Personality Trait And Academic Performance In Biology Of Secondary School Students In Boki Local Government Area Cross River State

Biology Education Project Material

Personality Trait And Academic Performance In Biology Of Secondary School Students In Boki Local Government Area Cross River State


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine on personality trait and academic performance in biology of secondary school students in Boki Local Government Area Cross River State. The study was set to find out whether openness to experience influences the academic performance of students, find out whether conscientiousness influences the academic performance of students, find out whether extraversion influences the academic performance of students, find out whether agreeableness influences the academic performance of students and find out whether neuroticism influences the academic performance of students. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of biology students and teachers of some selected secondary school in Boki Local Government Area Cross River State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool, SPPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that openness to experience influences the academic performance of students. Furthermore the result of the findings reveals that Neuroticism influences the academic performance of students. Therefore, it is recommended that among the five factors of the personality traits, higher level of openness to experience, conscientiousness and lower level of neuroticism should be encouraged among students. Likewise, students with higher level neurotic tendencies should be assisted through psychotherapy interventions. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Personality refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. The study of personality focuses on two broad areas: One understands individual differences in particular personality characteristics, such as sociability or irritability. Personality traits are the consistent traits of an individual which make him different from other individuals. The blend of personality traits is also important in predicting success in various domains.

The Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality is one of the prominent models in contemporary psychology and defines personality in terms of five broad factors, namely, Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. According to McCrae and Costa (1990), the Five Factor Model (FFM) is an organization of personality traits, and traits in turn are dimensions of individual differences in tendencies to show consistent patterns of thoughts, feelings, and actions.

Personality has been recognized as a determining factor on how people learn (Lawrence, 1997). College students tend to prefer learning environments consistent with their own personality type preference. Many scholars have accepted five-factor model of personality as a replicable and unifying taxonomy of personality (Digmans & Goldberg, 1993.) and have found personality traits to be significantly related to successful job and school performance, both logically and statistically (Hogan, Hogan & Roberts, 1996). Bandura (1997) posits that personality has its root in observational learning. He believes that must human behaviour are learned through modeling. The big five traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness) have been related to a wide range of behaviour including performance, academic achievement, leadership and well-being (Scott, 2010). Since Costa and McCrae first proposed the big five model, it has appeared prominently in many studies on educational performance.

According to Colman (2006), personality is the sum total of the behaviour and mental characteristics that is distinctive of an individual.

Academic achievement or (academic) performance is the outcome of education, the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals. Academic achievement is commonly measured by examinations or continuous assessment but there is no general agreement on how it is best tested or which aspects are most important.

Biology is the science that deals with the study of varieties of living organism including ourselves (Lawal, 2011). It also studies the way our environment evolved from triple organisms and this is intimately part of our environment (Nwosu, 2006). The study of dreaded diseases, their causative agents, cure as well as the action of drugs are a way of Biological enlightenment that strives at minimizing human suffering, its tries to find cure for hereditary abnormalities like hemophilia, Down’s syndrome etc. (Ahmed, 2010).

The above importance has made Biology a course or subject of impact in the life of individuals and the nation and world as a whole; thereby prompting the learned to make it a compulsory course of study in every level of education (primary, secondary and tertiary).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Personality traits play a central role in the development of academic achievement of secondary school students. A student’s attitude towards the study of Biology can affect his performance in the subject that exhibits a dislike due to the fact that it involves rigorous practical works which are carried out in the laboratory. This dislike as shown by apathy towards various practical activities that leads to low performance and subsequent failure. Opinions vary as to why some students excel academically while others appear to be underachievers. Many psychologists such as McCrae and Costa (2003), have consistently attempted to identify the major predictors of individual academic achievement. Osarenren (2001) sees traits as the basic components of personality with the capacity of directing an individual’s behaviour. Agulanna and Nwachukwu (2009), opines that Human beings share many important characteristics but they also differ from one another in significant ways like intelligence, psychomotor abilities and skills in both general and specialized prior knowledge and so on. They also posit that students differ in learning styles and preference, these differences can affect both academic achievement and behaviour of students. One factor that have been researched into the past by Porapat (2009) include child rearing problem that has a worrisome dimension in the Nigerian educational system. Desperate to make it anyhow, students have devised various illegal means to succeed in examinations, even when they are not academically competent. Many students are unable to defend their result they acquired. This has consistently led to inability to compete effectively in the job market which has become a serious issue in our national educational development. Many students are different in their personal values and they process information in different ways, their personality traits are different and also their understanding. It is important to know why some students gets good grades while others cannot, while studying in the same environment. Therefore, the researcher was intended to conduct a study on relationship of personality traits and academic achievement of senior secondary school students in Biology.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to examine the personality trait and academic performance in biology of secondary school students in Boki Local Government Area Cross River State. The specific objectives of the study are as follows:

  1. Find out whether openness to experience influences the academic performance of biology students in Boki Local Government Area Cross River State.
  2. Find out whether conscientiousness influences the academic performance of biology students in Boki Local Government Area Cross River State.
  3. Find out whether extraversion influences the academic performance of biology students in Boki Local Government Area Cross River State.
  4. Find out whether agreeableness influences the academic performance of biology students in Boki Local Government Area Cross River State.
  5. Find out whether neuroticism influences the academic performance of biology students in Boki Local Government Area Cross River State.

1.4 Research Questions

The following are some of the questions which this study intends to answer:

  1. Does openness to experience influences the academic performance of biology students in Boki Local Government Area Cross River State?
  2. Does conscientiousness influences the academic performance of biology students in Boki Local Government Area Cross River State?
  3. Does extraversion influences the academic performance of biology students in Boki Local Government Area Cross River State?
  4. Does agreeableness influences the academic performance of biology students in Boki Local Government Area Cross River State?
  5. Does neuroticism influences the academic performance of biology students in Boki Local Government Area Cross River State?

1.5. Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated and tested in this study:

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between personality trait and students’ academic achievement in biology.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between personality trait and students’ academic achievement in biology.

1.6. Significance of the Study

This study will be of great benefit to the followings; students, teachers, school authorities, parents, university authority, educational policy makers, school counsellors, religious leaders, the government and the society at large.

(1) The Students:

The findings and recommendations of this study will be of great benefit to the students who would be enlightened concerning the character they should put across in the society. This study will also afford the students, the opportunity to know the influence of personality dispositions on academic achievement of undergraduate students at University of Lagos. This study will also lead them to avoid those behaviours labelled as anti-personality dispositions among students in the school and the society. With the recommendations of the study, students would be able to identify the attributes of personality dispositions and their effects on their academic performances in school.

(2) Teachers:

Would be beneficiaries of this study, because, the study will afford them the golden opportunity of knowing how to detect students who exhibit negative dispositions and how to tackle them or remedy them. With the findings and recommendations of this study, teachers would be able to know those activities that would enable them to remedy the bad behaviours of the students who are under their care and how to help them achieve high academic performances in the school.

(3) The School Authorities:

With the recommendations of this study, the school authorities would be able to solve the problem of bad dispositions of students or adolescents in our tertiary institutions. This study also, will recommend to the school authorities all it takes to arrest the dwindling or negative behaviours of students in our schools and the society at large and how these negative behaviours affect the academic performance of undergraduate students.

(4) Government:

Government would be opportuned to gather relevant information concerning adolescents’ negative life styles in the society. It will be of great help to the government, if this study is completed and the recommendations upheld. This is because, it will afford the government the opportunity to know how to go about solving the society’s problems which is mostly on youths’ personality dispositions.

(5) The Parents:

Parents would also benefit from this study because, it will enable them to be able to know the characters of their students and wards and how to go about solving the perceived problems bothering on negative dispositions and the attendant poor academic performance of students. No doubt, the negative personal dispositions of the youths have been the major problems of the parents, the school and the society. The government is interested in solving the social and academic problems of youth in the society. Therefore, government will collaborate with parents and teachers to solve this problem of negative dispositions amongst the youths in our higher schools and homes.

(6) The General Members

The general members of the larger society will be able to benefit from this study, because it will help them to know or identify the problems of negative dispositions amongst the youths and how to help in solving them.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study examined the personality trait and academic performance in biology of secondary school students in Boki Local Government Area Cross River State. Therefore the respondents covered biology students of some selected secondary school in Boki Local Government Area Cross River State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

The only challenge faced by the researcher was finance. There was no fund to print as many as possible questionnaires for this study. However, the researcher was able to print out two hundred questionnaires for this study.


1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

Operational terms were defined according to the way they were used in the study thus:

Personality:

Personality is the total pattern of characteristic ways of thinking, feeling and behaving that constitutes the individual’s distinctive method of relating to the environment

Dispositions:

Dispositions may be defined as the sum total of an individual’s unique ways of responding to his environment which can be natural or acquired.

Personality Traits:

Personality traits are definite characteristics that typify an individual and make such person different from every other person.

Nature:

Nature refers to traits that are genetically transferred from parents to their offspring. These are physical characteristics an individual inherit from his parents.

Nurture:

Nurture refers to the environment in which an individual is brought up. It includes the physical circumstances of our birth, varying influences from the society as a whole and more importantly our families

Academic Achievement:

Academic achievement refers to an individual’s performance in an academic activity. It is the result of the assessment of an individual’s ability in accomplishing a task related to his studies.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on personality trait and academic performance in biology of secondary school students in Boki Local Government Area Cross River State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on personality trait and academic performance in biology of secondary school students in Boki Local Government Area Cross River State. The study is was specifically set to find out whether openness to experience influences the academic performance of students, find out whether conscientiousness influences the academic performance of students, find out whether extraversion influences the academic performance of students, find out whether agreeableness influences the academic performance of students and find out whether neuroticism influences the academic performance of students.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are biology students and teachers of some selected secondary school in Boki Local Government Area Cross River State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. Openness to experience influences the academic performance of students.
  2. Conscientiousness influences the academic performance of students.
  3. Extraversion influences the academic performance of students.
  4. Agreeableness influences the academic performance of students.
  5. Neuroticism influences the academic performance of students.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Among the five factors of the personality traits, higher level of openness to experience, conscientiousness and lower level of neuroticism should be encouraged among students. Likewise, students with higher level neurotic tendencies should be assisted through psychotherapy interventions.
  2. Males and females students differ in their personal values and they process information in different ways; their personality traits are different and so is their understanding. It is therefore recommended for curriculum planners to inculcate methods of identifying gender personality traits, in secondary schools‟ curriculum development, since males and females are prone to certain types of personality traits for their academic success.
  3. Students with introvert personality type are quite, shy and as a result teachers overlooked them in class participation (activities). That is since these learners keep quite when teachers ask question in class, when teachers teach and forward questions, and then the teachers consider them as they are low participating learners. Hence, it is suggested here that teachers should have to make them active participant and then explore their ability to make them complete whole person in their academic wise.
  4. Seminars or workshop should be arranged for students and teacher about personality traits and their impact on students’ academic achievement. Because teachers should not assume that students are a homogeneous group and may need different types of psychological techniques in order to perform well.

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