Perceived Effect Of Solid Waste Disposal Techniques On Health Status Of Community Residents

Project and Seminar Material for Environmental Science

Perceived Effect Of Solid Waste Disposal Techniques On Health Status Of Community Residents


Abstract


The study assessed the perceived effects of solid waste disposal techniques on health status of residents in Igando Local Government Area. Four (4) Local Communities Development Area Ifeoluwa, Banjo, Feyintola and Oduduwa The descriptive research method was used in carrying out the study. The population for the study was people within the age bracket between 18-50 and above (male and female) in Igando Local Government Area of Lagos state which constitutes a total number of 4,640. The sample size comprised 464 individuals within the age bracket between 18-50 and above who reside in four communities in Igando. Data collection was done with a 20 item validated questionnaire.

Descriptive survey method was used for the study. Data analysis was done using the descriptive statistics of percentages, frequency table, mean standard deviation and pearson product moment correlation. The result shows that improper solid waste disposal techniques can lead to outbreak of diseases and other hazards, respondents with grand mean of3.1940 within the age range of 18-50years and above agreed that proper management of solid waste can promote healthy living.

This statistics shows that majority of the residents of Igando Local Government Area are fully aware about the consequences of indiscrimate waste disposal. The vast majority of the respondents with grand means 2.7823 agreed that open dump method of solid waste disposal is not environmental friendly which implies that open dump can lead to Land, water, and air pollution with its negative impacts on the health of the residents. In conclusion, people attitude to waste management can be improved upon if the government, waste management agencies in the area can embark on periodic campign and other forms of sensitization programs. More also all hands must be on deck for proper waste management in the interest of members of the public.

The recommendations are as follows;

  • Bye-Laws should be enacted
  • Public enlightenment program should be embark upon.

Table of Contents


  • Title Pages
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgment
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • Background to the study
  • Statement of the Problem
  • Research Questions
  • Research Hypotheses
  • Purpose of the Study
  • Significance of Study
  • Delimitation of the Study
  • Limitation of the Study
  • Definition of Terms

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • Concept of Solid Waste Disposal
  • Waste management Policies and Regulation
  • Types of Solid Waste Disposal
  • Classification of Solid Waste Disposal
  • Method of Solid Waste Disposal
  • Factors Affecting Solid Waste Disposal
  • Health and Environmental Implication of Solid Waste Disposal
  • Challenges of Solid Waste Disposal
  • Effects of Indiscriminate Solid Waste Disposal.
  • Roles of stakeholders
  • Solution to the Problems of Solid Waste Disposal

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • Research Method
  • Population of the Study
  • Sample and Sampling Techniques
  • Research Instrument
  • Validity of Instrument
  • Reliability of Instrument
  • Procedure for Data Collection
  • Procedure for Data Analysis
  • Pilot Study
  • References
  • Questionnaire

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Interpretation of Findings

  • Introduction
  • Analysis of the demographic variables of the respondents
  • Responses on Perceived Effects of Solid Waste Disposal Techniques on Health Status of Residents in Igando, Lagos State.
  • Hypotheses Testing

Chapter Five:

Summary Conclusion and Recommendation

  • Summary
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendations.
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

Solid waste disposal is both urban and rural problem. Every person is a potential generator of waste and this is a contributor to this problem. To generate waste is one thing, the type of waste generated is another and also the way the generated waste is managed or disposed of is quite a different issue. It has more often than not turned out that the rate at which solid waste is generated is far higher than the capacity to responsibly manage this waste. Waste is generated by, and from different sectors, domestic, commercial, industry and others and in many instances; the waste management responsibility has been left to the government or administrative authorities. There is growing consensus that the immediate stakeholders in the issue of solid waste (the generators of waste), in this case the authorities is dealing with this problem that has far-reaching environmental and human health effects.

Solid waste refers to municipal waste from domestic, commercial, institutions and industrial sources but excluding excreta, except when it mixed with solid waste. It is however necessary to note that in developing countries many a times it becomes difficult or even impractical to put a line between excreta and solid waste. In many instances, solid waste mixed with excreta is potentially dangerous to human and animals’ health. Levine & Coed (2004).

Navarro. (2008) stated that waste generation increases not only because people multiply and hence the space available to each person becomes smaller, but also because the demand per person are continually increasing so that each person throws away more year by year. If the world’s population were evenly distributed over the earth surface most of these wastes could probably remain unnoticed and perhaps harmless. But as city population increases, their residues also increases and concentrate around them.

Solid waste disposal plays a multiple role in maintaining health and social stability and in preserving the values of a decent family life, community, State even the nation as a whole, This is because it constitute the physical environment in which society’s basic units develops. The improvement represents a concrete and visible rise in the general level of living conditions in a given location.

Agbaje, (2008) defined wastes as rubbish or materials that are not needed and are economically unusable without further processing. It may be in liquid, gas, or solid from and originated from a wide range of human operations, such as industry, commerce, transport, agriculture, medicine, and domestic activities.

UNPFA, (2006) defined waste as something which the owners no longer want at a specific time. Solid wastes can be generated from domestic, industrial, commercial and agricultural activities as long as there are human activities going on waste must be generated. However, poor solid waste disposal has been a major public health issues affecting the health quality of life of man and its environment. In most African countries where their level of hygiene is low, accumulation of solid waste has created some health problems which are also the primary cause of epidemic resulting in severe deterioration of their health and environment.

Brook, (1999) the term solid waste may be used to refer to municipal waste and can be categorized in seven groups. They include residential (or house hold or domestic waste). Commercial, institutional, street sweeping, construction and demolition, sanitation and industrial wastes. While municipal solid waste refers to solid wastes from houses, streets and public places, shops, offices, and hospitals, which are very often, the responsibility of municipal or other governmental authorities, solid waste from industrial processes, are generally not considered “Municipal”. However, it should be taken into account when dealing with solid waste as they often end up in the municipal solid waste.

Solid waste can also be refers as municipal waste which can be categorized into seven which include: residential, (household or domestic) commercial institutional, street sweeping construction and demolition, sanitation and industrial wastes. While municipal solid waste refers to solid waste generated from houses, streets and public places such as offices and hospitals . Rush Brook,( 1999).

Osinowo, (2003) stated that it is no longer news that Lagos State is over populated with about 17 million inhabitants; and houses about 50% of industries in Nigeria. Thus, waste is generated much more than any other state in the federation. Considering the public health implications varying from transmission of communicable diseases such as yellow fever, diarrhea, cholera with malaria accounting for 25% child mortality rate in Nigeria, continuous increase in indiscriminate dumping of waste has however led to spreading of vector their and borne vehicle diseases like malaria and cholera. It has also lead to offensive odour contamination of underground water, loss of aesthetic value of the environment, and flooding as a result of accumulated wastes blocking the high ways and drainage.

The responsibility for solid waste management is placed on the shoulder of the ministry of environment (MOE), Sanitation Department of Local Government and Government Agency in particular Lagos State Waste Management Authority (LAWMA). It is noted that, solid waste disposal in Igando is being complicated on daily basis due to population growth and increase in the rate of waste being generated by the populace, which necessitates this research work.


Statement of the Problem

Solid waste disposal has been a major problem to mankind; indiscriminate waste disposal has posed major threat to human health and ecosystem. Terrestrial and aquatic lives are exposed to various health hazards due to failure of mankind to go extra mile in waste management science.

The inherent problems of waste generation, collection and disposal includes outbreak of epidemic environmental pollution and flood which often occurred due to persistent dumping of personal, industrial and domestic waste into the drainage. It is noted with dismay that indiscriminate disposal of solid waste on the highway is the causes of road accident. The prevalence of malaria and other vector and vehicle borne diseases are traceable to failure on the part of both the government and the community to instill right attitude toward waste disposal.


Research Questions

The following research questions are proposed for the study:

  1. Will open dump techniques on health status affect solid waste disposal in Igando?
  2. Will incineration techniques on health status affect solid waste disposal in Igando?
  3. Will landfill techniques on health status affect solid waste disposal in Igando?
  4. Will recycling techniques on health status affect solid waste disposal in Igando?

Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses constituted the basic assumptions for the study:

  1. Open dump techniques on health status will not significantly affect solid waste disposal in Igando.
  2. Incineration techniques on health status will not significantly affect solid waste disposal in Igando.
  3. Landfill techniques on health status will not significantly affect solid waste disposal in Igando.
  4. Recycling techniques on health status will not significantly affect waste disposal in Igando.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to:

  1. Identify challenges of solid waste disposal in Igando.
  2. Establish whether there are plans in place by the waste collector, to improve residents participation for better solid waste disposal in Igando,
  3. Enumerate the roles of stakeholders.
  4. Suggest and evaluate residents initiatives of solving the problem of effect of solid waste disposal in Igando.
  5. Identify the present disposal approaches and methods practiced in Igando.

Significance of Study

The study would be useful to the Lagos State Government as the researcher had laid emphasis on challenges to an effective solid waste disposal system in Lagos. The study would also be useful to the community, during the process of educating them on the proper way of disposing solid waste. It may further put every stakeholder on their toes.


Delimitation of the Study

The study would be delimited to the following:

  1. Primary stakeholders which includes, residents, Lagos State Waste Management Authority(LAWMA), Private Sector Participation ( PSP) operators
  2. Four (4) Local Community Development Area ( LCDA) .This includes ,Ifeoluwa, Banjo,Feyintola and Oduduwa
  3. Self developed structured and validated questionnaire.
  4. Four hundred and sixty four (464) members of the communities
  5. Simple random and purposive sampling techniques.
  6. Descriptive statistics of simple percentage and frequency table
  7. Spearman ranking for testing the reliability of the instrument.

Limitation of the Study

The problem be encountered during the conduct of this research is as follow: 1.Problem of administration and retrieval of instrument from the respondents which prompted the researcher and his assistant to adopt on the spot questionnaire administration technique for collection.

Challenges on the literacy level of the respondents. The researcher and the assistants have read in languages which the respondents understood as they indicated their opinion on the question items.


Definition of Terms

Waste:

Unwanted materials being produce by man and his environment.

Community:

This is defined as group of people living together in a social unit having common interest, laws and culture.

Health:

Is a state of wellness physical and mental not merely the absence of disease or infirmity

Disease:

Abnormal state of health.

Refuse:

Refuse is which the owner no longer wants at specific period of time.

Domestic Refuse:

Are refuse that arises from domestic activities.

Recycling:

This is the process of collection, disposal and transformation of economical valuable materials from waste which are used for production of new items.

Solid Waste:

This is waste materials resulting from human activities that ares useless or unwanted.

Environmental Sanitation:

This is the activities that deal with keeping and maintaining clean and tidy vicinity and surrounding.

Epidemic:

This is the unusual occurrence of a disease in excess of expectation in a specific population at a period of time.

Primary Stakeholders:

People directly benefiting or affected by a particular activities.

Vector-Borne Disease:

Organisms that spread diseases such as, person and animal.

Vehicle-Borne:

Agents that transmit infectious from one person to another.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

This study examines the perceived effects of solid waste disposal techniques on health status of residents in Igando.


Summary

The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived effect of solid waste disposal techniques on health status of residents in Igando. The importance of this study however, is to find the effect of solid waste disposal techniques on the health of residents in Igando and to recommend way of improving waste disposal techniques.

Four research questions were raised and four hypotheses were tested on Open Dump, Landfill, Incineration and Recycling method.

Some of the Literatures Reviewed was on Concept of Solid Waste Disposal, waste management of policies and regulation, types of solid waste disposal, method of solid waste disposal, effect of solid waste disposal on health and challenges of solid waste disposal techniques.

The population of this study comprised of (4) four communities LCDA in Igandoi, Eifeoluwa, Banjo, Feyintola and Oduduwa. A total of four hundred and forty six (446) respondents were selected from four communities. In each of the selected communities, 116 were purposively selected and used, within the age range of 18-50 years and using simple random sampling techniques.

A self-structured developed questionnaire was used for data collection. The questionnaire consist of two section, section A and B .section A consist of Sex, Age, Marital Status, type of Apartment, Occupation, Artisan, Size of family and qualification.

Using the Likert scale format section B featured question to establish the level of effect of solid waste disposal techniques on health of residents in Igando. Specific question were asked on Open dump, Landfill, Incineration and Recycling methods of solid waste disposal. Four hundred and sixty four copies of the questionnaire were administered and retrieved immediately so as to avoid loss and damages. The descriptive survey method was used for the study and data analysis was done using the descriptive statistics of simple percentages (%), mean (X), standard deviation (SD)Pearson product moment correlation.

The major limitations to this study were the inability of some of the residents to read and write. However, these were overcome by the researcher with the assistance of two research assistants was able to interpret the questionnaire to the respondents who could neither read nor write.

The findings revealed that majority of the residents of the area represented agreed with 40.9% of the sample have nonchalant attitude towards proper waste management. This is shown through indiscriminate disposal of solid waste by the citizens of the area. There is awareness that open dump method of waste disposal can lead to spread of vectors borne diseases such as malaria and others. It must be pointed out also that majority of the residents with 58.2% agreed that incineration of waste can complicate air pollution which can spread air borne diseases. There is public awareness about the use of the land fill method of waste disposal. The study revealed that majority of the respondents with 36.6% and 19.2% respectively was of opinion that landfill method provides a breeding ground for bacteria that spread diseases. The study shows that majority of the respondents 58.2% agreed that incineration method of solid waste can lead to outbreak of fire which can endanger lives and property.

In the course of the study respondents with 36.6% agreed that recycling techniques can bring about skin disease such as skin irritations and dermatitis. Likewise many of the respondents with 39.7% agreed that carbon monoxide generated by machine for recycling can cause pollution.

It was observed that the improper implementation of environmental sanitation bye-laws and policies of the local government area are the main factors hindering proper waste management in the area. It was also noted that the impact of private sector participation on waste management in the area is commendable.


Conclusion

Improper waste collection, recycling and disposal can create health problems for the members of the public, therefore all stakeholders must tackle these environmental problems for the well being of the general public. It was observed that, there is tendency that people attitude to waste management can be improved upon if the government and waste management agencies in the area can embark on periodic public campaign and other forms of sensitization programs. Waste generation is an integral part of human activities. Hence, all hands must be on deck for proper waste management in the interest of the members of the public.


Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study the following recommendations were made by the researcher as follows:

  1. Regular waste collection by the Private Sector Participation (PSP) is recommended. This will prevent a situation whereby the residents of the area would accumulate waste illegally to the detriment of the community.
  2. Public enlightenment program should be embarking upon to educate the citizens of the area on dangers or consequences of indiscriminating waste disposal.
  3. More sanitary officers should be engaged in facilitating proper monitoring, inspection and regulating of solid waste management in the society.
  4. Bye-laws should be enacted which will make unlawful or indiscriminate waste disposal a punishable offense.
  5. Waste recycling factory should be established within the community to comply with waste to wealth policy of the administration.

Perceived Effect Of Solid Waste Disposal Techniques On Health Status Of Community Residents


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Perceived Effect Of Solid Waste Disposal Techniques On Health Status Of Community Residents


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