Phytochemical Analysis Of Moringa Oleifera And Azadrichta Indica Leaves

Project and Seminar Material for Chemical Engineering

Phytochemical Analysis Of Moringa Oleifera And Azadrichta Indica Leaves


Studies were conducted to determine the phytochemicasl present in moringa olrifera and Azadrichta indica leaves. Leaves for this work were washed, room dried ground to powder. The ground leave for both sample were soaked in four different solvent; Ethanol, n-Hexane, Ethyl acetate and water for 24 hours. After the contact elapsed the solvent were filtered to recover the extract. Qualitative analysis was carried out on the extract; the result showed moringa oliefera to contain saponin, flavonoid, tannin, phenol, steroid and glycoside.

Azadrichta indica contains; saponin, flavonoid, tannin, Alkaloid, steroid and glycoside. Quantitative anaylsis were jalso carried on the extract and the result showed moringa oliefera and Azadrichta indica to contain in percentage flavonoid (21.8 : 23.80), Alkaloids (5.00 : 8.20), saponin ( 0.70 : 1.10 ), phenol ( 0.76 : 1.49 ), Tannin ( 0.08 : 0.57 ) and Glycoside ( 0.005 : 0.0062 ) respectively for moringa oliefera and Azadrichta indica. In the qualitative analysis water was the best solvent for extraction and quantitative analysis; flavonoid, alkaloid, tannin, saponin, phenol and glycoside have higher percentage in Azadrichta indica than moringa oleifera.

Table Of Content

  • Title page i
  • Certification ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgement iv
  • Abstract vi
  • Table of content vii
  • List of figure xii
  • List of table xiv

Chapter One

  • 1.1 Background of study 1
  • 1.2 Phytochemical 3
  • 1.2.1 Activity of phytochemical 4
  • 1.3 Statement of problem 5
  • 1.4 Aims and Objectives of study 6
  • 1.5 Significant of study 6
  • 1.6 Scope of study  6

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Literature review 7
  • 2.1 Botany of Moringa oleifera  7
  • 2.1.1 Classification 7
  • 2.1.2 Origin and Habitat 8
  • 2.1.3 Description 9
  • 2.1.4 Ecology and cultivation 9
  • 2.1.5 Traditional uses 11
  • 2.1.6 Common name 12
  • 2.1.7 Pharmacological activity of Moringa oleifera  13
  • 2.2 Botany of Azadrichta indica  18
  • 2.2.1 Classification 18
  • 2.2.2 Origin and habitat 19
  • 2.2.3 Description 19
  • 2.2.4 Ecology and cultivation 21
  • 2.2.5 Traditional uses 22
  • 2.2.6 Common name 22
  • 2.2.7 Pharmacological activity of Azadrichta indica 22
  • 2.3 Phytochemical 26
  • 2.3.1 Types of phytochemicals 27
  • Tannin 28
  • Phenol 29
  • Saponin 30
  • Steroids 31
  • Flavonoids 33
  • Alkaloids 35
  • Glycosides 36

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Materials and Methods 37
  • 3.1 Collection and preparation of material 37
  • 3.2 Equipment / apparatus 37
  • 3.3 Reagents 38
  • 3.4 Methods 39
  • 3.4.1 Qualitative Analysis 39
  • 3.4.2 Preparation of Wagner’s reagent 40
  • 3.4.3 Preparation of Mayer’s reagent 40
  • 3.4.4 Test for Alkaloid 40
  • 3.4.5 Test for Saponin 41
  • 3.4.6 Test for Flavonoid 42
  • 3.4.7 Test for Steroid 42
  • 3.4.8 Test for Tannin 42
  • 3.4.9 Test for Glycoside 43
  • 3.5 Quantitative Analysis 43
  • 3.5.1 Flavonoid determination 43
  • 3.5.2 Alkaloid determination 44
  • 3.5.3 Tannin determination 44
  • 3.5.4 Saponin determination 45
  • 3.5.5 Glycoside determination 45
  • 3.5.6 Phenol determination 46

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Results and Discussion 47
  • 4.1 Qualitative Analysis result 47
  • 4.2 Quantitative Analysis result 49
  • 4.3 Discussion of result 50

Chapter Five

  • 5.1 Conclusions 52
  • 5.2 Recommendations 52
  • Reference 53 – 54
  • Appendix 55 – 58

List Of Figures

  • Fig 1 Moringa oleifera leave 7
  • Fig 2 Azadrichta indica leave 18
  • Fig 3 Conical flask  59
  • Fig 4 Water bath  59
  • Fig 5 Electric thermal incubator  60
  • Fig 6 Test tube 60
  • Fig 7 Electric stove 61
  • Fig 8 Separation process setup  61
  • Fig 9 Separation funnel  62
  • Fig 10 Thermostatic drying oven  62
  • Fig 11 Beaker 63
  • Fig 12 Measuring cylinder  63
  • Fig 13 Whatman filter paper  64
  • Fig 14 Constant temperature magnetic stirrer 64
  • Fig 15 UV machine 65
  • Fig 16 Electronic weighing balance 65
  • Fig 17 phenol standard Graph 66

List Of Table

Table 4.1a Qualitative Analysis Result of Moringa oleifera 47
Table 4.1b Qualitative Analysis Result of Azadrichta indica 48
Table 4.2 Quantitative Analysis Result of Moringa oleifera and Azadrichta indica 49

Chapter One

1.1 Background Of Study

From time immemorial, man depended on plants as medicine. From a historical perspective, it is evident that the fascination for plants is as old as mankind itself. The plant kingdom represent a rich store house of organic compounds, many of which have been used for medicinal purposes and could serve as lead for the development of novel agents having good efficacy in various pathological disorders in the coming years.Plants are the richest source of drugs for traditional medicine, modern medicines, nutraceuticals food supplements, folk medicine, pharmaceutical intermediates and chemical entities for synthetic drugs (Hammer et al., 1999). The use of plant product as medicines could be traced as far back as the beginning of human civilization. The earliest mentioned medicinal used plant in Hindu culture is found in “Rigveda”, which is said to have been written between 4500-1600 B.C. and is supposed to be the oldest repository human knowledge. The active principle isolated, have provided leads in the development of several life saving drugs, which are in use today (Rastogi and Mehrotra, 2002).

The isolated active compounds of the plants are secondary metabolites chemical compound that occur naturally in plant with no nutritional value to human life. These active compounds are generally called phytochemical. These phytochemicals play protective roles in plants, each chemical labeled phytochemical works in different ways, not all are the same for human, and not all come from the same plants. Some have shown more promise than others in fighting disease and illness in humans. There are some basic types of these active compounds that are found in different fruits and vegetables. We have some of them like antioxidants, they are present in onions and some other fruits and tea, they act as preventive measure for premature cell death and some forms of cancer and aging. Isoflavones or plant estrogen; they are found in soy and soy products; they are helpful in the year just before and after menopause. Capsaicin is found in hot pepper and it has been shown to significantly reduce prostate tumors in size, at least in mice. Taking capsaicin on a regular basis by eating spicy foods with hot peppers may prove an excellent preventative agent to prostate cancer and benign growth of prostate (Ahmedabad 382- 481). This experiment was carried out on moringaoleifera and Azadirachtaindica leaves.

Moringaoleifera, or the horseradish tree, is a small or medium-sized about 10 m high perennial softwood tree with timber of low quality pantropical specie plant that is known by such regional name as benzolive, drumstick tree, kelor, marango, mlonge, mulangay, nebeday, saijhan and sajan. Over the past two decades, many reports have appeared in the mainstream scientific journals describing its nutritional and medicinal properties (Akerele, 1993).Moringaoleifera is the most widely cultivated species of a monogenetic family, the moringaceae that is native to the sub-Himalayan tracts of India, Pakistan Bangladesh and Afghanistan, it also now naturalizes in West Africa and Nigeria as a whole.

Azadirachtaindicaon the other hand is a very useful traditional medicinal plant in the sub-continent and each part of the tree has some medicinal properties. The plant is native to Asia, but has now naturalized in West Africa and is widely cultivated in Nigeria as an ornamental as well as medicinal plant.

1.2 Phytochemicals

Phytochemicals are non-nutritive plant chemicals which occur naturally in plants that have protective or disease preventive properties. They are nonessential nutrients, meaning that they are not required by the human body for sustaining life. It is well-known that plant produces these chemicals to protect them but recent research demonstrates that they can also protect humans against diseases. There are more than thousand known phytochemicals. Some of the well-known phytochemicals are lycopene in tomatoes, isoflavonesin soy and flavanoids in fruits.Alkaloids (examples are Caffeine, Theobromine, Theophylline).Organosulfides(examples are Allicin,Glutathione,Indole-3-Carbinol,Isothiocyanates).Tannins, steroids, Glycosides etc.

1.2.1 Activity of phytochemicals

Antioxidant – Most phytochemicals have antioxidant activity and protect our cells against oxidative damage and reduce the risk of developing certain types of cancer. Phytochemicals with antioxidant activity includes:allyl sulfides (onions, leeks, and garlic), carotenoids (fruits, carrots), flavonoids (fruits, vegetables), polyphenols (tea, grapes).

Hormonal action – Isoflavones, found in soy, imitate human estrogens and help to reduce menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis.Stimulation of enzymes – Indoles, which are found in cabbages, stimulate enzymes that make the estrogen less effective and thus couldreduce the risk for breast cancer. Other phytochemicals, which interfere with enzymes, are protease inhibitors (soy and beans), terpenes (citrus fruits and cherries).

Interference with DNA replication – Saponins found in beans interfere with the replication of DNA cell, thereby preventing themultiplication of cancer cells. Capsaicin, found in hot peppers, protects DNA from carcinogens.

Physical action – Some phytochemicals bind physically to cell walls thereby preventing the adhesion of pathogens to human cell walls. Proanthocyanidins are responsible for the anti-adhesion properties of cranberry. Consumption of cranberries will reduce the risk of urinary tract infections and will improve dental health.

Phytochemicals are naturally present in many foods but it is expected that through bioengineering new plants will be developed, which will ontain higher levels. This would make it easier to incorporate enough phytochemicals with our food.

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