The Place Of Instructional Material In The Teaching Of Social Studies In Edo State
This study was conducted to investigate the importance of instructional materials in the teaching of Social Studies in secondary schools in Edo State. During the study, data were collected by means of questionnaire and it was detected that the place of instructional materials is very important in the teaching of Social Studies in secondary schools. The researcher thereby stressed that instructional materials is very important and therefore should be in any school setting. Furthermore she also stressed that instructional materials will increase the interest of the students in learning, a development that will enable the child to become a useful person to the society. In conclusion, it was recommended that instructional materials should be used in every school in Edo State for effective teaching and learning process to tale place
1.1 Background of the Study
It is well known among educators that, the educational experiences involving the learner actively participating in concrete examples are retained longer than abstract experiences. Instructional materials add elements of reality by providing concrete examples to learning. Many authors have written on the use of instructional materials both in teaching Social Studies and other related subjects in order to enhance teaching for desired social and behavioural change. These authors include; Mcluhan (1964), Alaka (1978), Kochar (1986), Okafor (1988), Mkpa (1989), UNDP (1998), Heeks (1999), World Bank (1999), Aguokogbuo (2000), Koert (2000), Greenwood (2001), Bozimo (2002), Nwanna-Nzewunwa (2003) and Adekeye (2008). More specially, it was emphasized in the work of these authors that the use of instructional materials is a sine qua non in affecting behaviour of learners of every field, especially social studies. It was equally shown by some of the authors that these materials are important catalysts of social re-engineering and change. It is obvious that social studies teaching and learning cannot be well accomplished without the use of instructional materials.
The reason is not far fetched. Advances in technology have brought instructional materials especially the projected and electronic materials to the forefront as the most radical tools of globalization and social development which have affected the classroom teaching learning situation positively. Such technology or technological breakthroughs as networked and non networked projected and non projected, visual, auditory, audio-visual electronic materials are important landmarks in knowledge transfer. With them both teaching and learning become very pleasant experiences.
Instructional materials possess some inherent advantages that make them unique in social studies teaching. For one thing, they provide the teacher with interesting and compelling platforms for conveying information since they motivate learners to want to learn more and more. Also, by providing opportunities for private study and references, the learners’ interest and curiosity are increasingly stimulated. Further, the teacher is assisted in over coming physical difficulties that could have hindered his effective presentation of a given topic. They generally make teaching and learning easier and less stressful. They are equally indispensable catalysts of social and intellectual development of the learners.
Bolick (2003) pointed to a good relationship between the teachings of the social studies and using of instructional materials. He argued that while some educators have been fascinated by the potential of instructional materials to enhance teaching and learning teachers’ lagged behind in using instructional materials during teaching and learning. Others expressed doubts that instructional materials will ever incite teaching reform in social studies. Instructional materials are integral components of teaching learning situation. It is not just to supplement learning but to complement its process.
Instructional materials are made up of objects such as printed materials, audio, visual that aid in the successful delivery of social studies lesson (Chuba 2000: 101). To this end, instructional materials are said to be objects or things the teacher can use in the classroom while teaching in order to ease off his teaching activities. However, instructional materials cannot address all the teaching learning problem but it can go a long way in solving them, simply because they are additional apparatus that can influence the reality of teaching and learning activities.
Joof (1995: 85) explained that, the concept of teaching aids has gone through several evolutionary stage from the simple aids, instructional technology, media to communication and educational technology. This however, tells us that instructional materials are not just objects or equipments used during teaching learning process but there those objects improvised by the teacher to make conceptual abstraction more concrete and practical to the learners. Instructional materials are the relevant materials utilized by a teacher during social studies instructional process for the purpose of making the contents of the instructions more practical and less vague. Instructional materials are indispensable factors of in any teaching learning process. Ordinary words or verbalization has been found to be inadequate for effective teaching. Instructional materials serve as a channel through which message, information, ideas and knowledge are disseminated more easily. They can therefore be manipulated, seen, heard, feet or talked about. They facilitate activities. They are anything or anybody the teacher turns to for help in his learning process (ESU & Umoren 1998).
Instructional materials group the learners’ intellect and eliminated boredom. Some of the unique qualities of instructional materials is speedy learning and accuracy. They make the work easier, more appeal, accurate, neater and boosting for clarity of social studies concept. If social studies is to be learned effectively, it must be experienced. Social studies is so close to the life of every child that no teacher needs ever be without instructional materials for teaching of social studies. One of the biggest draw backs in the use of instructional materials is inadequate supply of instructional materials.
Teaching of social studies in respect to its scope and nature, which is multidimensional, integrative and dynamic, cannot effectively take effects without the use of instructional materials, the teaching of social studies contents must focus not only on making teachers competent at using instructional materials, but at the same time, promote strategies that enables the integration of instructional materials that enhances teaching and learning of social studies goals and objectives.
Instructional materials as an act of giving help normally by teachers to provide help and encouragement in students or pupils learning activities. They further described instructional materials as a tool, which can easily be used by a teacher to correct wrong impressions and to illustrate things that learners cannot forget. The major aim of using instructional materials in social studies instructional is to achieve excellent result.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The use of instructional materials in social studies instructions has been widely researched but many questions are still remains unanswered. The need for exploring locally available materials in our schools, resourcefulness of the teacher must be in line with the learners’ curriculum and environment so that classroom teaching does have to be retarded by lack of funds. The problems are that; instructional materials not available in our schools, teachers are not improvising and reluctant in using them.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to determine the use of instructional materials in social studies teaching. The specific objectives of the study are:
- To identify the place of instructional materials in social studies instruction.
- To find out how adequate the instructional materials available, types and selected suit the teaching of social studies content.
- To identify the problems associated with the use of instructional materials.
- To determine the teachers’ knowledge, competency, in the selection of instructional materials and reasons why they do not utilize the instructional materials.
- To find out how often social studies teachers utilize instructional materials in the course of social studies instruction.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions were asked and answered in the study;
- How frequently do social studies teachers utilize instructional materials during social studies lesson?
- What are the problems associated with the use of instructional materials in social studies instruction?
- What are the reasons why the teachers do not use instructional materials?
- What are the benefits of instructional materials to the students?
- What are the suggested solutions to the problems?
1.5 Significance of the Study
It is obvious that, instructional materials cut across all the spheres of teaching. The findings of the study have some implications for all the processes of acquiring knowledge as it will give insight into the importance and procedures for selecting and use of instructional materials in the teaching learning process of any subject at all.
The integrity of teaching and learning would be rekindled as meaningful learning will be achieved as prospective teachers both in the field of social studies and any other discipline would also have a strong background as how to manipulate and integrate instructional materials with teaching. This will help in showing the effectiveness and the usefulness of instructional materials for teaching social studies to the teachers and all other classroom teaching and learning activities. It would help the educational supervisors on the basic instructional equipments to be provided for social studies teaching whenever inspection is carried out.
1.6 Definition of Terms
These are objects utilized by the teacher to complete teaching and learning process.
Process of promoting or improving teaching and learning.
Making use of instructional materials.
These are basic equipments use for the purpose of learning activities.
These are teaching aids which appeal to the sense of hearing.
These are instructional materials that can be used to aid teaching and learning via the senses of sight and of hearing at the same time.
These are instructional materials which appeal to the sense of sight.
Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations
This final chapter of the research work discusses the summary of the findings as well as the conclusion arrived at based on the responses collected analyzed and discussed. Recommendations were also made and the limitations of the study, finally, suggestions for further study in this or related field of study and the contributions to knowledge were equally provided for.
5.1 Summary of Findings
The major aim of the study was to find out on the use of instructional materials in social studies instructions in secondary schools. The four research questions were drawn in order to find out how instructional materials are been utilized teachers in social studies. The researcher collected data through the use of questionnaire and interview to both teachers and students of social studies.
The following are the major findings of the study.
- The use of instructional materials in social studies instructions by teacher in secondary schools covered in the study is minimal. As most teachers depended mostly on textbooks and chalk boards as instructional materials with 100% of both the teacher and student’s responses while other materials such as maps and charts, overhead projector, television, cartoons, computer, programmes, pictures etc were occasionally or not even utilized at all with higher percentages of responses ranges from 40% to 80%.
- The study also reveals that problems associated with use of instructional materials includes: cost of manufacturing and maintenance, abstract nature of social studies concepts reluctance of then teacher to improvise lack of social studies resources room for storage, limited time allotted on school time table and teachers, knowledge about the materials with higher percentages ranges from with 85% of respondents agreed with that fact.
Based on the findings of this research work, it is concluded that instructional materials were in adequately used in all the secondary schools sampled and even those that were avertable or frequently utilized have a limited way to go in helping the learner learned the content of social studies effectively. Bye and large, the study and its ensuing analysis identified instructional materials as of great importance in social studies classroom as they were revealed to be t5he most potent in achi8eving teaching efficiency and generat5ing desired social and behavioural change. These inherent potentials can be tapped to great advantage which be channeled to provide these media with priority, colleges and polytechnics should be similarly assisted each according to the level of need.
It was also shown by the results that teaching effectiveness is a very important factor in generating desired behavioural change, the result indicated that cost of manufacturing and maintenance, reluctance of the teacher to improvise, lack of social resource room, time and teachers, knowledge about the materials are the major problems militating against the use of instructional materials in the study are this implies that generating teaching effectiveness is not the end itself as far as the use of instructional materials; are concerned, but a means to the end in social studies teaching
In view of the findings, the following recommendations are made
- The teachers are encouraged to commit themselves into the effective use of instructional materials in all their social studies lessons.
- The teacher been the main vessels through all the planned and unplanned activities can be achieved should realize the need for improvisation.
- Teachers should be properly trained and retrained in the area of educational technology in order to expose them to the modern technological apparatus and how to manipulate their functions.
- There should be a forum where the social studies teachers will meet periodically to update their knowledge and access the effectiveness of their teaching using the methods of instructional and educational technology as applicable to the content of social studies at the secondary schools.
- Teacher should be more committed to teaching of social studies with the use of instructional materials given the importance of practical knowledge in it.
5.4 Limitations of the Study
The following were limitations to the study:
Financially constraints it would have been the joy of the researcher, if he had gotten the financial means of conducting the study to cover a wider scope (like conducting the study in the whole area of the nation) then his findings on the instructional materials been more generalized to the entire state or counting.
Another limitation is time constraint. The time available for conducting a research project is always limited couple with other academic activities. Non involvement of teachers and students that are not in social studies discipline in the study, their opinions would have further contributed to the study’s findings.
5.5 Suggestions for Further Study
The following are suggestions for further studies
- A similar study should be conducted but with more wider in scope that can more than two local government area.
- An evaluative study of the effectiveness of instructional materials in social studies instructions should be carried out
- A comprehensive study of the place of computer system and electronic media in social studies instructions
- A much more comprehensive study on information and communication technology (ICT) and social studies education should equally be research.
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Frequently Asked Questions
Are instructional materials important in the teaching of Social Studies in secondary schools?
This study was conducted to investigate the importance of instructional materials in the teaching of Social Studies in secondary schools in Edo State. During the study, data were collected by means of questionnaire and it was detected that the place of instructional materials is very important in the teaching of Social Studies in secondary schools.
What are the Social Studies classroom tools and materials?
The social studies classroom should be a learning laboratory. Clark (1973) and Ogunsanya (1984) listed tools and materials of instruction in social studies. These are film slides, pictures, resource people, diagrams, sketches, cartoons, stamps, mass media, newspapers, television and radio, maps, globes, and textbooks.
What are instructional materials in Teacher Education?
One important dimension in teacher education that is getting a lot of attention is related to the use of instructional materials. Instructional materials are those materials used by a teacher to simplify their teaching. They include both visual and audio-visual aids and could either be concrete or non-concrete.
How do instructional materials add elements of reality?
Instructional materials add elements of reality by providing concrete examples to learning. Many authors have written on the use of instructional materials both in teaching Social Studies and other related subjects in order to enhance teaching for desired social and behavioural change.