properly. A major problem in Africa and Nigeria in particular is that managers are used of doing it the old way which has commonly affected many companies especially in their decision making.

In today’s world people think marketing information system can be developed by large firms only not so! In fact, just the opposite may be true, low cost microcomputers make a powerful MIS affordable even for small firms. Big firms with complicated marketing programs often face challenges trying to develop. Small firms can get started with simple system and then expand it as needs expand.

Finally, marketing information system tends to focus on recurring information needs. Routinely analyzing such information can be valuable to managers but the problem is many companies in Nigeria have just realized it, but despite various efforts by companies to commit huge amounts of money in information system equipment, the degree of marketing information system has remained ineffective. The question prompted the researcher to go to the field is to find out whether marketing information system in companies is achieving the intended objectives.


1.2 Problem Statement

Decision making always involves risk since it is concerned with assessment of future outcomes and events, none of which can be known. Information reduces uncertainly and helps marketing manager to see the likely effects of various decisions but the information system does not make the actual decisions that is a MIS function. The function of MIS is to provide decision makers with timely and accurate data to allow making and implementing the necessary decisions to optimize the interrelationships most effectively reach the organizations predetermined goals.

There has been a focus for a company to operate successfully today; management must develop an orderly method for gathering and analyzing relevant information. A valuable tool for doing this is marketing information system.

Therefore it has always been believed that for any company to survive within a competitive environment, marketing information system is the element that plays the greatest role and has to be applied carefully. However, the problem the study address is to find whether marketing information system if efficiently set up could lead or contribute a good factor to effective decision.

It is on this view of statement of the problem that the study was carried out in an attempt to find how marketing information system can lead to effective decision making and hence it’s increase in the market share.


1.3 Research Objectives

The general objective of the study was to examine the role of marketing information system for effective Organizational decision making. To explore the proper role of marketing information systems; what managers do and what information they need for decision making and determining whether information systems will be a valuable tools and how they should be designed.

Specific objectives

  1. To find out how marketing information system is designed and operating in Organization.
  2. To undertake a causative analysis of how MIS contributes a factor for effective decision making in the area chosen for the study
  3. To find out problems encountered while applying it.
  4. To determine whether there is any significant relationship between MIS and decision making.

1.4 Research Questions

This part of the study comprises of questions to the management of Guinness Nigeria Ltd

  1. Do you use marketing information system in your company?
  2. Do you have an appropriate information processing specialists to facilitate marketing information system?
  3. Is marketing information system necessary to your company?
  4. Does management effectively use marketing information system in making their decisions?

1.5 Research hypothesis

The formation of the hypothesis is a central step in good research and it is important to give it a great idea because of its significance.

  1. H0: There is no significant relationship between marketing research and the right decision making.
    H1: There is a significant relationship between marketing research and the right decision making.
  2. H02: There is a significant relationship between marketing intelligence and the right decision making.
    H12: There is a significant relationship between marketing intelligence and the right decision making.
  3. H3: There is a significant relationship between decision support system and the right decision making.

1.6 Scope of the Study

This study is of Guinness Nigeria ltd Company, the research dwelled on the performance of marketing information system and its role in influencing decisions.

The funds and time available for the researcher was the determining factor for the area that the research covered.

The research focused mainly on Guinness Nigeria management team like marketing manager, information centre management and all related departments who use the system. All were given self-administered questionnaires supplemented by interview guides where it was required.


1.7 Significance of the Study

  1. The results from this study will be helpful to planner and policy makers responsible for ensuring effective decisions by using marketing information system
  2. The study will show the need of marketing information system for effective decisions
  3. The study will be advantageous to the researcher since it will enable her full fill the requirements or the award degree in business information technology.

1.8 Limitation of the Study

During the time of conducting this research, the following limitation were encountered

  1. Non-responsiveness because this research focused on marketing issues which is in most cases considered being confidential by most companies.
  2. Time constraint was also a problem to have respondents’ views and getting enough data
  3. Financial resources were not enough to facilitate the exhaustion and extensive research on how marketing information system leads to effective decision making.

1.9 Organization of the Study

The study is organized into five chapters.

  • Chapter one includes the background of the study, objectives of the study, statement of the problem, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study.
  • Chapter two includes the review of related literature, it shows how different researchers approach marketing information system.
  • Chapter three covered the methodological approach showing different methods used by the researcher in order to accomplish her/his intended objectives.
  • Chapter four presents and interprets the findings based on research
  • Chapter five draws the summary, conclusions, recommendations and suggestions for further research.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to examine the place of marketing information system on organizational decision making.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in examining the place of marketing information system on organizational decision making.


5.2 Summary

This study was undertaken to examine the place of marketing information system on organizational decision making. The study opened with chapter one where the statement of the problem was clearly defined. The study objectives and research hypotheses were defined and formulated respectively. The study reviewed related and relevant literatures. The chapter two gave the conceptual framework, empirical and theoretical studies. The third chapter described the methodology employed by the researcher in collecting both the primary and the secondary data. The research method employed here is the descriptive survey method. The study analyzed and presented the data collected in tables and tested the hypotheses using the chi-square statistical tool. While the fifth chapter gives the study summary and conclusion.


5.3 Conclusion

The conclusion for this research is drawn from the data analysis and the main findings found out as the respondent reaction on the questions.

The majority of the respondents found marketing information system to be a factor or a tool to decision making. Hence we can conclude that it is a decision making tool as it plays a vital role to provide marketing managers with the information needed to operate their different functions.

The majority of the respondents agreed that marketing information system is very close to decision making because without information. ”a final product of marketing information system” it would be very difficult. If not, a guessing attempt to make appropriate decide reflecting both problem solving aspect and organizational policy regarding guideline. It is thus obvious that marketing information system is in relation to all activities in the company where decision making seem to be at the centre of the other managerial activities.

Therefore in conclusion information source should be considered as any other organizational source thus it needs to be managed properly.


5.3. Recommendations

The following recommendations will help increase more the level of performance within the organization as revealed by the study. Research findings revealed areas that need an upright hand. It is on this ground that the researcher offers the following recommendations:

  1. It is recommended that marketing information needs should be handled carefully by using computer-based system as far as decision making is concerned.
  2. Marketing information system should be improved on regular basis so that it could meet technological revolution. This may result in reducing the paper work and improve decision making quality.
  3. The employees involved in information processing to make decision should be given a training program on regular basis.

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