Performance Evaluation Of Time Management On Employee Performance

Project and Seminar Material for Industrial Relations and Personnel Management

Performance Evaluation Of Time Management On Employee Performance


The issue of time management is very important in any organization, therefore this study focuses on performance evaluation of time management on employee performance at Dangote cement company; to explore the nature of time management, to examine the extent to which time management affects employee performance and to identify the measures to improve on the nature of time management. The study adopted a quantitative approach because it gives an advantage of describing the respondent’s personal characteristics, opinions, attitude, perceptions and preferences. The key source of data was a structured questionnaire for the staffs of Dangote cement company. The total number of respondents was 80 out of 150 personnel. The data analysis method used was statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 20), it was further analyzed using tables and figures. The findings showed that Time Management enables the organization studied to survive competition and get more business. It was concluded that there is a significant and positive relationship between time management practices and employees performance. The researcher recommends that Dangote cement company should adhere strictly to effective time management in order to provide quality services to their customers to gain competitive advantage and be successful.

Chapter One


1.1 Background to the Study

The historical backdrop presents that time management began with industrial revolution (Nayab, 2011). The conception of time management has advanced gradually yet transitory from the classical conception of time management to the advanced conception of time management which helps to control over one’s life and perform tasks successfully. The subsequent improvement and the industrial revolution empower people to control nature for their advantage. Huge machines and industrial facilities knocked off the reliance on climate, the deployment of artificial lightening and innovation of electricity rendering the concept of day hours irrelevant.

Until the mid-eighteenth century, farmers, artisans (seamstresses, carpenters) and anglers (fishermen) led simple lives and the output of their work relied on natural forces, for instance, the sun and the wind, with the sun and the moon determined time keeping. During that period, time management depended upon natural factors, for instance, atmosphere, tides and seasons. For example, holidays during stormy seasons, daylight determined working hours and productivity and job performance depended on the ups and downs of the growing season (Nayab, 2011).
In assistance of the historical backdrop of time management Nayab (2011) commented that in the nineteenth century, more attentions were accorded to the concept of time due to these reasons; according to Nayab (2011), first of all, the advancement in the industrial revolution progressed to an industrial trade base from an agricultural economy and this led to the necessity to manage time effectively as timely trading of goods was the only key to the path of success in the new world. Moreover, passage of communication, improvement of postal services and the subsequent spread of railroads all required specific time keeping which raised the benefits of time management and its relationship to job performance and effectiveness (Arnold & Pulich, 2004).

The credit for setting up the advantages of time management goes to Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson. Thomas Jefferson introduced a clock with a dial with three hands indicating seconds, minutes and hours to plan personal tasks (Nayab, 2011). As per Nayab (2011) Benjamin Franklin’s (1748) celebrated perspective of time included, “Time is Money”; “Time is the stuffs of which life is made”. Inspirations from these leaders and their thought of elevation, the world has considered that promptness or timeliness signifies maturity and the child’s habit of wearing watch identifies the maturity of a child. Workers in the nineteenth century did not have flexible schedules and businessmen were comfortable in managing time. Aside three hours of their business duties, the rest of the day was spent on social commitments (Sowa, 2002).

In the twentieth century, history holds it that the management of time ran parallel to management science evolution (Taylor, 1910). Fredrick W. Taylor’s scientific methodology included shop management, which focused on the standard of time management. He credited the reason for inefficiency and poor performance of his employees to the lack of incentives which made them work poorly. He paid workers for the completion of their goals or tasks as he established specific targets for the work. Modern time management approaches had been influenced by Taylor’s scientific management (Nayab, 2011).

According to Azablet and Almaz (2015), the concept of time management is a dependent variable to every successful business in our world today. Time management is a reliable key to know that management decisions and actions taken by organizations are appropriate and aimed at increasing productivity level. Time management has developed with time to become an investment in organizations now; it optimizes resources for better use; Time management generates more gains or adds value (Azablet & Almaz, 2015). According to Philpot (2011), time management is the tool that helps individuals to plan and benefit more from the use of time. Time management is a tool that began from the industrial revolution. Time management is a worry which is essential to job performance as it gears to optimize resources for the accomplishment of set tasks, objectives or priorities.

The activities of a person’s task must be principal to the degree of self-control over time and that is both necessary and essential. Interruptions impose greater pressure on jobs that involve regular contact with others than works of solitary nature. Also newly employed workers and workers with newly assigned jobs would undoubtedly encounter the evil impacts of unpredictable events and conflicting priorities than anyone working in an already set up position, where consistency and routine are customary. The ability of employees to identify priorities in the jobs is a big worry to them (Njagi & Malel, 2012).

Effective time management is an exceptionally huge obstacle that is being looked at by supervisors around the globe today because of the quantity of obligations they need to perform in a confined measure of time (Azablet & Almaz, 2015). Time is one of the most significant assets which workers, managers and the organization itself need to achieve the objectives, aims and targets that they have set for the organization (Adeojo, 2012). There is a great deal of books, seminars and workshops that create the opportunity for organizations and individuals to learn time management concept to improve productivity and performance if only considered urgent and important (Ojokuku & Obasan, 2011). Time management concept enables employees prioritize their tasks by considering its significance to the organization and discover time and extra assets which may be of need to complete the task within the timeframe

1.2 Problem Statement

Time is essential in every organization as long as organizations want to accomplish their aims and objectives. Satisfactorily accomplishing desired organization’s objectives represents an extraordinary danger to the organization (Adeojo, 2012) one of the best aptitudes one can acquire is effective and powerful time management. In the event that time is not managed properly, it’s totally unthinkable the set goals at work and personal objectives can be accomplished. You may increase some ground (Alan, 2009). Regardless, time management will be an uphill battle in the event that you don’t spend as much time as is required truly. For individuals who waste the critical brief time period they have, they know very well how dangerous accomplishing even genuinely badly arranged targets can be. Sincerely, time is the best equalizer for the duration of regular daily existence. Notwithstanding your personality, income, age, race, gender or religion, you have the same time as any other individual. Time is still the same, irrespective of your wealth (Steven, 2009). It’s not about how much time you have. It’s about how effectively you manage your time. This has turned into a major stress for directors and CEOs who hope to accomplish set organizational objectives and tasks. In the corporate world, time is regarded as cash, and in this way, we see the entities that instill the habit of time management in their workers make them perform successfully (Njagi & Malel,
2012). Anyway a few organizations don’t give much consideration to time management, consequently, influencing the work output of the workers in the organization which over the long haul influences the productivity of the organization and the nation

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The study developed general objective to recognize effect of time management on worker performance of Dangote cement company.

So as to accomplish the study’s general goal, the following are addressed:

  1. To explore the nature of time management at Dangote cement company.
  2. To recognize the extent to which time management affects employee performance at
    Dangote cement company.
  3. To examine the measures to improve the nature of time management at Dangote cement company.

1.4 Research Questions

To empower landing in sound discoveries to accomplish the targets set out over, the following research questions were considered.

  1. What is the nature of time management at Dangote cement company?
  2. What is the effect of time management on employees’ performance at Dangote cement company?
  3. What measures are used to improve the nature of time management at Dangote cement company?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study empowers us decide time management causes, significance and the effects on employee performance.

Furthermore, the study is significant as it goes far to teach Dangote cement company just as different organizations on the need for time management for their workers.

The study adds to existing store of knowledge as findings add to studies about that have been done as such that individual in different organizations and other part of the nation can welcome the issue and gain from the research done.

It also gives recommendations on how employees can improve time management to upgrade their performance just as decrease impacts of poor time management on their performance and will go to the limit of expanding their efficiency.

1.6 Scope of the Study

The target organization chosen was Dangote cement company. The study gears to restrict the scope of the research to the Head Office of Dangote cement company Obajana, Kogi State for data collection.

1.7 Organization of the Study

Five (5) chapter have been partitioned for this study.

  • Chapter One discussion is based on the introduction, the background of the study, problem statement, the objectives, its significance, the scope of the study and limitation of the study.
  • Chapter Two surveys the literature on performance evaluation of time management on employee performance, significance of the topic and the other significant ideas with respect to the proposed topic.
  • Chapter Three takes a gander at the methodology which involves research design, population, sample size, sample designs and procedures, data collection instruments, schedule and mode of data collection, data processing procedures, and procedures of data analysis designs.
  • Chapter Four spotlights on the analysis of data and the findings in relation to the literature review. At the end of the day, this chapter breaks down the data collected and the outcomes acquired.
  • Chapter Five focuses on the summary of the study, the conclusion and the recommendations on approaches to upgrade time management of employee for better performance.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.0 Introduction

This chapter contains summary of the study findings, recommendations, conclusions and suggestions for further research. This chapter hence displays the summary of the study findings and conclusions that emerge from them. The part further gives recommendations.

5.1 Summary of Findings

This chapter presents the major findings that were identified at the end of the study. These major findings include the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, factors to improve time management in the organization and the relationship of time management and job performance

5.1.1 Socio-Demographic Characteristics

This study recorded more male than females. The male had a percentage of 60.0% representing 48 respondents and the female 40.0% constituting 32 respondents. The age range was classified into three groups. The age group of (20-29) represents 71.25% which constituting 57 respondents, age group (30-39) representing 22.5% constituting 18 respondents and age group (40-49) representing a percentage of 6.25% constituting 5 respondents.

The marital status revealed that 86.25% were single constituting 69 respondents and 13.75% were married constituting 11 respondents.

The educational qualification reveals that 2 respondents represent 2.5% had the basic certificate, 11.25% represent 9 respondents fell in the category of WASSCE / SSCE, 32.5% representing 26 respondents were HND holders and the category B.A/ B.SC revealed 53.75 constituting 43 respondents.

Findings showed that the length of service of (0-5) years revealed that 28.75% constituting 23 respondents, length of service (6-9) years representing 45% that’s 36 respondents and 26.25% constituting 21 respondents fell within the length of service (10-19) years.

5.1.2 Factors to improve time management in the organization.

With the pressure time possess, tasks need to be accomplished within that the target time set. The motive of time management is to serve as a method to assist employees in their performance to accomplish set goals. The general awareness of time management have structures to help individuals and managers improve the set of time management skills; books and time management programs would help increase performance. Amazingly, findings have discovered that time management training programs and effects of time management on work performance. It was revealed that out of 57 respondents representing 71.25% strongly agreed to the support of time management in the organization, 23.75% constituting 19 respondents agreed to improving the factors to support time management in the organization and 5.0% constituting 4 respondents were indecisive about the topic of supporting time management.

5.1.3 Time Management and Job Performance.

From the findings it can be revealed that the two variables in this study cannot be neglected.

These two variables are high performance and effective time management in the organization.

As organization are concerned about the high performance, the managers are advised to equally improve the skills, practices and techniques of time management. The findings reveals that 71.25% constituting 57 respondents strongly agreed that time management increase performance, 26.25% representing 21 respondents agreed that time management increase organization performance and 2.5% constitute 2 respondents were indecisive on the topic.

Even though time management is very popular, there seems to be less scientific research focusing how people manage time and from the processes involved in Dangote cement company. From the data gathered, time management was a nicely defined concept. The concept of time management does not differ from one person to another.

Effective time management is a remedy or solution to organizational effectiveness and not a placebo. Organizations that are conscious of time management and practices it improves staff performance, preparation of jobs’ schedule would be done with ease, energize staff to use their highest skill level to complete tasks, help staffs to prioritize activities to achieve tasks of importance, provide records and guidance to the organization as to achieve the objectives set.

Fixed state of quality is not about one being perfectly organized depicting the effective utilizing of time; the study and development through the persistent practices and experience helps one acquire the set of skills of time management. Full commitment added to the course of action will only get time management skills working which removes the shreds of doubt.

Confidence is the most important as crucial ingredient to time management. It has been categorized into two aspects; Firstly, one has to be fully confident and believe learning is possible and skills develop as well. Secondly, one needs to trust the techniques of time management to have it work for good. Effectiveness level would increase as these aspects are achieved.

The research found out that majority of the organization workforce are young, single, highly educated and has been working for a short time (5 years), this shows that the organization is in the process of rebranding and lots of initiatives has been taken into account

5.2 Recommendation

In the light of the findings, clearly successful time management is an apparatus for employees’ performance. Along these lines, it is recommended that employees ought to cling carefully to be involve in the production of products and services of the best quality to consumers by adhering to effective time management.

  1. Write down the conflicting situations that waste time with reasons.
  2. Delegate tasks that seems fit to accomplish within the abilities of the employees to focus relatively more important task iii. Modern technology helps to save time as it ease and simplifies task. The right jobs should be done with the appropriate technology.

Time must by treated with care by all since time management of its employees influences the productivity of the bottom line of the organization. (Most executives are idle about time management). For an organization to have employees who are time conscious the managers have to be seen as efficient in their time usage and that the organization itself should plan and control the processes. The effectiveness of employees’ usage of time now influences the productivity level of the organization in future. Time is made up of series of events and to effectively manage time means controlling events. Organizations need to skill their employees to work effectively with regard to time since that’s the only way organization can control time but cannot control it by itself.

Imagine organizations with employees that fail to perform because he does not have any knowledge of managing time and also top management that have not taken interest in time management. At all gatherings at the workplace, managers should ensure employees are aware of the benefits of effective time management.

5.3 Limitation of the Study

Firstly the study faced many problems since the target company has many branches in the country. The production of ice cream is the main activity of the target company and the company’s employees and managers were the respondents to the questionnaires. Because of the numerous branches the organization has, the research focused on two branches and this did not provide us the opportunity to have a thorough research of all the branches.

Moreover, the following were time constraint;

  • The start of data collection was a bit hectic since employees feared that results of the questionnaire would have adverse effect on them such management to punish them if they negative answers were given out, all the same the research had to convince them to provide accurate and reliable responds.
  • The allocation of time to respond to the questionnaires was an issue with management.

A lot of pleading was made before they could answer the questionnaire

The significant imperatives the research also experience over the span of the study were access to data. Access to date particularly primary data was somewhat challenging. This was on the grounds that most respondents were reluctant to take part. Also, the inspected populace of the study is excessively little and this can affect the generalizing of the study. Besides, few of the respondents were not literates, interpreters would be engaged.

5.4 Suggestions for future Studies

The study was a quantitative study of the performance evaluation of time management on employee performance, the researcher suggests that more detailed and qualitative research to be conducted on various areas objectives of time management and employees’ performance such as the key motivators for job performance, time management behaviors, diverse ways of improve time management. This would add more to the literature performance evaluation of time management on employee performance and thereby expand the knowledge base in this area of study which can also be relied on in future research.

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