The Perception Of Secondary School Students On The Use Of Information And Communication Technology (ICT) For Learning
The study examined the perception of secondary school students on the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for learning, using selected secondary schools in Agege Local Government Area of Lagos State. In this study, relevant and extensive literature was reviewed under subheadings. The survey research design was used to assess responses of the selected respondents, with the application of the questionnaire and the sampling technique. A total of 200 (two hundred) respondents were selected and used for this study, which represented the bulk of the population. The research was guided by three research questions and two hypotheses. Data were collected using “ICT and Students Learning Questionnaire” (ICTSLQ). The collected data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions while chi-square was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The finding of the study revealed that ICT has a significant influence on the mean learning of students of Selected secondary schools in Agege Local Government Area of Lagos State. The use of ICT also influenced significantly the mean learning of male and female students of Selected secondary schools in Agege Local Government Area of Lagos State. The study recommended among others that students should embrace the use of ICT irrespective of gender to enhance their performance in various subjects of learning.
1.1 Background of the Study
The importance of ICT is quite evident from the educational perspective. Though the chalkboard, textbooks, radio/television and film have been used for educational purpose over the years, none has quite impacted on the educational process like the computer. While television and film impact only on the audiovisual faculties of users, the computer is capable of activating the senses of sight, hearing and touch of the users. ICT has the capacity to provide higher interactive potential for users to develop their individual, intellectual and creative ability. The main purpose of ICT consists just in the development of human mental resources, which allow people to both successfully apply the existing knowledge and produce new knowledge (Shavinina, 2001).
The collective and rigid nature of learning and the passive nature of the learning associated with the use of radio, television and film do not contribute any innovative changes to traditional methods in education system. Information and communication technologies are being used in the developed world for instructional functions. Today, computers perform a host of functions in teaching and learning especially as many nations are adding computer literacy, reading and writing literacy skills students will need for succeeding in a technologically developed world (Thomas, 2005). At the instructional level, computers are used by pupils to learn reading, mathematics, social studies, art, music, simulation and health practices.
In educational multimedia application, Shavinina (2006) asserted that today’s learning contents are domain-specific products and that they dominate the world market. According to Shavinina (2006), domain-specific educational multimedia is directed to knowledge acquisition skills development in the language arts, history, physics, literature, biology and so on.
There is no doubt that ICT provides productive teaching and learning in order to increase children’s creative and intellectual resources especially in today’s information society. Through the simultaneous use of audio, text, multicolor images, graphics, motion, ICT gives ample and exceptional opportunities to the pupils to develop capacities for high quality learning and to increase their ability to innovate.
Nigeria cannot afford to lag behind in using multimedia to raise the intellectual and creative resources of her citizens especially the children. This is particularly important for children whose adulthood will blossom in a cyber environment entirely different from that of the present (Shavinina, 2006). Nigerian children need to be taught by radically new educational programme and variety of educational contents with multimedia playing key role (Ayo, 2000).
Technology plays a significant role in all aspects of life today, and this role will only increase in the future. The potential benefits of technology for young children’s learning and development are well documented (Wright & Shade, 1994). As technology becomes easier to use and early childhood software proliferates, young children’s use of technology becomes more widespread. Therefore, early childhood educators have a responsibility to critically examine the impact of technology on children and be prepared to use technology to benefit children.
Computers supplement and do not replace highly valued early childhood activities and materials, such as art, blocks, sand, water, books, exploration with writing materials, and dramatic play. Research indicates that computers can be used in developmentally appropriate ways beneficial to children and also can be misused, just as any tools can (Shade & Watson, 1990). Developmentally appropriate software offers opportunities for collaborative play, learning and creation. Educators must use professional judgment in evaluating and using this learning tool appropriately, applying the same criteria they would to any other learning tool or experience. They must also weigh the costs of technology with the costs of other learning materials and programme resources to arrive at an appropriate balance for their classrooms.
Computers are intrinsically compelling for young children. The sounds and graphics gain children’s attention. Increasingly, young children observe adults and older children working on computers, and they want to do it. Children get interested because they can make things happen with computers. Developmentally appropriate software engages children in creative play, mastery learning, problem solving, and conversation. The children control the pacing and the action. They can repeat a process or activity as often as they like and experiment with variations. They collaborate in making decisions and share their discoveries and creations (Haugland & Shade, 1990).
The teacher’s role is critical in making certain that good decisions are made about which technology to use and in supporting children in their use of technology to ensure that potential benefits are achieved. Teachers must take time to evaluate and choose software in light of principles of development and learning and must carefully observe children using the software to identify both opportunities and problems and make appropriate adaptations. Choosing appropriate software is similar to choosing appropriate books for the classroom, teachers constantly make judgments about what is age appropriate, individually appropriate and culturally appropriate (NAEYC, 1992).
As educators become active participants in a technological world, they need in-depth training and ongoing support to be adequately prepared to make decisions about technology and to support its effective use in learning environment for children. Mayor (1997) advocates for teachers to be fully equipped to understand and communicate to learners the skills required to build more sustainable life in a technological changing and highly globalized world. The potentials of technology are far-reaching and ever changing. The risk is for educators to become complacent, assuming that their current knowledge or experience is adequate. Technology is an area of the curriculum, as well as a tool for learning, in which teachers must demonstrate their own capacity for learning (Bredekamp & Rosegrant, 1994).
Onuoha (2000), posited that the advent of information technology has made education simpler and easier for students especially, the adolescents in secondary schools who offer mathematics in our school system. Onuoha (2000) claimed that information communication technology has helped students in many ways such as project writing and collection of necessary information leading to effective studies. This has enabled many students to achieve high academic achievement in school. He further stated that information communication technology has created a remarkable balance and effectiveness in the daily activities of students who are in the habits of using the computer and the internet to carry out faster storage and retrieval of information in the academic environment or school.
As Adelekunnu (1994) puts it, the training given to children in order to help them meet the demands of the society in which they live is called socialization. According to him, information communication technology (ICT) can be used to assist students to get along with others, achieving self-reliance and educational success. Also, it can help them to achieve professional success and to adhere to societal values and norms. With information technology, students achieve high academic laurels in schools, generally in science, and particularly in mathematics related subjects.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The problem of lack of the application of the information and communication technology (ICT) in the teaching and learning processes at the early childhood education delivery cannot be overemphasized. This is because several factors pose some hindrances to the effective use of ICT for the purpose of teaching pupils at the secondary school level. The major impediments to the successful use of information and communication technology (ICT) include: the high cost of computers in the developing countries; weak infrastructure that has caused deficiency in the use of computer; lack of skills and human knowledge to integrate ICT into teaching and learning in the preschool.
Not only that, other problems of the non-utilization of ICT in teaching at the secondary schools include lack of relevant software. For instance, software that is appropriate and culturally suitable to the Nigerian education system is in short supply. Also, there is great discrepancy between relevant software supply and demand in developing countries like Nigeria. Limited access to the internet by many Nigerian teachers, especially those who teach the pupils at the preschool is yet another problem of this study. This is because, there are few internet providers that provide internet gateway services in Nigeria, many of the foreign companies that provide the internet services in Nigeria, provide poor services to the Nigerian masses, and so, teachers do not make good use of them. The above identified problems, gave rise to this study on the perception of secondary school students on the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for learning.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The purpose of this study was to assess the perception of secondary school students on the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for learning.
The specific objectives are outlined below:
- To determine the perception of secondary school students on the influence of ICT on their learning in Agege Local Government Area of Lagos State
- To investigate the influence of ICT on academic performance students of Selected secondary schools in Agege Local Government Area of Lagos State
- To ascertain the influence of ICT on the learning of male and female students of Selected secondary schools in Agege Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions guided the study
- What is the perception of secondary school students on the influence of ICT on their learning in Agege Local Government Area of Lagos State?
- What is the influence of ICT on academic performance students of Selected secondary schools in Agege Local Government Area of Lagos State?
- What is the influence of ICT on the learning of male and female students of Selected secondary schools in Agege Local Government Area of Lagos State?
- HO1: The use of ICT has no significant influence on the mean learning of students of Selected secondary schools in Agege Local Government Area of Lagos State.
- HO2: There is no significant influence of ICT on the mean learning of male and female students of Selected secondary schools in Agege Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be beneficial to the following:
Students would benefit from the findings and recommendations of this study because it would help them to be able to be more aware of the information communication technology in the school. This study will enable students to get more involved in the utilization of information communication technology due to the benefits derivable from it.
They would find this study beneficial because with the findings and recommendations of this study, teachers would avail themselves of the opportunity to get involved in the use of information communication technology because of the numerous benefits that can be derived from it. With the study also, information communication technology and their functions.
Parents would benefit from this study because it would enable them to know the benefits their children/wards derived from using the information communication technology in their academic work or activities. Parents themselves, will avail themselves of the opportunity of knowing the importance of information communication technology through this study and those who do not use information communication technology would start to use it as it is beneficial to all human activities.
The School Authority:
This study would assist the school authority to be able to know more about information communication technology and its functions especially in the life of the full-time student. The recommendations of this study would enable the school authority to expand its policy on the availability and usage of information communication technology in the school system in Nigeria.
The society would benefit from this study, because it will assist the society to be information communication technology friendly due to the advantages it has. This study will afford the society to know more about information communication technology and its functions in the world today.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study covered the perception of secondary school students on the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for learning. The study will be limited to selected secondary schools in Agege Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.8 Definition of Terms
The following terms were operationally defined in this study:
Systematic approach to designing, implementing and evaluating the instructional system on the basic principle of education.
Information Communication Technology:
Is the component culture that enables people to use their power to utilize their environment for their survival. It has made the world to be a global village.
Is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, attitudes, and preferences. It is also the acquisition of knowledge or skills through study, experience, or being taught.
Refers to the beliefs and mental disposition of the students regarding the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for learning.
Conclusion and Recommendations
Based on the results of the study, the use of ICT has a significant influence on the mean learning of student; ICT has a significant influence on the learning of male and female students of Selected secondary schools in Agege Local Government Area of Lagos State.
The linking of computers to education across the world is known to many people because it is believed that ICT has a crucial impact on teaching and learning. Therefore, Educational Institutions are witnessing a paradigm shift brought about by the use of ICT that others have even started seeing ICT as an indispensable tool in the teaching and learning process. As a result, the research findings revealed that students, are continually exposed to the capabilities of ICT, their perceptions towards change. The teacher’s involvement in use of and perception have also change positively towards use of ICT in teaching and learning. It is evident from the findings in the study that some schools that have put more effort to integrate ICT in teaching and learning. With this, teachers are faced with the responsibility to utilize ICT. The findings also reveal that teachers in this era should adopt a paradigm shift from old traditional methods of teaching to new methods of teaching in order to implement ICT integration effectively. This will enable them to cater for the needs of 21st century learners.
Based on the findings of this research, the following recommendations have been made:
- Teachers and students should embrace and sustain the use of ICT facilities in teaching and learning to enhance students’ performance in the various subjects.
- Both teachers and students regardless of gender should go for ICT training to equip themselves with the skills and knowledge of ICT.
- Male and female students should be engaged frequently in ICT based learning activities to enhance their familiarity and performance.
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