The Physical, Chemical And Microbiological Quality Of Locally Made Drinks In Ilorin Metropolis

Project and Seminar Material for Chemistry

The Physical, Chemical And Microbiological Quality Of Locally Made Drinks In Ilorin Metropolis


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

The consumption of alcohol beverages is on the decrease in certain areas because various religious and health bodies have intensified campaign against such beverages for alternatives this has necessitated the production and sales of locality produced drinks such as KunuZaki, Pito, Soya milk and Zobo. These drinks are not just accepted by all religions, they are relatively healthier than their alcoholic counter party. These drinks are simple to produce, the raw materials (plant material) are readily available and they are very affordable to majority of the populace who live in abject poverty. The new economy ravaging polices of the government, encouraging locally produced drinks, this has resulted in the increased consumption and merchandise of these traditional drinks in Nigeria (Egbereet al., 2007).

Locally produced drinks have been in existence since Ancient times. The earliest reported traditional African fermented product dates back to between 5000 and 6000 BC from cereal extracts was when the production of beer was invented in Egypt. Alcoholic beverages were also used in the ancient Benin and Ghana Empire. For centuries, the production of these beverages has gradually become an art that is passed through generations who do not even know the scientific basis of the art (Kubo, 2013).

The common locally produced drinks in Kwara state and its environs include:

  1. Pito drink
  2. KunuZaki (millet food drink)
  3. Zobo (extract of calyx Hibiscus sabdariffa)
  4. Soybean drinks (Soy milk)

As earlier stated majority of Nigerians live in abject poverty and so lack the capability of purchasing factory produced drinks thus depend on locally produced drinks such as soya milk, Zobo, Kunu-zaki and Pito to provide them with proteins to complement their staple starchy diets. These drinks are therefore consumed across all ethnic groups in Nigeria. These drinks contain various nutrients and medicinal values in addition to their thirst-quenching ability and low cost (Egbereet al., 2007).

These local drinks are however prepared in poor sanitary conditions that end up contaminating the drinks. These unsuspecting consumers consume these contaminated beverages that eventually results in food poisoning. This has raised public health concern; these limitations may over shadow their numerous benefits even when food poisoning does not occur. Contaminating microbes may harbor genes to antibiotics these can be opportunistic pathogen (Ayo et al., 2013). Various microbes have been implicated in contamination of locally produced drinks. These microbes including B. cereus, S. aureus, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Eschericia.coli, Lactobacilli, Streptococcus spp, e.t.c. These will reduce the microbiological quality of locally produced drinks. This study will therefore investigate the microbiological quality of some locally produced drinks in Ilorin and its environs.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Street foods are “ready-to–eat” foods and drinks prepared and sold by vendors and hawkers especially in the street and other similar public places (FAO, 2007).

Street foods are an extremely heterogeneous food category, encompassing meals, drinks, and snacks. They also show great variation in terms of ingredients, methods of retail, processing and consumption and are sold on the street from “pushcarts or baskets or balance poles, or from stalls or shops having fewer than four permanent walls” (FAO, 2007).

Nigeria had a history of developed supermarket industry until social and economic changes in early 1980s which has diminished the country’s middle class significantly, since then most Nigerians shop at traditional open-air markets or purchases their goods from traders and street vendors (Nzeka, 2011). Extensive street-vending of foods in Nigeria, arises from multiple causes such as deterioration of rural living conditions, migration to the cities, and accelerated urbanization leading to enormous urban congestion, long community distances between the workplace and home, unemployment, lack of cooking knowledge, changes in family cohesion and a shortage or absence of establishments that serve reasonably priced food closeto the workplace (Tinker, 2007; Maxwell, 2010). Street-vended food provide a major source of income for a vast number of persons, particularly women; a chance for self-employment and the opportunity to develop business skills with low capital investment; least expensive and most accessible means of obtaining a nutritionally balanced meal outside the home for many low income people (Dipeoluet al., 2007; WHO, 2012).

Despite the economic and nutritional benefits of street foods, the consumption of these roadside foods has been suggested to potentially increase the risk of food borne diseases as street foods are readily contaminated from different sources. In fact, street foods have often been associated with travellers’ diarrhoea and other food borne diseases (Tambekaret al., 2008).

Studies have revealed the frequent contamination of street food in many developing countries including Nigeria. Studies by Rath and Patra, (2012), Suneethaet al.(2011), and Arijitet al.(2010) have reveal high loads of bacterial pathogens on popular street foods in different part of India.

In Africa, Mensahet al.(2012) reported the presence of Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigellasonnei, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella arizonaeonfrom different foods sold on streets of Accra. El-Shenawyet al.(2011) reported the contamination of Street-vended ready-to-eat food sold in Egypt, with Listeria species which include Listeria monocytogenesand Listeria innocua. Nyenjeet al.(2012) investigated the microbiological quality of ready to eat foods sold in Alice, South Africa and reported the contamination of these foods by Listeria spp., Enterobacterspp., Aeromonashydrophila, Klebsiellaoxytoca, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureusand Pseudomonas luteola.

Study from Nigeria on the microbial safety of locally made drinks such as Kunu-zaki, Pito, Soy milk, and Zobo vended on highways in Onitsha-Owerri, South east, Nigeria, revealed the contamination of these drinks by pathogens which include; Salmonella spp., S. aureus, E. coli, B. cereus, Shigellaspp., Enterococci, A. nigerandPseudomonas (Oranusi and Braide, 2012). Other researchers including Ossaiet al.(2012), Falolaet al. (2011) and Mbahet al. (2012) have reported contamination of locally drinks by pathogens in different parts of Nigeria.
Locally produced drinks are fast becoming the choice of Nigeria populace because of their low cost, health and nutritional benefits. These drinks are however not produced aseptically, leading to contamination and resulting in food poisoning.


1.3 Justification of Study

Locally produced drinks are supposed to be safe and free of microorganism. Presence of any type of microorganism in locally produced drinks poses a health challenge to human, community and the nation at large. The fact that aseptic techniques are not employed in the production of local drinks and the consequent contamination of these drinks poses a serious public health challenge. This study will therefore establish the microbial load of different locally produced drinks in and around Ilorin. This will identify the microbiological quality of the drinks and the risk of contamination.

The microbiological assessment of locally produced drinks in Ilorin will serve as an eye opener to the producer and consumers of local drinks on the need to employ aseptic measure in the production and storage of the drinks. The various microorganism types present in these local drinks is as a result of poor handling and low sanitation levels that leads to their contamination.


1.4 Aims and Objectives of Study

1.4.1 Aim of the study

The aim of this study was to determine the physical and microbiological investigation of some local beverage drinks in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara State.

1.4.2 Specific Objectives of the study

The specific objectives of this study were;

  1. To determine the physical characteristics of locally made drinks in Ilorin metropolis.
  2. To determine the microbial content in some locally made drinks in Ilorin metropolis.
  3. To isolate pathogenic bacteria and fungi from some locally made drinks in Ilorinmetropolis.

1.5 Research Hypothesis (Null)

There are no microorganisms in locally produced drinks in Ilorin metropolis.


Chapter Five


5.0 Discussion

This study examined the physical, chemical and microbiological quality of locally made drinks in Ilorin metropolis. Related literature review was made considering scholars explanation of the subject matter. Relevant data for the study was generated through laboratory experiments conducted by the researchers. Three hypotheses were postulated and tested for the purpose of the study. The hypotheses stated that (1) there is no significant difference in pH and temperature of locally made drinks in Ilorin metropolis, (2) there are no microorganisms in locally produced drinks in Ilorin metropolis, and that (3) pathogenic bacteria and fungi from some locally made drinks in Ilorin metropolis will not be significant. The hypotheses were tested in this study using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Duncan test. All the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance.

A total of fourbacterialspecies were isolated from the beverage drinks, and they were identified as; Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Salmonella spp. However, there was only one fungi isolated; Candida spp. The distribution of isolates within the beverage drinks from the different locations are shown in Table 4.6 and 4.7. Candida spp(14) have the highest frequency in the beverage drinks from Kwara Central geopolitical zone followed by Escherichia coli(8),Escherichia coli(57) have the highest frequency in the beverage drinks from Kwara North geopolitical zone followed byStaphylococcusaureus (37),while Salmonella spp(88) has the highest frequency in the beverage drinksfrom the Kwara South geopolitical zone followed by Escherichia coli(49). Salmonella spp was not foundin the beverage drinks from Kwara North and Kwara Central geopolitical zones.

The mean bacteria and fungi counts of the beverage drinksare shown in tables 4.3, 4.4 and 4.5 respectively. The mean bacterial count ranged between 3.33 x 104cfu/ml and 13.33 x 104 cfu/ml on Nutrient Agar, it ranged between 3.33 x 104cfu/ml and 11.33 x 104cfu/ml on Kieglar Iron Agar, while the fungi count ranged between 6.00 x 104cfu/ml and 12.00 x 104 cfu/ml on Potato Dxtrose Agar.

The pH values 6.19 to 7.32 obtained indicated that the food were slightly acidic to slightly alkaline, this favoured the proliferation and survival of bacteria. The bacteria count obtained are indicative of post contamination in the light of the amount of heating that goes into beverage production, similar post treatment contamination has been reported by Ogugbueet al. (2011). This can occur during cooling and exposure to the air which has been identified as the main source of microbial contamination of most beverage drinks.

Also, there was no significant difference in Temperature of locally made drinks in Ilorinmetropolis. As observed there were pH and temperature in the locally made foods and the pH and temperature is statistically the same across the five locations examined. This result is in line with Demuyakor and Ohta (2008) who found that pH and temperature usually grow in locally made beverage drimks.

This work revealed that all the beverage drinkswere contaminated with different bacteria and a fungi. These include Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Salmonella spp. and Candida spp. The finding is in agreement with the work Ajao and Atere (2009) and Oranusi and Braide (2012).

This study also found a non-significant bacterial count of Pito and Kunu-zaki but there is significant bacterial count of Soy milk and Zobo, as cultured on NA. This suggests that Soy milkandZobo were not properly done in the study area. There is no significant bacterial count of Pito, ZoboSoy milk and Kunu-zaki as cultured on Kieglar Iron Agar (KIA).

On the occurrence of microbial isolate, the study revealed that occurrence of microbial isolate in the Kwara Central was not significant. This study also found a significant occurrence of microbial isolate in the Kwara North and Kwara South Geopolitical Zone. This result is in line with the earlier work of Milosevic (2012) who found a significant occurrence of microbial isolate in his study area.

The presence of Staphylococcus aureusin the samples is indicative of human contamination after production. This could be from direct human contact such as fingers or indirectly through additives or utensils. The organism is associated with endotoxin characterized by short incubation period (1-8hours), violent nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.

The presence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. suggested fecal contamination. Although some E. coli are harmless, EnterohaemorrhagicE. coli (EHEC) are capable of producing one or more toxin and a particular serotype O157:H7 have been associated with haemorrhagic colitis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome and thromboticthrombocytopaenicpurpura. Also EnterotoxigenicE. coli (ETEC) is associated with traveler’sdiarrhea. Similarly, Salmonellaspp.have been associated with severe typhoid fever (Adams and Moss, 2008).

The presence of Candida spp. in the food sample is not surprising as they disperse in the form of spores which is abundant in the environment and can be introduce through dust and soil (Apinis, 2003). Their presence in these beverage drinks is of serious public health concern as this fungi have all been implicated with the production of mycotoxin (Makunet al., 2009).


5.1 Conclusion

This study examined the physical, chemical and microbiological quality of locally made drinks in Ilorin metropolis. Therefore based on the findings from this study, it was concluded that;

  1. There was no significant difference in pH of locally made drinks in Ilorin metropolis.
  2. There was no significant difference in temperature of locally made drinks in Ilorin metropolis.
  3. There is no significant bacterial count of Pito and Kunu-zaki but there is significant bacterial count of Soy milk and Zobo, as cultured on NA
  4. There is no significant bacterial count of Pito, Zobo and Kunu-zaki but there is significant bacterial count of Soy milk as cultured on Kieglar Iron Agar (KIA).
  5. There is no significant bacterial count of Pito, ZoboSoy milk and Kunu-zaki as cultured on PDA
  6. Occurrence of microbial isolate in the Kwara Central was not significant
  7. There was significant occurrence of microbial isolate in the Kwara North and Kwara South Geopolitical Zone.

Hence, Null hypothesis is rejected since p-value is greater than tabulated value.


5.2 Recommendation

Based on the results of data study and tested hypotheses, it is hereby recommended that:

The government, through the Ministry of Health should intensify effort at monitoring the quality of locally made goods in our society to ensure a safer environment and food for all.There should be awareness on the need to ensure that producers of locally made good maintain good hygiene irrespective of the kind of food. Food nutritionists and other food related officers should be encouraged towards the use of Kieglar Iron Agar in the analysis of food bacterial.There should be a task force that will be saddled with the responsibility of monitoring the occurrence of microbial isolate in the Kwara North and Kwara South Geopolitical Zone, and in Nigeria as a whole.


The Physical, Chemical And Microbiological Quality Of Locally Made Drinks In Ilorin Metropolis


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The Physical, Chemical And Microbiological Quality Of Locally Made Drinks In Ilorin Metropolis


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