Pineapple Wine Fermentation Production Using Brewer’s Yeast (Saccharomy cescerevisiae)
Pineaple(Ananas cosmosus) belonging to the Bromeliaceae family is grown in different parts of Nigeria either for export of for the local market. The study adopted a method of extraction of the fruit juice, fermentation process, sugar test, pH solution text, acidity and specific gravity test. The experiment was conducted to study the effect of baker’s yeast(Saccharomycescerevisiae) on the fermentation of pineapple juice into wine. The study revealed that the sugar level in the wine produces decreased with time at different concentration levels. The nutritional composition of the fresh pineapple juice and the wine produced showed that the sugar content of the fresh pineapple juice was higher than that of the wine. Result showed that titrable acidity of the wine present was higher than the fresh juice and vitamin C content of the fresh juice was also higher than the wine. Reducing and non-reducing sugars, protein, vitamin A and B, malic and lactic acids were all present in the fresh juice Result further showed that alcoholic of the wine was higher than the fresh juice,. In conclusion, pineapple fruits as well as poor handling and transportation of the fruits, absence of industrial utilization of pineapple as raw material, rejection from the international market coupled with the inadequate local market conditions contributes to the high post-harvest losses of pineapple in Nigeria. Measures put in place to reduce this wastage includes the extraction of pineapple juice and conversion of the juice to wine by through fermentation process. These measures would greatly enhance the keeping qualities of pineapple juice, thus reducing wastage. Hence, it is recommended in the study that pineapple fruit (Ananascomosus) should be fermented into wine as wine has higher demand with high economic value in the market in that pineapple wine is highly accepted by majority.
Pineapple (Ananas comosus) belonging to the Bromeliaceaefamily is grown in different parts of Nigeria either for export or for the local market. Pineapples are sliced and eaten fresh in the homes, or processed into fruit juices for consumption or concentrates for future use. Pineapple as a fruit crop has a lot of economic, nutritional, medicinal, and industrial importance (Sarah et al., 1997). According to Dull (2002), pineapple serve as food for human consumption contains about 81.2-86.2% moisture, 13-19% total solids of which sucrose, glucose, and fructose are the main components, 2-3% fibre and rich source of vitamin C. Lipids and nitrogenous compounds constitute 0.1% of which 25-30% of the nitrogenous compounds are true proteins. The fruit is also rich in calcium (Ca) which has proteolytic activity due to the enzyme bromelin. Consumption of pineapple enhances the detoxification of the human body and prevents blood clotting. It also prevents kidney problems, protects the heart and regulates stomach acidity and help prevents constipation (Dull, 2002).
Wine, an alcoholic beverage, made from a variety of fruit juices by the fermentative action of selected yeast, is adapted to an ageing process handed over from generation to generation. Traditionally, wine is produced from apple, pear, grape, pineapple and berry which are available in Europe, Middle East, America ,South Africa and Africa such as Nigeria (Kunkee and Vilas, 1994). According to FAO (1998) fermentation is one of the most ancient and most important food processing technologies which had been neglected by scientists and policy makers especially in traditional fermented products from developing countries. Fermentation is a relatively efficient, low energy preservation process which increases the shelf life and decreases the need for refrigeration or other form of food preservation technology. It is therefore a highly appropriate technique for use in developing countries like Nigeria and remote areas where access to sophisticated equipment is limited. Fermented fruits wines are popular throughout the world, and in some regions it makes a significant contribution to the diet of millions of individuals.
The possibility and the use of pineapple for the production of wine will create employment, income generation for farmers and address the post-harvest losses associated with glut on the local market in Nigeria. Based on this, the study will focus on pineapple wine fermentation production using brewer’s yeast(Saccharomycescerevisiae).
The main objective of the study is to produce pineapplewine usingaerobic and anaerobic formation process with the use of brewer’s yeast as organic catalyst. The aim of the study is to get pure alcoholic wine at the end of the study and at the same time ascertain the effect of brewer’s yeast on formation of fruit into wine. The aim will also be to assess the performance of brewer yeast on alcoholic production of wine from pineapple juice through fermentation. The research willalso determine the efficiency of production of alcohol in the form of wine from pineapple juice using brewer’s yeast,
The study will be of benefit to farmers and juice industries as the findings of this study will inform decisions with regards to the preservation and storage of pineapple in particular and fruits in general. The study will also highlight the benefit of brewer’s yeast in wine production using any kind of fruit. The study will also be of great benefit to home made wine producers in enabling them know the procedures effective for the production of wine from any kind of fruit. The findings of the study will also serve as a source of references to fellow researcher.
Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation
The experiment was conducted to study the effect of baker’s yeast (Saccharomycescerevisiae) on the fermentation of pineapple juice into wine. The study revealed that the sugar levels in the wine produced decreased with time at different concentration levels. The nutritional composition of the fresh pineapple juice and the wine produced showed that the sugar content of the fresh pineapple juice was higher than that of the wine.
Titratable acidity (citric acid) of the wine present was higher than the fresh juice. This finding agrees to what Fleet (1998) noted. According to fleet(1998), wine acid composition is made up of citric acid, tartaric acid, and some traces of acids such as lactic acid which replaces malic acid during malo-lactic fermentation.
The vitamin C content of the fresh juice was higher than the wine. Reducing and non-reducing sugars, protein, vitamin A and B, malic and lactic acids were all present in the fresh juice as well as the wine and Alcohol content of the wine was also higher than the fresh juice. Methanol was however absent in both the fresh juice and wine.
Findings also indicated thatmicrobial analysis of the fresh pineapple juice revealed that yeast species (Sacharomyces sp), mould organisms (Aspergillus sp.) and bacteria species (Lactobacillus sp, Gluconobacta sp. Streptococcus sp. and Leuconostoc sp.) were present but were eliminated when the juice was sterilized. However, the baker used were successfully recovered from the wine produced. The room and must temperature showed a similar pattern with the fermentation room temperature ranging between 25.60C to 28.20C and the must temperature ranged between 20.10C to 290C. The findings of this study as noted also agrees to what Mountney Gould (1988),Fleet (1998) and Robinson (2006), reported . According to them, yeasts perform best within an optimum temperature range of 200C to 300C. They further stated that higher temperatures during fermentation may have adverse effect on the wine in stunning the yeast to inactivity and even “boiling off” some of the flavours of the wines. Keller (2010) in his work on fermentation stated that temperature range of 200C to 300C favour red wine fermentation whilst a temperature range of 100C to 200C was conducive for fermenting white wine. This findings made in this study all agreed to this statement made by them.
The finding made also showed that glucose content of the pineapple must gradually decreased in the yeast, after days of incubation period. The glucose content of the wine was noted to be high in the control treatments than in the yeasts at different concentration.
The sucrose content of the pineapple must also decreased during fermentation in the baker’s yeast. The yeast concentrations also showed a similar trend in sucrose reduction during fermentation. The sucrose content of the wine was high in the controls treatments than in the yeasts at different concentration.
Fructose content of pineapple must reduced in the baker’s yeast during fermentation. The different yeast concentrations also recorded reduction of fructose during the incubation period. Again yeast at both concentrations had lower fructose than the control.
Total sugar content of the pineapple must decreased during the incubation period in the baker’s yeast.It was further observed that alcohol content of pineapple must increase during fermentation in the baker’s yeast treatments.
The seasonality of pineapple fruits as well as poor handling and transportation of the fruits, absence of industrial utilization of the pineapples as raw material, rejection from the international market coupled with inadequate local market conditions contribute to the high post-harvest losses of pineapple in Nigeria. Measures put in place to reduce this wastage were very effective. This included the extraction of pineapple juice and conversion of the juice to wine by fermentation. These measures would greatly enhance the keeping qualities of pineapple juice wine, thus reducing wastage.
The pineapple wine had sufficient levels of vitamins A, B and C making it nutritious, palatable and nourishing drink hence the yeast strains had a positive effect on the musts during the fermentation. The yeasts were very efficient in converting the natural sugar in the pineapple juice into alcohol. This also improved the flavour, colour, aroma and taste which made it highly acceptable to the panellist; and improved the keeping quality of the pineapple wine.
Based on the findings it is recommended that Pineapple should be fermented into wine as wine has higher demand with high economic value in the market in that pineapple wine is highly acceptable; more so, fermentation is low energy requiring and efficient in extending the keeping quality of pineapple juice.
Suggestion For Further Study
Subsequent experiment should be carried out on using other beneficial and edible microorganisms and yeast.
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