Physical And Chemical Characteristic Component Of Ugiri Seed And Pulp (Irvingia Gabonensis)

Project and Seminar Material for Food Science and Technology (FST)

Physical And Chemical Characteristic Component Of Ugiri Seed And Pulp (Irvingia Gabonensis)


This project work studied the chemical and physical characteristics component of irvingia gabonensis seed and pulp. Irvingia gabonensis popularly known as ‘ugiri’ belongs to the family Irvingiaceae family of plants. It is mainly propagated by seed. The fruits are mainly gathered from the ground around each tree, or harvested by climbing when the tree is not too tall. It is said to promote weight loss by inhibition of the enzyme called amylase.

Amylase is responsible for the absorption of sugar in the body. The kernels are processed by grinding and crushing, and then used to thicken soups and stews.The pulp is used in the preparation of black dye for cloth and also in the manufacture of jams, wine, jellies and fruit juices.

In the experiment carried out on the fruit, the physical parameters which include the density, volume, mass were determined, the seeds were also determined by sun drying and oven drying for two days and later cracked to separate the kernel from the shell.

Proximate analysis was carried out on the pulp and seeds and the moisture content, ash content, crude fibre, fat content, crude protein content and carbohydrate content were determined. The lipid analysis was carried out on the seed which include iodine value, peroxide value, acid value and free fatty acid.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgements
  • Abstract

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Preamble
  • 1.2 Aim and Objectives
  • 1.2.1 Aim
  • 1.2.2 Objectives
  • 1.3 Justification
  • 1.4 Scope of the study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Origin of Irvingia gabonensis
  • 2.2 Variety / species
  • 2.3 Cultivation
  • 2.4 Harvesting
  • 2.5 Processing
  • 2.6 Storage
  • 2.7 Uses
  • 2.8 Nutritional value

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials and Methods

  • 3.1 Materials
  • 3.2 Sample preparation
  • 3.3 Chemical analysis
  • 3.3.1 Proximate analysis on the seed and pulp
  • 3.3.2 Lipid analysis of Irivingia Gabonensis seed
  • 3.4 Physical properties of Irvingia gabonensis

Chapter Four

4.0 Result and Discussions

  • 4.1 Results for proximate composition of the seed of Irvingia gabonensis
  • 4.1.2 Results for proximate composition of the pulp of Irvingia gabonensis
  • 4.1.3 Lipid composition of Irvingia gabonensis seed
  • 4.1.4 Physical parameters of ugiri fruit

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • Reference
  • Appendix

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Preamble

Irvingia gabonensis, populary known as Ugiri and commonly called ‘Africa mango’ is an indigenous forest tree belonging to the plants classified as non timber forest products (NTEP). It belongs to the Irvingiaceae family of plants. The tree attains a height of up to 30 meters and about 1.0 meter in girth when fully developed. The fruit is slightly flattened, ellipsoidal drops with fibrous mesocarp and stony endocarp. Irvingia gabonensis var. gabonensis is sweet, smooth in the mouth and has brittle pulp. The tree grows well in a variety of soil types ranging from sandy clay loams to loamy clay soils (Nielsen, 1965).

Ugiri nut is mainly propagated by seed criteria for selection are large fruit size, good sliminess and draw ability of kernels and easy kernel extraction. Increasing awareness have necessitated the development of propagation procedures for the plant in order to enhance its popularity, economic potentials and continued and regular production in traditional and future farming systems (Shiembo et al., 1996)

Ugiri nut fruits are mostly gathered from the ground around each tree, or harvested by climbing when the tree is not too tall. The next step consists of extracting kernels from seed, which is split in halves with a cutlass, and the kernel is removed with the help of a knife. The kernels are then dried in the sun or on bamboo drying racks over the fireplace in the kitchen. The season for flowering is between Nov- march and June and Fruiting is April – July and September – October (Gledhill, 2008)

Ugiri is said to promote weight loss in various ways. One of the methods by which it does so is by inhibition of the enzyme called amylase. Amylase is responsible for absorption of sugar in the body. By decreasing the level of amylase, less sugar is absorbed by the body. It also increases the level of hormone known as adiponecting. It also increases the levels of weight loss by inhibiting an enzyme called glycerol – 3- phosphate dehydrogenase, and by doing so, it reduces the amount of blood sugar converted to fat (Ngondi et al; 2005).

Kernels of the fruits of Irvingia gabonensis, called ‘Ogbono’ in Igbo or ‘Apori’ in Yoruba, yield an important food additive popular in West and central Africa. They are processed by grinding and crushing, and then used to thicken soups and stews. The kernels are also made into a cake called ‘dika bread’ or ‘Odika bread’ for year round preservation and easy use. An edible oil is extracted from the seed that is used in cooking. The presscake is used for thickening soup and is a good cattle feed.

The pulp of the fruit of Irvingia gabonensis is juicy and sweet and eaten fresh. It can be used for the preparation of juice, jelly, jam and wine. The pulp has also been used to prepare a black dye for cloth. The medical uses of Irvingia spp are many, but it is difficult to assign them to individual species. Preparations from the bank are rubbed on the body to relieve pains and are applied to stores and wound and against toothache. They are also taken to treat diarhoea (Ayuk et al., 1999)

1.2 Aim And Objectives

1.2.1 Aim

This work is aimed at determining the physical and chemical components of ugiri seed and pulp.

1.2.2 The Objectives Of This Work Are:
  1. To determine the proximate analysis on ugiri seed and pulp.
  2. To know the nutritional value of ugiri seed and pulp.
  3. To determine the lipid analysis on ugiri seed.

1.3 Justification

Apart from being a requirement for the award of National Diploma, it is important to carry out this study so as to add to the body of knowledge by letting people know the value and health benefits of ugiri seed and pulp.
To make ugiri seed compete favourably with other thickners.

1.4 Scope Of The Study

The scope of this work includes the proximate analysis of ugiri seed and pulp, the lipid analysis of ugiri seed, the physical parameters of ugiri seed and pulp. This work however, does not include saponification value, sensory analysis.

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

The high nutritive quality of the Irvingia gabonensis based product as compared with the seed implies that appropriates food processing techniques is another approach to improve foods quality. Since storage is one of the major problems associated with handling fresh Irvingia seeds, processing these seeds fresh using pounding and fermentation, not only arrest spoilage but also improves its nutritive value. In the pulp, proper handling during processing can lead to the durability of the product. The products include: jams, juices, wine and fruit juices.

5.2 Recommendations

The following recommendations are made based on the seed and pulp of Irvingia gabonensis.

  1. It is recommended to diabetic patients. Irvingia has been shown to delay stomach emptying, which leads to greater absorption of dietary sugars. In this way, Irvingia blood sugar levels after meal.
  2. It is also recommended in the boosting of metabolism.
  3. It has been observed that Irvingia helps to increase metabolic rate in the body. Since metabolism is the primary determinant of how many calorie the body burns off on a daily basis, the higher this is, the faster and easier weight loss will be manufacture of margarine, jams, juices, fruit juices and wine. Lowering of cholesterol levels. Due to the high fibre content of the seed, it is said to lower cholesterol from the body. African mango also helps in the fighting bacterial infections.

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