Perception Of Secondary School Students In Ilorin Metropolis On Causes Of Delinquent Behaviour
This study examined perception of secondary school students in Ilorin metropolis on the causes of delinquent behaviours. The population of the study consisted of all secondary school students in Ilorin metropolis.
Two hundred (200) respondents were randomly selected from the population, which include 100 J.S.S students and 100 S.S.S students. The instrument used for the study was a structured questionnaire with fifteen (15) items.
The results of the study revealed that age, gender, class level and religion significantly influence secondary school students’ perception of the causes of delinquent behaviour.
It was therefore recommended that, government should implement sanctions on students who engage in deviant behaviours by disrupting the peace of the school. Finally, more counsellors should be trained and posted to all secondary schools in Ilorin metropolis to help in controlling students with delinquent behaviours.
Table of Contents
- Title Page
- Approval Page
- Table of Contents
- List of Tables
- Background to the Study
- Statement of the Problem
- Research Questions
- Research Hypotheses
- Purpose of the Study
- Significance of the Study
- Operational Definition of Terms
- Scope of the Study
Review of Related Literature
- Definition of Delinquent Behaviour
- Types of Delinquent Behaviours
- Causes of Delinquent Behaviour
- Management of Delinquent Behaviours/Prevention
- Summary of the Review of Related Literature
- Research Design
- Sample and Sampling Procedure
- Reliability of the Instrument
- Procedure for Data Collection
- Method of Data Analysis
- Demographic Data
- Test of Hypotheses
- Summary of the Findings
Discussions, Conclusion and Recommendations
- Suggestions for Further Studies
List of Tables
- Table 1: Distribution of the Respondents by Gender
- Table 2: Distribution of the Respondents by Religion
- Table 3: Distribution of Respondents by Class Level
- Table 4: Distribution of Respondents by Age
- Table 5: Items Ranking on Perception of Causes of Delinquent Behaviour
- Table 6: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on perception of secondary school students on causes of delinquent behaviour on the basis of age
- Table 7: Duncan Multiple Range Test for Variable Age
- Table 8: t-test Analysis on perception of secondary school students on causes of delinquent behaviour on the basis of class level
- Table 9: t-test analysis on perception of secondary school students on causes of delinquent behaviour on the basis of gender
- Table 10: t-test analysis on perception of secondary school students on causes of delinquent behaviour on the basis of religion
Background to the Study
Every society wants its members to be well behaved and crime free, but seems to elude most societies, irrespective of age, sex, class level etc. One type or the other crimes are being committed. However, the general belief is that crime rate is more among the adolescent. These types of crimes are referred to as delinquent acts. Therefore,
According to Helen (2001) delinquency means repeated act of a kind which when committed by a person beyond the statutory juvenile court age of eighteen is punishable as crimes. Viewed symptomatically delinquent behaviour, whatever specific form it may take, has common denominator of maladaptation of the individual to the demands of a social code, be it to the rules of family life, school life in the society which is protected by a system of laws. Delinquency as a concept is subject to many definitions. It is a concept that has a legal origin but it is presently used in other spheres like education, social welfare etc. Anusiem (1987) defines delinquency as a legal concept. The concept also is referred to as juvenile delinquency.
Juvenile delinquency, as pointed out by Anusiem (1987) is used to refer to young persons between 16 and 18 years of aged who exhibit behaviours which is not consistent with law that is punishable by law if committed by adults. Delinquency from all the definitions mentioned above refers to behaviour of non-adult individuals in the society which are judged by the society as bad juvenile delinquency on the other hand, refers to be any act on behaviour by individuals under the age of 18years which goes contrary to the law of the land. These delinquencies, if not checked, may get to unmanageable level and the society will be loosing and living in fears. There is need to attempt to identify forms of delinquent behaviours. To elaborate more on these, some delinquent behaviours include murder, drug abuse, assault aggression, vandalism, burglary, robbery, rape, sexual promiscuity, alcoholism, smoking truancy, examination malpractice, and cultism to mention a few. Some of the factors that contribute to student delinquent behaviours include family tension, broken homes, rejection and disciplinary approaches.
Delinquency brings about social exclusion such anti-social behaviour and nuisance behaviour causes harassment, alarm or distress to one or more persons not of the same hosehold. There is more turn outs of thugs in the society today, which made people to live in fear, and this affect people’s engagement with the society as a whole.
One of the major effects is that, there is no peaceful atmosphere. Since the society is full of unsocialised, aggressive delinquents. Delinquent acts exposes adolescent to enter a period of aimless loafing and drifting and indiscriminate seeking for excitement and pleasure which invariably leads them to delinquent behaviours. It also leads to family disorganizations and ineffective socialization and this poor school adjustment. Another condition that gives rise to delinquent behaviour includes background of the family. When family fail to perform their duty it affects the child.
Socio-economic status of parents also contributes it child’s delinquency when what is required by the child can not be provided by parents due to financial problems. Peer group also is another contributor to delinquent behaviour. The type of friend a child moves with will have either negative or positive effects on the child.
Lastly mass media is another societal condition that contributes to high rate of delinquent behaviour. Some pornographic pictures, films and other reading materials that do not promote good morals.
Statement of the Problem
Every society has a dream of being peaceful. It wants its members to be well behaved and crime free. Today, delinquent behaviours have become the order of the day in secondary school. Although both young and old commit one type of crime or the other irrespective of sex but adolescent engage more avoidable crimes of various types and consequences. The crimes are emerging and the ugly situation has affected the academic performance of students in various level of educational system.
According to Bernneth and Dalton (2001) delinquency behaviour brings about frustration and depression which lead to poor academic performance and eventually drops out. The school is one of the social agencies that directly affect the child. The school therefore posses enormous time for influencing the behaviour of the child.
However, it is an undisputable fact that delinquency behaviour is common in every larger society like Ilorin Kwara State. Therefore, there is need to investigate the causes of delinquent behaviour in Ilorin metropolis. There have been lots of crimes which have resulted in death of many innocent students (Okoh 2000). These have been as a result of delinquent behaviour. This study sought to identify the cause of delinquency behaviours of secondary school students in Ilorin Metropolis.
The following research questions were asked to guide the study
- What is the perception of secondary school students on these causes of delinquent behaviour?
- To what extent would age of the students influence their perception of causes of delinquent behaviour?
- To what extent would students’ class level influence their perception of causes of delinquent behaviour?
- To what extent does gender of the students influence their perception of causes of delinquent behaviour?
The following hypotheses are derived from the statement of the problem.
- There is no significant difference in the perception of secondary school student on causes of delinquent behaviour on the basis of age.
- There is no significant difference in the perception of secondary school student on causes of delinquent behaviour on the basis class lave.
- There is no significant difference in the perception of secondary school student on causes of delinquent behaviour on the basis of gender.
- There is no significant difference in the perception of secondary school student on causes of delinquent behaviour on the basis of religion.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to investigate secondary school students’ perception of the cause of delinquent behaviors in Ilorin metropolis. Specifically the study will find out the influence of age, class level and gender of secondary school students’ on their perception of causes of delinquent behaviour.
Significance of the Study
The significance of the study lies on the fact that this study will give more insight on delinquent behaviour of students in secondary school in Ilorin metropolis. The school administration, member of school community and government will able to understand the causes of this behaviour among students.
Parents and teachers will join the guidance counselor in monitoring their children to be good Nigerians. The study also attempts to reveal to students the implication of the delinquent behaviours and create the awareness of what the society requires from them as leaders of tomorrow. Parents and teacher should also learn to be good models.
Lastly, this study will be beneficial in confirming the asserters and in alerting parents, students, teachers and counselor on the damage posed by this delinquent behaviours.
Operational Definition of Terms
An action which is seen or observed in an objective ways.
A horrifying activities in the secondary school or tertiary institutions.
Bad or Criminal behaviour usually of young people.
An act of cheating during examination that is not conforms to the rule and regulation guiding the exams.
Behaviour exhibits by young persons between 16-18years of age which is not consistent with law.
An act of taken money or goods in possession of another person by force or intimidation.
A person who is habitually absent from school without good reasons.
Scope of the Study
The study is limited to secondary school students perception of the cause of delinquent behaviours in Ilorin metropolis the study covered only five (5) selected public secondary schools in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara State. This limitation was considered because of logistics reason such as the logistic of handling large research population. A validated research designed questionnaire was used to collect necessary information.
Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation
The main objective of this study was to investigate secondary school students’ perception of the causes of delinquent behaviour. The results of the study conducted in five selected secondary schools are discussed in this chapter. Also, conclusion, recommendation and suggestion for further studies are included in this chapter.
The main focus of this study is to examine secondary school students’ perception of the causes of delinquent behaviour. The findings of this study showed the major causes of delinquent behaviour such as poor school management, broken home, poor upbringing by the parent, cultural background of the students, early and later adolescence influence, poor academic performance, influence of mass media, school location, lack of quality supervision by parents among others. This study agrees with Abiodun (2002) which stressed that socio-economic status of parents, poor school management, poor parent upbring, broke home and peer group influence are the major causes of delinquent behaviour among secondary school students.
In addition, Okoli (2000) stressed that parental attention which determines the extent of the behaviour of the students in the society. He stressed further that a youth from a bad home will have nothing to exhibit than bad behaviour.
The findings also shows significant difference in the perception of secondary school students on causes of delinquent behaviour on the basis of their age. That is, there is different among students of 11 – 13 years, 14 – 16 years and 17 years and above perception of the causes of delinquent behaviour. This finding agreed with that of Osarenren (2001) stated that the way students view causes of delinquent behaviour are been affected by their age differences. That is, what many of them perceived as the causes may not applicable others.
The findings also revealed significant difference in the perception of secondary school students on causes of delinquent behaviour on the basis of class level. That is, the way junior senior secondary school student perceived causes of delinquent behaviour is different from the way students in senior secondary school students perceived it. It also shows from their mean different, the mean (X) of the J.S.S was 4737 with a standard deviation of 2.72, while the mean (X) of S.S.S was 46.42 with a standard deviation of 3.25. The findings is in consonance with the study of Iwuama (2005) stressed that senior secondary school students/adolescents can clearly identify the major causes of delinquent behaviour than junior secondary school students.
The results equally show that, there is significant difference in the perception of secondary school students on causes of delinquent behaviour on the basis of their gender. By implication, male and female secondary school students perceived causes of delinquent behaviour in different ways. This is in consonance with the findings of Abiodun (2002) and Osarenren (2001) noted that gender remains a salient inconclusive factor in determine causes of delinquent behaviour. They stressed further that, male and female students always biased because of the gender factor.
The findings also revealed that, there is significant difference in the perception of secondary school students on causes of delinquent behaviour on the basis of their religion. That is, Muslim and Christian perceived causes of delinquent behaviour in different way. The finding agreed with the report of Iwuama (2005), stated that religion affiliation of every students determine their view and perception on the causes of delinquent behaviour. That is, most behaviour reject by a particular behaviour may be accepted by others.
The researcher has been able to investigate secondary school students’ perception of the causes of delinquent behaviour in Ilorin metropolis. Based on the findings, it was concluded that secondary school students’ age, class level, gender and religion influence their perception of causes of delinquent behaviour.
In light of the above findings, the following recommendations were made:
- Government should implement sanctions on students who engage in deviant behaviours by disrupting the peace of the school.
- School counsellors and principals should work hand in hand to implement counselling services that will help in reducing delinquent behaviour.
- Parents should also devote more time to the upbringing of their children.
- Religion institutions should also pay more effective role through teaching moral and religious instruction.
- Finally, more counsellors should be trained and posted to all secondary schools in Ilorin metropolis to help in controlling students with delinquent behaviours.
Suggestions for Further Studies
The researcher suggests that, the study could be expanded using a wider area i.e. the whole state, in order to further confirm the findings of this study. Since the study is restricted because of time to few secondary schools in Ilorin metropolis.
The study could be extended to tertiary institutions to see if there will be different in their perception on the causes of delinquent behaviour.
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