Physical And Social Environmental Factor Affecting Health Promotion In Delta State
This study was carried out to assess physical and social environmental factor affecting health promotion in Delta State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of residents of Asaba, Delta State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 112 respondents and 100 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. The result of the findings reveals that the physical factors affecting health promotion in Delta state include; poor physical activity, inadequate nutrition, lack of adequate heath care facilities, distance to available health facilities, poor availability of health experts, and negative attitudes towards health maters. The study also revealed that Furthermore, the study revealed that the social factors affecting health promotion in Delta state are discrimination, misinformation, poor interpersonal relations, excessive spiritual dogmatics, sales of fake drugs, and drug abuse. Therefore, it is recommended that there should be health programme or intervention specific to health promotion capacity building for different cadres of public sector workers, as well as the masses in general. Such capacity building or training should be anchored on acute awareness of current research trends and best practices globally. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Significance of the Study
- 1.6 Scope of the Study
- 1.7 Limitation of the Study
- 1.8 Definition of Terms
- 1.9 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
According to the definition of the World Health Organization (WHO), health is a state of full, physical, mental and social well-being, and not just no illness or the presence of a disability. In recent years, this terminology has been expanded to include the ability to lead an effective social and economic life, as well as spiritual scope (Yadav, 2010).
The 21st century is a great advance in the fight against diseases and epidemics that have plagued our humanity for a long time. We owe this to the fight against infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and typhoid, to reduce the scale of infections and to reduce infant mortality. These achievements are attributed to medicine and medical biotechnology since both events took place at the same time. Probably the mass introduction of vaccines and antibiotics in medicine meant that many living things were saved thanks to them. However, more inquisitive studies have shown that the improvement of the health situation was associated with increased awareness of hygiene and sanitation of the population, i.e. the creation of water treatment plants or sewage systems. The increasingly spectacular successes of medicine have been partnering with the belief that they form the primary key to health and longevity. Transplants, dialysis, genetic engineering or computer diagnostics have shown a different path in the fight against various diseases (Yadav, 2010).
However, our health is also conditioned by the effects of a group of complex and various factors that can be classified as exogenous (external environmental influences) and endogenous (genetic). Among the most frequently mentioned factors are lifestyle, environmental and social factors, health behaviors and many others (World Health Organization 2007).
The goal of the National Health Policy (1987) is to bring about a comprehensive health care system, based on primary health care that is promotive, protective, preventive, restorative and rehabilitative to all citizens within the available resources so that individuals and communities are assured of productivity, social well-being and enjoyment of living. The health services, based on PHC, include among other things: education concerning prevailing health problems and the methods of preventing and controlling them, promotion of food supply and proper nutrition, material and child care, including family planning immunization against the major infectious diseases, prevention and control of locally endemic and epidemic diseases and provision of essential drugs and supplies. The provision of health care at PHC level is largely the responsibility of local governments with the support of state ministries of health hand within the overall national health policy (Nigeria Constitution, 1999). Private medical practitioners also provide health care at this level. Although PHC was said to have made much progress in the 1980s, its goal of 90% coverage was probably excessively ambitious, especially in view of the economic strains of structural adjustment that permeated the Nigerian economy throughout the late 1980s. But many international donor agencies such as UNICEF, World Health Organization (WHO) and the United States Aids for International Development, (USAID) embraced the programme and participated actively in the design and implementation of programmes at that level (USAID, 1994). At a stage, most of the programmes were donor driven. It was not surprising that at the height of the political crisis in 1993, most of them withdrew their funding and the programme started experiencing hiccups. With the return to democracy in 1999, however, primary health care system deteriorated to an unacceptable level. The availability of basic health services provided by the PHC especially to rural areas in a country might be used as a yardstick to measure the extent of its health level of development. The aim of this article is to describe some strategies which, if implemented, might enhance the proper and timely use of PHC by Nigerian rural populations (World Health Organization 2007).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Nigeria, with a population of 170 million, is one of the most populous nations but weak in health-care standards. Among the people of Nigeria a vast majority live in rural areas and at most times have access to little or none of the essential basic amenities. According to the National Primary Health Care Development Agency, Abuja, Nigeria Despite extensive investments, the country still has insufficient healthcare delivery infrastructures, poor health promotion mechanisms, poor quality health-care services, and unevenly distributed human resource capacity (Adeniyi 2014). These are reflected in its health-care quality ranking of 187 of 200 countries and listing among countries with some of the worst health indicators in the world. Some of these factors are caused by lack of effective health-care facilities. Although these facilities serve the majority of the population, they are unable to provide basic and cost-effective services, especially in rural areas. Adeniyi (2014) said this poor performance is attributed to various factors including poorly equipped health facilities, insufficient staff, lack of clearly defined roles and responsibilities, inadequate political commitment, and poor accountability. Quality improvement at primary health-care facilities is critical, however, efforts to address the quality of care as a contributory factor to the country’s poor health outcomes receive less attention. It is in light of this that this study seeks to examine the factor’s affecting utilization of primary health care facilities.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main aim of this study is to examine the physical and social environmental factor affecting health promotion in Delta state. Specifically, other aims of this study are:
- To examine the physical factors affecting health promotion in Delta state.
- To examine the social factors affecting health promotion in Delta state.
- To examine the environmental factors affecting health promotion in Delta state.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions will be answered in this study:
- What are the physical factors affecting health promotion in Delta state?
- What are the social factors affecting health promotion in Delta state?
- What are the environmental factors affecting health promotion in Delta state?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will aid the bodies in charge of health and promotion delivery as it will highlight the physical, social and environmental factors affecting health promotion in Nigeria. It will also assist service providers at the facility level in developing strategies and action plans to encourage increased use of the services available.
These efforts will help to start the process of enhancing access to health care services, which will eventually improve the overall health of everyone in Delta State.
This study will contribute to the current literature in this field and will also serve as a resource for academics, researchers, and students who may want to do future research on this topic.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study focuses on the physical and social environmental factor affecting health promotion in Delta state. Specifically, this study focuses on examine the physical factors affecting health promotion in Delta state, examining the social factors affecting health promotion in Delta state and examine the environmental factors affecting health promotion in Delta state.
Selected residents in Asaba will serve as the respondents for this study.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.
Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Health promotion: Health promotion is, as stated in the 1986 World Health Organization Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, the “process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve their health.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings into physical and social environmental factor affecting health promotion in Delta State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
In this study, our focus was on physical and social environmental factor affecting health promotion in Delta State.
The study is was specifically carried out to examine the physical factors affecting health promotion in Delta state, examine the social factors affecting health promotion in Delta state, and examine the environmental factors affecting health promotion in Delta state.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were residents of Asaba, Delta State.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;
- The physical factors affecting health promotion in Delta state include; poor physical activity, inadequate nutrition, lack of adequate heath care facilities, distance to available health facilities, poor availability of health experts, and negative attitudes towards health maters.
- The social factors affecting health promotion in Delta state are discrimination, misinformation, poor interpersonal relations, excessive spiritual dogmatics, sales of fake drugs, and drug abuse.
- The environmental factors affecting health promotion in Delta state comprises of chemical pollution, air pollution, climate change, disease-causing microbes, and lack of access to health care.
With respect to the findings and the aim of this study, the researchers therefore recommend that;
- There should be health programme or intervention specific to health promotion capacity building for different cadres of public sector workers, as well as the masses in general. Such capacity building or training should be anchored on acute awareness of current research trends and best practices globally.
- There should also be increased attention to the need for specific health promotion for under-represented health issues and priority to non-communicable diseases should be targeted.
- It should also improve capacity on how to incorporate methods of targeting members of the society marginal or vulnerable within each state context.
- There need to improve the healthcare facilities in Nigeria.
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