The Knowledge, Perception And Practice Of Prevention Of Mother To Child Transmission Of HIV Among Nurses In Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Parklane

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)

The Knowledge, Perception And Practice Of Prevention Of Mother To Child Transmission Of HIV Among Nurses In Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Parklane


Abstract


This study was carried out on the knowledge, perception and practice of prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV among nurses in Enugu state university teaching hospital, Parklane. The study was carried out to examine the mode of HIV transmission from mother to child, examine how HIV transmission affects maternal and child health, and investigate the preventive measures for mother to child transmission of HIV. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of nurses in Enugu state university teaching hospital, Parklane. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 160 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. The result of the findings reveals that the mode of HIV transmission from mother to child include; pregnancy, during childbirth and breastfeeding. The findings of the study further deduced that HIV transmission affects the child’s health and maternal health of child bearing women. Therefore, it is recommended that there is need for the involvement of the stakeholders in bridging the gap between knowledge and utilization of PMTCT services among women; a revised health education programme for pregnant women living with HIV should be implemented to enlighten women and mean on the need to utilize PMTCT services; health personnel should always encourage husbands of women living with HIV to utilize PMTCT services to prevent mother to child transmission of the virus. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms
  • 1.9 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that weakens an individual’s immune system, exposing them to a variety of opportunistic infections. Although unprotected sexual contact is the primary mechanism of HIV transmission, there is also a large amount of vertical transfer from mother to child. When HIV is transmitted from the mother to the child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding, it is known as mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) [1–3]. In poor countries, the prevalence of HIV/AIDS has risen dramatically since the 1980s. As a result, it has had a variety of demographic, economic, and social ramifications. More than 2 million children worldwide are infected with HIV/AIDS, with more than 80% of them living in Sub-Saharan African nations. In 2012, for example, 260,000 new pediatric HIV infections were reported, the majority of which occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa. Southern and Eastern African countries are the most severely affected areas in Africa. As a result, the United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) has established a target of 90-90-90 by 2020. By 2030, the goal is to put an end to HIV epidemics. The post-2015 HIV priorities aim to drastically reduce the number of new HIV infections each year, saving the lives of many people in the process.

Approximately forty million people worldwide are infected with HIV. This equates to around 1% of the world’s population. In 2006, around 4.3 million new HIV infections were reported worldwide. Women account for 48 percent of all AIDS patients worldwide, with 59 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa. More than 60% of Nigeria’s population is thought to live in rural areas, with the majority of them being underserved in terms of social amenities. In addition, service facilities, notably secondary and tertiary health facilities, are concentrated in metropolitan areas. The 38 percent universal coverage of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV-positive pregnant women in Oyo State falls significantly short of the aim of 80 percent. In most health facilities in Oyo State, postpartum women have access to a restricted comprehensive intervention package. The AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN) project, which was financed by the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, provided PMTCT interventions in several facilities in Oyo State (PEPFAR). In Oyo State, child survival is jeopardized due to a lack of access to preventative interventions.
Currently, there are 1,216 PMTCT service locations across Nigeria. In 2009, 18.7% of HIV-positive pregnant women got antiretroviral (ARV) drugs to minimize the risk of MTCT, up from 5.3 percent in 2007, indicating a considerable rise in PMTCT coverage, however ARV prophylaxis coverage during nursing remained low. Since 1995, providing ARV prophylaxis to HIV-positive pregnant women has avoided the infection of almost 350,000 children, resulting in a 24 percent decrease in newly infected infants.

HIV transmission from mother to child can happen during pregnancy (in utero), after delivery (intrapartum), or after birth (postnatally) via nursing. The use of ARVs, caesarean section before commencement of labor or rupture of membranes, and complete avoidance of nursing are all strategies to decrease MTCT during these periods. 7 When properly implemented, these combined therapies can lower the incidence of MTCT to as low as 1-2 percent. Without intervention, 30–45 percent of all infants delivered to HIV-positive mothers would be infected, with 10–20 percent contracting the virus through nursing. 9 Early infant diagnosis (EID) programs can be utilized to assess the impact of PMTCT and enhance survival rates significantly. This study looks into the PMTCT (prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission) program and its impact on maternal and child health.


1.2 Statement of Problem

The HIV/AIDS epidemic is one of the world’s most severe health problems today. AIDS and AIDS-related illnesses had killed more than 25 million people by the end of 2008 (2 million in 2008 alone, including 280,000 children under the age of 15), and an estimated 35.8 million people were living with HIV, with 15.7 million women and 2.1 million children under the age of 15 living with HIV. In 2008, Sub-Saharan Africa continued to bear the brunt of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, accounting for about 67 percent of overall HIV infections, 68 percent of new infections, and 72 percent of AIDS-related fatalities. Over the years, the pandemic, which was previously dominated by infected men, has become more gendered, with women accounting for about 60% of HIV-positive adults in Sub-Saharan Africa. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) accounts for over 90% of infections in children, and as more mothers catch the virus, the number of children infected rises.


1.3 Objective of Study

The main objective of this study is to examine the knowledge, perception and practice of prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV among nurses in Enugu state university teaching hospital, Parklane. The following are objectives of this study:

  1. To examine the mode of HIV transmission from mother to child.
  2. To examine how HIV transmission affects maternal and child health.
  3. To investigate the preventive measures for mother to child transmission of HIV.

1.4 Research Question

The following research guides this study:

  1. What is the mode of HIV transmission from mother to child?
  2. How can HIV transmission affects maternal and child’s health?
  3. What are the possible preventive strategies for mother to child transmission of HIV?

1.5 Significance of Study

The government, particularly the commissioner of health, will benefit from the study. Health-promoting activities and behavioral change should be encouraged through effective communication channels such as refresher courses, training, and workshops. This would go beyond the influence of focused health education messages on knowledge. In order to ensure progress in knowledge and behavior, further detailed studies on this topic should be conducted in various parts of Nigeria. This study will contribute to the current literature in this field and will also serve as a resource for academics, researchers, and students who may want to do future research on this or a comparable topic.


1.6 Scope of Study

This study focuses on investigating the knowledge, perception and practice of prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV among nurses in enugu state university teaching hospital, Parklane. The study will further examine the mode of HIV transmission from mother to child; how HIV transmission affects maternal and child health and also investigate the preventive measures for mother to child transmission of HIV. Hence, the enrolled participants for this study is obtained from enugu state university teaching hospital, Parklane.


1.7 Limitation of Study

Finance, Inadequate materials and time constraint were the challenges the researchers encountered during the course of the study.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Transmission:

The action or process of transmitting something, or the state of being transmitted.

HIV:

HIV (human immuno deficiency virus) is a virus that attacks cells that help the body fight infection, making a person more vulnerable to other infections and diseases.

Child Health:

Child health is a state of physical, mental, intellectual, social and emotional well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

Maternal:

This refers to a mother, especially during pregnancy or shortly after child birth.


1.9 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the knowledge, perception and practice of prevention of mother to child transmission of hiv among nurses in enugu state university teaching hospital, parklane. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to assess the knowledge, perception and practice of prevention of mother to child transmission of hiv among nurses in enugu state university teaching hospital, parklane. The study specifically was aimed to examine the mode of HIV transmission from mother to child, examine how HIV transmission affects maternal and child health, and investigate the preventive measures for mother to child transmission of HIV.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are nurses in Enugu state university teaching hospital, Parklane.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The mode of HIV transmission from mother to child include; pregnancy, during childbirth and breastfeeding.
  2. HIV transmission affects the maternal health of child bearing women.
  3. HIV transmission affects child’s health.
  4. The possible preventive strategies for mother to child transmission of HIV are; creating public awareness, educating people on HIV, providing appropriate treatment, care, and support to mothers living with HIV, and avoiding breastfeeding.
  5. PMTCT plays a significant role in promoting maternal and child health.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. There is need for the involvement of the stakeholders in bridging the gap between knowledge and utilization of PMTCT services among women.
  2. A revised health education programme for pregnant women living with HIV should be implemented to enlighten women and mean on the need to utilize PMTCT services.
  3. Health personnel should always encourage husbands of women living with HIV to utilize PMTCT services to prevent mother to child transmission of the virus.
  4. Health personnel should avoid discrimination of women living with HIV and to show them positive attitude to that will encourage them to continue to utilize PMTCT services.
  5. The government should provide PMTCT centres in rural areas so as to provide access to PMTCT facilities to all, especially among women resident in rural areas. This will serve as an encouragement to rural pregnant women to utilize the PMTCT services.
  6. Government should implement the policy on penalizing those discriminating and stigmatizing people women living with HIV. This will encourage women to utilize PMTCT services without fear of discriminating and stigmatizing.
  7. Infant feeding counseling needs to be improved and access to portable water for formular feeding should be made available.

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