Perception Of Students In The Use Of Celebrity Endorsement In Nigeria Advertising
This study was carried out to examine the perception of students in the use of celebrities on brand endorsement in Nigeria advertisement using Globalcom as a case study. The study specifically was aimed to examine the extent which students are exposing to Glo advertisements, ascertain whether the use of celebrities endorsement having any positive effects on students in their buying or services decision, and determine whether brands that are using celebrities are perceived as market leaders within their product category. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of students, Osun State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 160 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent which students are exposed to Glo advertisements is high. The study also revealed that brands using celebrities are perceived as market leaders within their product category. Therefore, it is recommended that companies should ensure that their products are of high quality before asking celebrities to endorse their products. A product of poor quality would undermine the essence of paying a lot for celebrity endorsement. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypotheses
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organizations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.0 Data Presentation
- 4.1 Analysis of Data
- 4.2 Answering Research Questions
- 4.3 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Introduction
- 5.2 Summary
- 5.3 Conclusion
- 5.4 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Models or celebrities’ endorsement or celebrity branding is a form of advertising campaign or marketing strategy used by brands, companies, or a non-profit organization which involves celebrities or a well-known person using their social status or their fame to help promote a product, service or even raise awareness on environmental or social matters. In this study model and celebrity will be used interchangeably as the two connote the same thing in this as far as this study is concern.
Marketers use popular models endorsers in hopes that the positive images of the celebrity endorser of the brand will also be passed on to the products or the brand image associated with the celebrities. Many companies and brands do this but most notable ones among them include but not limited to Genevieve Nnaji’s used by Etisalat, Lux, Cintrion Energy drink, Range Rover Evogue, Etisalat, Polo and Amstel Malta, P Square by Etisalat, Funke Akindele by Vita Foam, Globacom, Jobberman.com, Qlichy.com, Klin detergent, OMO, Wizkid by MTN, Pepsi, Guinness, Mr Ibu by Sports Betting company (MerryBet), GoTv. Also, Saka by Etisalat, MTN, Soulmate hair cream and many more (Olayinka, 2016).
Celebrity branding is also known as celebrity endorsement, and is a form of publication by portraying a well recognized sports or entertainment celebrity to be a brand ambassador for a company or firm, and by using their social status to promote a service or product (Pughazhendi, Baskaran, Prakash and Balamurugan, 2012).
Marketers spend enormous amounts of money annually on celebrity endorsement contracts based on the belief that celebrities are effective spokespeople for their products or brands (Pughazhendi, Baskaran, Prakash and Balamurugan, 2012). Celebrity Endorsement is viewed as a billion dollar industry in today’s era. Various companies are signing deals with celebrities in the hope that by using celebrities they can accomplish a unique and relevant position in the minds of the consumers. Celebrity endorsement is increasingly being employed across various industries regardless of the product type. It is known to be playing the role of a signaling strategy (Biswas, Hussain, and O’Donnell, 2009). Also, celebrity endorsement can give a brand a touch of glamour.
Models are the use of well known persons face to help promote a product or service often through radio, television, newspaper, magazine, billboard, digial platforms, online etc. It also involves celebrities appearances at events of Pepsi such as launching, get together. It may involve celebrity use of display the product in the public with the intention to boost sales volume and have positive impact on the product. However, though, lots of brands and companies are using celebrities to promote their brand and one of such foremost companies is Globalcom otherwise called GLO. Globacom Limited is a Nigeria Multinational Telecommunication Company. Glo is a privately owned telecommunication company that started operations on the 29th August, 2003 in Nigeria. Globacom is privately owned by Mike Adenuga Group which consists of Equitorial Trust Bank, Conoil Plc., and a petroleum marketing company producing a crude exploration company.
The sole aim of introducing and lunching Globacom in Nigeria on the 29th of August, 2003 was to provide telecommunication service to the people of Nigeria as a means of solving the problem of inadequate communication flow. Although Glo Mobile was the fourth telecommunication operator in Nigeria, within seven years of the company’s operation, its subscriber base has grown to over 25 million. Glo has an estimate of over 25 million subscribers. It has a reputation as one of the fastest growing multinational carrier in the world and the vision for Glo is to be the biggest and best carries in Africa. Globacom currently operates in four countries in West Africa namely Republic of Benin, Ghana, Ivory Coast and Nigeria. Its Headquarter is in Lagos, Nigeria because it is 100 percent a Nigerian owned company. According to Globacom Annual Report (2009). In August, 2003, Glo Mobile was launched in Nigeria and it introduced lower tariffs, pay per second billing and along other value added services.
Glo Mobile is a subsidiary of Glo, its Glo Mobile Network Unit. Globacom is aiming to become the best telecommunication company in Africa and all over the world is due to the strategies they designed in order to carry out their business smoothly. The company in 2006 introduced BlackBerry (A) which is the leading wireless solution that keeps mobile professionals around the world connected to people and information. In 2009, Globacom launched Blackberry prepaid service which gives subscribers options to pay daily, weekly or monthly for the service
The company now provides coverage to over 85 cities and towns as well over 5000 communities and villages spinning every geo-political zone and 36 of Nigeria’s States. Under the chairmanship of Otunba Michael Adeniyi Ishola Adenuga Jr., Globacom has turned out to become the giant telecommunication industry in West Africa (Globacom Annual Report, 2009). To this end, the study examines the perception of UNIOSUN students in the use of celebrity endorsement in Nigeria advertising industry with a specific focus on Globalcom who often refers to its celebrity as ambassadors i.e Glo Ambassadors.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Celebrities endorsement has been one of the main advertising strategies to persuade and get sales. In a study conducted by Hsinkuang, Huery, Shih and Yi (2011) show that consumers show greater recall of products that have been endorsed by celebrities regardless of whether they are actual fans or not. The human brain recognizes celebrities quicker to how it recognizes people we actually know (Okoli, 2016). They added that if consumers happen to be fans, they place a higher value on products that celebrities are endorsing it is as if they are receiving advice from a valued friend. Also, critics have identified the use of celebrities vouching for or promoting products, brands as deceptive form of marketing as some consumers may consume product or use a brand because its sport lord has been used to advertise it.
Although, lots of studies have been conducted on the use of models and celebrities but most of them are conducted in abroad which there findings cannot be replicated in Nigeria even where they exist they often focus on brands generally, unlike this study that focus only on the perception of Osun State University students in the use of celebrity endorsement by GLO. It is against this backdrop that the study investigates perception of students in the use of celebrity endorsement in Nigeria advertising industry with a particular focus on Globacom Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
Although, the primary objectives of the study is to the trends in the use of models in the Nigeria advertising industry particularly in Globalcom Limited. Other specific objectives are:
- To examine the extent which students are exposing to Glo advertisements.
- To ascertain whether the use of celebrities endorsement having any positive effects on students in their buying or services decision.
- To determine whether brands that are using celebrities are perceived as market leaders within their product category.
1.4 Research Questions
- To what extent are students exposed to celebrities in Glo advertisement?
- Are celebrities endorsement perceived as having any positive effects on Glo buying decision among students?
- Are brands using celebrities perceived as market leaders within their product category?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
Ho: Brands using celebrities are not perceived as market leaders within their product category.
Ha: Brands using celebrities are perceived as market leaders within their product category.
1.6 Significance of Study
This research finding will contribute significantly to the existing body of knowledge in the area of mass communication, advertising and marketing in general.
The advertisers will through this study realized and understand the true impact of various strategies particularly the use of models/celebrities in promoting their brands, products and other services especially in the era of competing brands. Also, the kind of music and celebrities use contribute significantly to motivate customers.
Media such as radio, television, digital platforms including advertising agencies may gain from this study as it will uncover what consumers wants and how they want it in order to design an appeal and strategies to gain more audience to their clients
All government and other stakeholder that are saddled with the responsibility of ensuring fair and suitable commercial may equally benefit from this study as it serves as an eye opening by monitoring the kind of celebrities, models, lyrics and other strategies and appeal combine in other to prevent obscene, respect for the mirror and religion among others by enforcing truthfulness, fairness and non- deceit campaign that may persuade or lure audience to buy less quality products as critics once said model use in advert is more of deceit.
Researchers from advertising, marketing, mass communication and other related field may who may be interested in conducting similar or related one shall find this study relevant as it offers them empirical opportunity to see what has been done while it will serve as a reference materials for them, thus fill some gaps in musical advertising and how it works especially in this era where music is gaining more momentum in the society.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The research which examines the perception of students in the use of celebrity endorsement in Nigeria advertising industry particularly on GLO brand has been narrowed in scope to Osun State University, Osogbo students due to the proximity of the institution to the researcher. The brand (is picked because it is one of the most obvious brands that use lots of models/celebrities to promote its brand) while UNIOSUN students were also selected because they often expose to Glo brand ambassadors at different shows.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
This is the views and attitude of UNIOSUN students towards celebrities featuring in commercials of GLO and other brands.
Use of Celebrities:
This means when a brand like Glo seek a celerity such as Musicians like Wizkid or footballer like Osasi Odenwingie to use their product in public, promote it or appear in their important event such as launching etc
They are star or role used in adverting products or services, it could be television stars, actors actresses, sport figures or entertainers whose appearance in the advertisement of such goods or services sustains the interest of his /her audience on the goods or services so advertised.
It is the process of disseminating persuasive information to the public through a non-personal medium like radio, television, magazine, newspaper, billboard and online with the aim to lure them to buy or use Pepsi especially with the use of model as a part of its strategy.
These are the students of who have tendency to have exposed or seen models in advertisement especially a model showcasing Glo brand on television, radio, billboards, social media and newspapers/ magazines etc.
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings to examine the perception of students in the use of celebrities on brand endorsement in Nigeria advertisement using Globalcom Limited, as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was to examine the perception of students in the use of celebrities on brand endorsement in Nigeria advertisement using Globalcom Limited, as a case study. The study specifically was aimed to examine the extent which students are exposing to Glo advertisements. ascertain whether the use of celebrities endorsement having any positive effects on students in their buying or services decision, and determine whether brands that are using celebrities are perceived as market leaders within their product category.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents were UNIOSUN students, Osun State.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.
- The extent which students are exposed to Glo advertisements is high.
- The use of celebrities endorsement has a positive effects on students in their buying or services decision.
- Brands using celebrities are perceived as market leaders within their product category.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
- Companies should ensure that their products are of high quality before asking celebrities to endorse their products. A product of poor quality would undermine the essence of paying a lot for celebrity endorsement.
- Companies must be cautious of the celebrities they select to help advertise their products. Despite the admirable qualities which the members of the public notice with the personality, advertisers should probe into the private life of the celebrity to ensure that the celebrity is actually qualified for use both physically and morally.
- Advertisers should refrain from deceiving the consumers by exaggerating the merits of their products to the consumers.
- Multiple endorsement of more than one product or brand by a celebrity must be discouraged. This is to avoid confusion. The public is confused when a celebrity advertises and endorses more than one product.
- The involvement of celebrities in advertising should be carefully planned and managed because proper selection of celebrities determines the overall effectiveness as well as success of advertising.
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