Perception Of Teachers On The Impact Of Counselling In Managing Traumatized Students In Secondary Schools (Case Study Of Selected Secondary Schools In Edo State)

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Perception Of Teachers On The Impact Of Counselling In Managing Traumatized Students In Secondary Schools (Case Study Of Selected Secondary Schools In Edo State)


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the perception of teachers on the impact of counselling in managing traumatized students in secondary schools using selected secondary schools in Akoko-Edo LGA, Edo State as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to examine teachers perception on how counselling helps in the management of traumatized students, examine teachers perception on the effect of trauma on academic performance of secondary school student, find out the perception of teachers on the challenges of managing traumatized secondary school student, and examine teachers perception on the strategies counsellor can use in managing traumatized students. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of teachers of some selected secondary schools in Akoko-Edo LGA, Edo State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 57 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the perception of teachers on how counselling helps in the management of traumatized students includes: it provides concern for the traumatized students, it provides the traumatized a safe space for expression, it offers the traumatized with activities that helps to manage their mindset, and it facilitates the mental adjustment of the traumatized. The study also revealed that the perception of teachers on the challenges of managing traumatized secondary school student includes: ineffectiveness of school counselors, incessant behavior of parents, frequent absenteeism of the victimized students, and little or no cooperation from school management and teachers. Therefore, it is recommended that students who experiences trauma stress disorders should be given cognitive behaviour therapy to enable them to know how their thinking affects their mood and to teach them to think in a less negative way about life and themselves. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Counselors and supervisors who deal with traumatized people must be aware of both the emotional and behavioral expressions of trauma as well as the physical effects of psychological trauma. Integrating the intricate literature into practical practice, on the other hand, is tough. Many writers go into further depth about different elements of the following content, but the goal of this article is to present information that all counselors dealing with traumatized clients can understand. The emotional trauma response of a person is complicated and difficult to anticipate. Individual responses to trauma are influenced by a person’s age, previous trauma exposure, social support, culture, family psychiatric history, and overall emotional functioning (Okoye, Ademoju and Achebe, 2007). Furthermore, the emotional and physical proximity to actual danger, the degree of perceived personal control, the length of exposure to trauma, the reaction of others to the trauma, and the source of the trauma (e.g., natural disaster, abuse from a parent, abuse from a stranger, random personal violence, combat, terrorist act) all have an impact on an individual’s response to trauma (Okoye, Ademoju and Achebe, 2007). Some individuals show resilience by reacting to adversity in a creative and flexible way. Others, on the other hand, see trauma as a negative, primary defining event in their life, signaling the onset of long-term emotional discomfort, maladaptive behavior, and/or relationship dysfunction. Most people suffer transient preoccupation and some involuntary intrusive recollections after being exposed to a stressful incident. According to Okon (1984), the repetitive replaying of painful memories actually modifies the emotional reaction to the trauma, resulting in a steady rise in traumatic content tolerance. While most individuals recover over time by integrating and accepting the horrific event via repetition, some acquire the hyperarousal and avoidance habits of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The terrible experience does not get recognized as part of their history in these people. Instead, each repetition of the memory exacerbates sensitivity and anguish (Okon, 1984).

Every day, students from all around the country bring their own trauma experiences to class. Trauma “results from an event, series of events, or set of circumstances that is experienced by an individual as physically or emotionally harmful or threatening and has lasting adverse effects on the individual’s functioning and physical, social, emotional, or spiritual well-being,” according to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA, 2014). Traumatic events, also known as unpleasant experiences, are common among children and adolescents of all ages and may involve things like poverty, abuse and neglect, and exposure to community violence (Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative, 2013).

The cognitive and psychological impacts of trauma exposure in the classroom are accompanied by academic and social issues. Students with traumatic stress histories performed worse on standardized exams and were three times more likely to be placed in an Individualized Education Program, according to Morshed (2017). (IEP). Students with histories of abuse have worse academic attainment, according to Dobson (1974). Children with trauma histories exhibit a broad variety of externalizing and internalizing behaviors, including irritability, violence, withdrawal, problems with authority, and hyper arousal, in addition to academic underachievement (National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2008). These habits may start as early as preschool and can last all the way until adulthood (Dobson, 1984).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The school promotes itself as a vital venue for mental health intervention for kids demonstrating the cognitive, psychological, academic, or social repercussions of exposure to traumatic experiences (Donald, 2019). Despite the fact that school social workers, counselors, and psychologists are often seen as the major providers of mental health services, evidence reveals that classroom teachers are increasingly accountable for implementing mental health treatments. Franklin and colleagues (Franklin, Kim, Ryan, Kelly, & 4 Montgomery, 2012) found that teachers were actively engaged in the delivery of approximately 41% of mental health interventions in a comprehensive evaluation of school mental health intervention studies. Furthermore, teachers were the only providers of around 18 percent of the treatments included in the systematic review (e.g., drug and alcohol use prevention, anger management, depression, and suicidal behaviors interventions) (Donald, 2019). The findings of the Elliott. (2015) study relate to teachers’ general opinions of counselling in managing traumatized children in the classroom; nevertheless, there is little research that particularly addresses teachers’ experiences helping traumatized students. Only a few research addressing teachers’ perceptions of counseling in handling trauma in the classroom have been found in the prior literature. As a result, there is a need to investigate the perception of teachers on the impact of counselling in managing traumatized students in secondary schools using selected secondary schools in Akoko-Edo LGA, Edo State as a case study.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The broad objectives of this study is to investigate into the perception of teachers on the impact of counselling in managing traumatized students in secondary schools using selected secondary schools in Akoko-Edo LGA, Edo State as a case study. The specific objectives include:

  1. To examine teachers perception on how counselling helps in the management of traumatized students.
  2. To examine teachers perception on the effect of trauma on academic performance of secondary school student.
  3. To find out the perception of teachers on the challenges of managing traumatized secondary school student.
  4. To examine teachers perception on the strategies counsellor can use in managing traumatized students.

1.4 Research Question

This research is an attempt to answer the following questions:

  1. What is the perception of teachers on how counselling helps in the management of traumatized students?
  2. What is the perception of teachers on the effect of trauma on academic performance of secondary school student?
  3. What is the perception of teachers on the challenges of managing traumatized secondary school student?
  4. What is the teachers perception on the strategies counselors can use in managing traumatized students

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: The perception of teachers on the impact of counselling in managing traumatized students in secondary schools is positive.
  • Ha: The perception of teachers on the impact of counselling in managing traumatized students in secondary schools is negative.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study focuses on the perception of teachers on the impact of counselling in managing traumatized students in secondary schools , hence it will be beneficial to the ministry of education as it will increased awareness of teachers’ perceptions of trauma in the classroom and how it influences a range of educational and mental health stakeholders, and the impact of such research spans educational policy and practice.

The study will also be of benefit to counsellors as it will expose them to the technique counsellors can use to help traumatized students.

This study will be significant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to examine the perception of teachers on the impact of counselling in managing traumatized students in secondary schools using selected secondary schools in Akoko-Edo LGA, Edo State as a case study. Hence, the study will be delimited to some selected secondary schools in Akoko-Edo LGA, Edo State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study. Correspondents also might not be able to complete or willing to submit the questionnaires given to them.

However, it is believed that these constraints will be worked on by making the best use of the available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work. Therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraint, its effect on this research report will be minimal, thus, making the objective and significance of the study achievable.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Perception:

The ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses; the way in which something is regarded, understood, or interpreted

Counselling:

An intervention is an orchestrated attempt by one or many people – usually family and friends – to get someone to seek professional help with an addiction or some kind of traumatic event or crisis, or other serious problem.

Guidance Counsellors:

A school counselor is a counselor and an educator who works in primary (elementary and middle) schools and/or secondary schools to provide academic, career, college access/affordability/admission, and social-emotional competencies to all students through a school counseling program.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the perception of teachers on the impact of counselling in managing traumatized students in secondary schools using selected secondary schools in Akoko-Edo LGA, Edo State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the perception of teachers on the impact of counselling in managing traumatized students in secondary schools using selected secondary schools in Akoko-Edo LGA, Edo State as a case study. The study was specifically focused to examine teachers perception on how counselling helps in the management of traumatized students, examine teachers perception on the effect of trauma on academic performance of secondary school student, find out the perception of teachers on the challenges of managing traumatized secondary school student, and examine teachers perception on the strategies counsellor can use in managing traumatized students.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are teachers of some selected secondary schools in Akoko-Edo LGA, Edo State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The perception of teachers on how counselling helps in the management of traumatized students includes: it provides concern for the traumatized students, it provides the traumatized a safe space for expression, it offers the traumatized with activities that helps to manage their mindset, and it facilitates the mental adjustment of the traumatized.
  2. The perception of teachers on the effect of trauma on academic performance of secondary school student includes: poor attendance to class, inability to concentrate during lessons, low academics turnover, and impairment in school functioning and aggressive and delinquent behaviour.
  3. The perception of teachers on the challenges of managing traumatized secondary school student includes: ineffectiveness of school counselors, incessant behavior of parents, frequent absenteeism of the victimized students, and little or no cooperation from school management and teachers.
  4. The teachers perception on the strategies counselors can use in managing traumatized students includes: build positive relationships, create a safe environment for the child to talk, set aside a designated time and place for discussion, and clarify distortions and misconceptions.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;

  1. Schools should employ psychologists who should provide psychological interventions that could help take care of symptoms of trauma so as to pave way for healthy living and improved academic performance.
  2. Students who experiences trauma stress disorders should be given cognitive behaviour therapy to enable them to know how their thinking affects their mood and to teach them to think in a less negative way about life and themselves.
  3. Conducive atmosphere should be provided by government to improve security in schools and enhance teaching and learning, this will go along way in reducing trauma.
  4. Student that experience trauma should be given orientation periodically by experts/psychologists for re-educating and re-assurance in life.

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