The Perception Of Farmers On The Effect Of Climate Change On Farm Produce

Project and Seminar Material for Agricultural Engineering AE

The Perception Of Farmers On The Effect Of Climate Change On Farm Produce


Abstract


The research was carried out based on the perception of farmers of the effect of climate change on farm produce.

The aim of the study was to identify various climatic factors that can affect farming system which include sunrise (hot temperature), winter, equinox, rainfall, summer, coldness, wind etc and also places where lakes, rivers ocean / sea, stream, rocks/ hills forest etc are available .

Critically, the study revealed that rainfall and dry season are the common features in Nigerian climate which are the natural determinant for farm produce.

The study assessed the problems associated with climate change and how farmers can cope with such effects.

It was deduced from the study that high temperature can be harmful to crop produce and excessive rainfall can result to flooding and washing off nutrients in soil and making it unfit for planting.

The study revealed facts that farmers are aware of numerous factors that can be responsible for climate change such as changes in rainfall, excessive wind, high temperature and shortage of rainfall.

The research was carried out in Lagos State Agricultural Supply Input Authority, Ojo Lagos State.

Sixty (60) respondents were selected as the sample size for the study. The three (3) null (Ho) hypothesis formulated for the study were all rejected and the alternate forms were accepted.

The instrument for the study was the questionnaires and it contained (30) thirty research questions.

Discussions and findings were based on the outcome of the responses.

The researcher holds confidence that if the finding and discussions made in this study are given due consideration and implemented, it will go a long way to enable our farmers to cope with climate change to enhance farm produce.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

The theme of this research is based on the perception of farmers of the effect of climate change on farm produce. It has been logically argued that climate change may positively and negatively affect the growth of crop in agricultural system.

In some broken down analysis, climate is a sole determinant for the success of farm produce and its harvest as well. Emphasis are hereby made below under some given headings.


1.1 Background to the Study

According to Kolbert., (2006) climate encompasses the temperatures, humidity, atmospheric pressure, winds, rainfall, atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorological elements in a given region over long periods of time, as opposed to the term weather, which refers to current activity of these same elements.

The climate of a location is affected by its latitude, terrain, altitude, persistent ice or snow cover, as well as nearby oceans and their currents.

Climates can be classified using parameters such temperature and rainfall to define specific climate types. (Seiz, 2007)

According to Haeberli, (2008) from Montana State University, climate change is any long term significant change in the expected patterns of average weather of a specific region (or, more relevantly to contemporary socio-political concerns, of the earth as a whole) over an appropriately significant period of time.

Susanne, and Veizer (2008) revealed that climate change reflects abnormal variations to the expected climate within the earth’s atmosphere and subsequent effects on other parts of the earth, such as in the ice caps over durations ranging from decades to million of years.

Reports revealed by the inter-governmental panel on climate change (IPCC 2007) stated that climate change in the research of a great many factors including the dynamic processes of the earth itself, external forces including variation in sunlight intensity, and more recently by human activities, which might in future be deliberate geo-engineering. External factors that can shape climate are often called climate forcing and include such processes as variations in solar radiation, deviations in the Earths orbit and the level of greenhouse gas concentrations.

There have been so many variations on carbondioxide(Co2) during the last 50 million years. The increased carbondioxide level are thought to exacerbate the heating effects of the greenhouse effect by reading the re-radiation of heat from the sun and, therefore, increasing the temperature contained in the atmosphere.

As the ability of the atmosphere to capture and recycle energy emitted by the Earth’s surface is essential to a stable climate, this heightened temperature may introduce a de-stabilizing influence and potentially affect global weather patterns and eventually, long-term climate change.

(Source: Buckley, and Wallace, 2008)

Framers efforts on yielding mass harvest and encouraging large plantation may be seriously terminated and hampered from the perception of climate change. Where alternative instruments are not introduced to counteract the factors militating against favourable climate on farm produce this may lay a set back on agricultural input and output by our farmers.

It obvious that climate change had contributed towards initiating basic subsistence farming system order than the mechanized farming product for large market of farm produce.

For example, a region where climate change had hampered the possibility of regular actual rainfall variably, water system irrigation can be applied to artificially supply wet contents on crop growth and improving regular harvest.

Farmers in Nigeria today are faced with variable challenges on climate change making the agricultural sector prone to difficulties in enhancing crop production as a result of weak alternative facilities, equipments and scientific instruments to improve the range of farming.

Dr Daniel (2008) from the University of Maiduguri revealed findings that climate change plays a significant role in agriculture by setting up limits for crop production. The main climatic elements in agriculture are temperature, moisture, sunlight, wind and evaporation. Most crops are sensitive to episodes of high temperature. High temperatures between 45oc and 55oc that occur for at least 30 minutes directly, damage crop leaves in most environments, and lower temperatures between 35-40oc can be damaging if they persist longer.

Awosika, and Ajayi, (2002) opined that vulnerability of crops to damage by high temperatures varies with developmental stage thus, high temperatures during reproductive development are particularly injurious. For example, to maize at tussling, to soybean at flowering and to wheat at grain filling.`

Soybean in one of crops that seems to have the ability to recover from heat stress, perhaps, because it is in determinate.

Whereas as stated by Adefolau (2000) food crops like yam, cocoyam, potatoes, cassava can get damage (burnt) due to excessive heat temperature.

Precipitation, being the primary source of soil moisture is probably the most important factor determining the productivity of corps. While global climate models predict an overall increase in mean global precipitation, their results also show the potential for changed hydrological regimes in most places.

Ojo (2000) a change in climate can cause changes in total precipitation, within season pattern, and between season variability for crop productivity, a change in the pattern of precipitation events may be even more important than a change in the annual precipitation. The water regime of crops is also vulnerable to a potential rise in the daily rate and alerted seasonal pattern of precipitation events may be even more important than a change in the annual precipitation. The water regime of crops is also vulnerable to a potential rise in the daily rate and altered seasonal pattern of evapotranspiration, brought on by warm temperature, drier air, or windier conditions. Drought conditions may be brought about by lower amounts of precipitation falling.

Oni (2001) opines that farm produce and yield quantity are likely to suffer if dry periods occur during critical developmental stages. In most grain crops, flowering, pollination and grain filling are especially sensitive to water stress, heat stress and drought stresses often occur simultaneously one contributing to the other. High solar radiance and high winds often accompany these conditions. When crops are subjected to drought stress, their stomata close, such closure reduces transportation and consequently, raises plant temperatures. Excessively wet years, on the other hand, may cause farm produce declines due to water logging and increased pest infestation (Dr. Daniel, 2008).

Intense burst of rainfall may damage younger plants and promote water logging of standing crops with repining grain, as well as soil erosion. The extent of crop damage depends on the duration of precipitation and flooding, crop developmental stage, air and soil temperatures.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The research tends to examine the perception of farmers of the effect of climate change on farm produce.

Climate change may serve as a factor that can hinder crop yield and as such bring to an end the agricultural activities of farmers.

It is a problem that if farmers have no means to face and tackle the global climate models affecting yield processes farm produce can maximally decline due to acute change in climate. But it is believed that this can be controlled through some adaptation options as proposed and laid down by Dr. Adejuwon (2004) from Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU). It has been revealed in his findings and discussions and likewise other related scholars.

Climate change will be a bone of contention on farmers posing barriers to actual farm produce until proper adjustment and technical adaptation models are absorbed and utilized by our farmers.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The objectives of the research are stated below as follows.

  1. To examine the various climate change and how they affect farm produce in Nigeria.
  2. To appraise possible adaptation options that can be utilized by farmers for responding to climate change.
  3. To create an awareness on climate change and how it can be controlled on farm produce by farmers to assess the factors militating climate change and the problems faced by farmers.
  4. To assess the factors militating climate change and the problems faced by farmers on farm produce.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions had been formulated for the research as follows:

  1. Does climate change affect farm produce in Nigeria?
  2. Can farmers respond to climate change through possible adaptation options on farm produce?
  3. Can climate change be controlled in farm produce by farmers through a critical awareness?
  4. What are the factors militating climate change and the problems faced by farmers on farm produce?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The null hypotheses were formulated for the research as follows:

Ho: Climate change has no significant effect on farm produce in agricultural system in Nigeria.

Ho: There is no significant responses to farmers to climate change through possible adaptation models.

Ho: There is no significant relationship between the factors responsible for climate change and problems encountered by farmers on farm produce.


1.6 Significance of the Study

The study reversals the factors responsible for climate change and the effects they have on farm produce.

The research relates the basic problems encountered by farmers on farm produce through climate change.

The research reveals alternative models as adaptation options that can be utilized and experimented by farmers in counteracting climate change on farm produce. The study shows the interrelationship of climate change and the problems of farmers on agricultural produce.

The study will reveal how climate change affect the various crops in farming system and the means that can be adopted to prevent any further damage on such crops.

The study will relate variably that climate change can pose storage on farm produce thereby affecting the marketing system of agricultural out put and lead to high cost per unit of produce.

Farmers, agricultural scientists, food technologists, scientists and teachers will device possible solution from this study as a reference materials in tackling and counteracting climate change on farm produce.

The research serves as a resource knowledge to government in taking necessary steps towards responding to climate change and maintain technology standard in agricultural sector in Nigeria.


1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The study is limited to Lagos State Agricultural Supply Input Authority of Ojo Local District Area of Lagos State. A selection of sixty (60) respondents will be made randomly by the researcher. These respondents include male and female alike. They shall be used for collecting respondence as data fro the study.

The researcher was confronted by major constraints to carry out this research and they include:

Financial problems, stress, energy wasted by the researcher. And the long distance to be covered and also the pains in selecting and meeting the respondence to gather useful information for the study.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Farmer:

A person who grows field crops and or manages orchards or vineyards or raises livestock or poultry.

Agriculture:

Refers to the production of food and goods through farming and forestry and poultry keeping.

Farm:

A field, for planting crops and harvesting them and also a place meant for raising livestock.

Forestry:

The science or practice of planting and taking care of tress and forest.


1.9 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is pertinent to note that this research was aimed at examining the impact of climate variation information essentiality to farmers in Nigeria, thus the topic “climate change information needs of rural farmers in Enugu State Nigeria”.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges associated with climate change information development in Nigeria.


5.2 Summary

The main purpose of the study is to identify climate change information needs of rural farmers in Enugu state. Specifically, the study was designed to: ascertain the knowledge level of rural farmers on agriculture-related climate change issues; ascertain farmers’ sources of information on climate change; determine farmers’ perceived reliability and usefulness of the sources and climate change information received; identify types of climate change information needed by the farmers; identify factors militating against effective communication of agriculture related climate change information; and find out the possible strategies for improving information dissemination on climate change among rural farmers. Two hypotheses were tested in the study: The socio economic and institutional characteristics of rural farmers have no significant influence on their knowledge level on agriculture-related climate change issues and; there is no significant relationship between rural farmers’ knowledge level and their sources of information on agriculture related climate change issues. The study was carried out in Enugu state. Farmers in the State constituted the population for the study. Four agricultural zones were randomly selected. The result of the respondents’ knowledge level on agriculture related climate change issues indicated that the majority (58.6%) had moderate knowledge level. The following were the major sources of information through which the rural farmers received information on climate change in the study area: personal observation (98.1%), friends (83.8%), radio (57.1%), and television (26.6%) and only 9.1% indicated extension as a source of knowledge on climate change. On the respondents’ perceived reliability of information sources, majority (95.4%) of the respondents found personal observation as the most reliable source of climate change information while 78.9%, 56.6%, 27.0% and 11.2% indicated that friends, radio, television and extension agents were the reliable climate change sources of information, respectively. Similarly, the respondents found personal observation (M = 2.82) and friends (M = 1.70) useful information sources out of 16 climate change information sources on agriculture related climate change issues.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn by the researcher:

  1. All the respondents indicated that climate has changed. As a result, the likelihood of the farmers taking adaptive measures in response to observed climate changes is high.
  2. Majority of the respondents had moderate knowledge on agriculture related climate change issues. This has serious implications on the farmer’s ability to adequately adapt to climate change effects.
  3. There was limited availability and usage of many sources of information on climate change like extension agents, radio and television. As a result of this, scientific based knowledge on agriculture related climate change issues may be lacking among the farmers.
  4. Long years of farming experience played major roles in the farmers’ decision making process on climate change as majority of the respondents found personal observation as the most reliable source of information on climate change.
  5. The farmers were less interested on the causes and effects of climate change and this could be because respondents thought they were incapacitated of doing anything about it.
  6. Poor extension services and infrastructure were the major constraints to effective communication of climate change information in the study area. 7) Consequently, improved extension services and infrastructures were the major strategies the farmers perceived could be used to improve information dissemination on climate change among rural farmers.

5.4 Recommendations

  1. There is need for mobilization of extension agents for massive enlightenment campaign on agriculture related climate change issues in Enugu state especially on the various communities’ market days and through social and religious organizations. The commendable efforts of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nigeria, Nsukka in disseminating climate change information to rural communities should be encouraged by the University administration and the state government so that the gestures should be extended to other rural communities beyond Nsukka.
  2. There is need to teach climate change adaptation and mitigation measures to farmers using the language the farmers can understand in a participatory manner(interactive phoning programme) through the mass media using experts on climate change communication. Farmers should be taught the use of improved varieties and changing of timing of farm operation to enable them cope with the unpredictable nature of climate change.
  3. The communication gap between researchers and extension agents need to be bridged. This will help the extension agents to be equipped with the appropriate information that can help the farmers adapt to the adverse effects of climate change.
  4. The needs of the target audience that the climate change information is designed for should be incorporated and these information should be disseminated by experts who have the knowledge of vernacular language. The local and religious leaders should be used to achieve the desired multiplier effects.

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