Peacekeeping In Africa; A Case Study Ecomog Intervention In Liberia

Project and Seminar Material for International Relations

Peacekeeping In Africa; A Case Study Ecomog Intervention In Liberia


Peacekeeping operations have assumed a centre stage in the operation of International Organization as a veritable instrument for maintaining International Peace and security. The United Nations and other regional and sub-regional organizations have adopted these measures in their efforts to secure peace in the major conflict states of the world. The Liberian crisis which is the subject of this study was one of such cases in which the measures was applied to maintain peace by the Economic Community of West Africa State (ECOWAS).

The Liberian crisis which started as an entirely ethnic conflict involving the indigenous ethnic Liberians who constitute the majority of the population and the Afro-America settlers who were settled in Liberia following the abolition of slave trade in America and who have dominated the political scene in the country since their arrival in 1821. The Liberians crisis escalated in 1980 when Samuel Doestaged a coup that brought the ethnic majority of the Liberian to power. The conflict assumed a wider dimension following the involvement of other extraneous forces around Liberians, a situation which the ECOWAS leaders thought would lead to the war spreading to other countries in the sub-region. This study examined the operations of the peacekeeping body- the ECOMOGwhich ECOWAS established for the purpose of securing peace in Liberia. For its explanatory tool, the study adopted the theory of collective Security.

The choice of this theory is informed by the fact that it best explains the decision of ECOWAS as a sub-regional body to work for peace within the sub-region. The theory of collective security rest on the assumption that all nations share a primary interest in maintaining International Peace and Security. This work is basically an analytical survey study and in the case it precludes all forms of statistical process in both data collection and data analysis. In this regard, conflict analysis of the mass of data collection from library sources was adopted in the study.

The major findings of the study include the fact that the domination of political power by the Afro-America Liberians is at the root of the conflict in the country. The study also discovered that poor funding and the colonial orientations of the various forces contributing states in ECOWAS adversely affected the operation of ECOMOG in Liberia. The study recommends that the Leaders of ECOWAS should establish more integrated peacekeeping forces with training in language and cultures of the Nations in the sub-region.

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Peacekeeping has its origin in the United Nations and since its inception; the United Nations has developed a number of instrument for controlling and resolving conflicts between and within states. The most crucial among them as in the Secretary General’s supplement to an agenda for peace is: peace building; disarmament; sanction; and peace enforcement. The United Nations does not claim monopoly of these instruments. It is pertinent to state that in many instances, the instruments have been usefully employed by regional organizations, ad-hoc groups of the states or by individual states as is the case with ECOWAS, a regional organization that has ECOMOG as its harbinger in the West African sub-region. The comparative advantage which the United Nations has over regional bodies like ECOMOG is the tremendous wealth of experience in the use of these instrument and the legitimacy of their use, hence the international conflicts especially since the end of the cold war era. Furthermore, the United Nations system appears to be better equipped and financed than regional organizations or individual member states to develop and apply the comprehensive, long-term approach needed to ensure the lasting resolution of conflicts. Peace keeping, one of the best known United Nations instrument for the maintenance of peace and security requires the cooperation of the parties to conflict in question, while seeking to settle disputes through initiatives.

Peacekeeping in the West – African sub-region especially in Liberia, was the idea of ECOWAS, which created ECOMOG to resolve the crisis in the war-torn Liberia and subsequently in the sub-region. The political crisis in Liberia reached its apogee following the invasion of the Nimba country by Charles Talyor in December 1989 under the banner of National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL). By early 1990, the situation degenerated with rebel forces having reached Monrovia. International call for a cease-fire went unheeded and mediation efforts ultimately proved (iii) That parties should subscribe to free and fair election as the only way to restore peace and harmony in that country. It is worthy of mention at this juncture that the Liberia crisis is a strong case that the military can perform duties that go beyond classical peacekeeping functions. We should be mindful of the fact that many of the conflict situations call for the ability to combine normal combat with non-military tasks of handling and assisting Organization in providing humanitarian relief and the much needed peace. The ECOMOG experience has shown that the West-Africa sub-region has come of age because it was able to resolve the crisis in Liberia: It could also be said to be the first successful peace keeping in the world. In August 1990, West African leaders (including the secretary general of the OAU) met in Banjul, Gambia under the aegis of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and under Nigeria’s political, economic, and military leadership, established the ECOWAS Ceasefire Monitoring Group (ECOMOG), which provided the military wherewithal to intercede between the warring factions in Liberia’s internecine civil war. The cease fire monitoring role was later expanded to include the enforcement of the many ephemeral peace accords signed by the armed factions and later still the ECOMOG mission was deployed to Sierra Leone which was engulfed in crises. Although the decision to deploy troops was political, ECOMOGs operations have been for the most part military. Nigeria remains the largest contributor to ECOMOG’s troop and logistical requirements as well as the key player in the peace initiatives, which has frequently brought leaders of the warring factions together for a negotiated settlement of issues fuelling crises. The events in Liberia and later Sierra Leone are enough evidence of the role of economic unions in peace keeping. One of the most memorable achievements of ECOMOG is the restoration of peace and political stability in the war torn mineral rich country of Liberia which had been flung into seven years of bitter fighting exacting a huge toll on the entire country and its people with an average negative GDP drop of 8% per annum over the seven year period.

The cease fire monitoring role was later expanded to include the enforcement of the many ephemeral peace accords signed by the armed factions and later still the ECOMOG mission was deployed to Sierra Leone which was engulfed in crises. Although the decision to deploy troops was political, ECOMOGs operations have been for the most part military. Nigeria remains the largest contributor to ECOMOG’s troop and logistical requirements as well as the key player in the peace initiatives, which has frequently brought leaders of the warring factions together for a negotiated settlement of issues fuelling crises. The events in Liberia and later Sierra Leone are enough evidence of the role of economic unions in peace keeping. One of the most memorable achievements of ECOMOG is the restoration of peace and political stability in the war torn mineral rich country of Liberia which had been flung into seven years of bitter fighting exacting a huge toll on the entire country and its people with an average negative GDP drop of 8% per annum over the seven year period. The peacekeeping initiatives developed and practiced in the form of ECOMOG are unique and show the seriousness of purpose to bring about collective security. Other regional organizations (except for the Warsaw Pact’s intervention in Eastern Europe) have not taken the bold step to enforce peace in their respective areas. The idea to launch the ECOMOG operation in Liberia was an attempt by ECOWAS to employ peacekeeping operations as part of its approach to finding a peaceful solution to the Liberian crisis in line with the practice already established by the UN.

1.2 Statement of Problem

The main thrust of this research work centers on the interplay of force and diplomacy in the resolution of the Liberian conflict by ECOWAS cease-fire Monitoring Group (ECOMOG). There was interplay of many variables during the Liberia civil war that lasted for upwards of seven years with the causalities estimated at about 150,000. The composition and character of these forces, the timing of the operation, the reaction and character of some members states of ECOWAS, the reaction and co-operation or non-co-operation of the warring factions, the internationalization of the conflict, the interplay of force or diplomacy in the resolution of the crisis all were issues of disagreement and skepticism. However, be it as it was ECOMOG or rather ECOWAS was able to restore peace and security to Liberia after about seven years in the fray amidst 17 When the Liberia war began in 1989, it automatically engaged the attention of leaders and people across the West African sub-region. Given the magnitude of the tragedy, in which Liberia was engulfed, as well as the need for the sub-regional security and indeed for the pride and dignity of the black race, a broad consensus emerged within the sub-region that the situation needed an urgent solution. It is also on record that at the time of the war, the rest of the world though saddened by the scope of the tragedy was seemingly pre-occupied with the developments elsewhere. This state of affairs resulted in the inability of necessary world organizations to commit either human or material resources to salvage the rapidly deteriorating situations in Liberia. Hence the human carnage. It was against this background that the ECOWAS decided to find an urgent solution that was capable of stopping the senseless carnage and restoring peace to Liberia. This was in response to the desperate pleas of the traumatized majority of Liberians. In August 1990, the authority of the 18 Heads of states and Governments of ECOWAS initiated a mediation process, which eventually culminated in the formation and deployment of a sub-region peace-monitoring group, ECOMOG .

1.3 Research Questions

  1. To what extend did the security implication of the Liberian crisis to the West Africa sub-region informed the decision of the ECOWAS to intervene in the crisis?
  2. To what extend did the support given to ECOMOG by the member states of ECOWAS enhance the process of bringing peace to Liberia?
  3. To what extend did the colonial orientation on the force contributing state of ECOWAS affect the operation of the ECOMOG in Liberia?
  4. To what extend did the support given by the neighboring Government to the rebel forces complicate the crisis in Liberia?

1.4 Objective of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to examine the peacekeeping operation on West Africa sub-region using ECOMOG intervention in Liberia crisis as a case study. The specific objectives are as follows:

  1. To determine the extent to which the inability of most members to fulfill their financial obligations constitute a major constraint to ECOMOG
  2. To evaluate ECOMOG crisis management capability as a peacekeeping force in West Africa sub-region.

1.5 Significance of the Study

The research work is of immense significance because it borders on the total restoration of peace in a state in the West African sub-region. The studies will look at the vast array of conflict management techniques in West Africa. Furthermore, the study will be invaluable to African leaders, as it will enable them to handle crises at the early stages before it degenerates into a civil war. Those in the academia, particularly, researchers in the area of conflicts and conflict resolution will find this work as an indispensable reference point for future researches as it will richly add to existing literature on peacekeeping and international security. Finally, the economic community of west Africa States (ECOWAS) will find this study exceedingly useful because it will enable them to properly evaluate the peacekeeping efforts as effective instruments of international politics.

1.6 Literature Review

Cosar, L.A. (1956) conceptualizes conflict as a struggle over values and claims to scarce resources, status and power in which the aims of the 21 Opponents are to neutralize, injure or eliminate their rivals. From this; it is obvious that conflict involves the parties in question striving to outdo one another.

Doherty, J. E. et al (1981) sees conflict as a condition in which one identifiable group of human beings whether tribal, ethnic, cultural, religious, socio-economic and political is engaged in conscious opposition to one or more identifiable human groups because these group are pursuing what appears to be incompatible goals. The position by Doherty et al is not different from that of Cosar except for semantics.

March and Simon (1958) on their part utilized the decision making paradigm, they posit that conflict to a break down in the standard mechanism of decision making so that an individual or group experiences difficulty in selecting an action alternative. This implies that for interest, that the individual is aware of.

Katy and Kham (1966) visualized conflict from the perspective of distinction between competition and conflict. To them, competition just like conflict, involves two or more sub-systems (individual or social) engaged in activities that in some, precludes the successful completion of the other. According to them, in competition you do not need direct interaction, but in conflict you do because there is a struggle for resources.

Egorerua (1996) on his part, highlighted the issue of pay, social distance, ethnic factors as contributory to conflict situations. He avers that the greater the amount of social distance, the greater the amount of conflict.8 The analysis by Egorerua is an implicit or tacit reality.

Okube (1989) was quick to suggest causes of conflict as misunderstanding, personality clashes, values and goal differences, sub-standard performance differences over method, responsibility issues, frustration and noncompliance with rules and policies.

According to Mitchel, C.R., (1981) conflict management is a new terminology of what used to be called the pacific settlement of dispute before World War II. But that today, it has become broader in scope and it makes use of much wider range of instrument of settlement and that many of these instruments are inter-governmental. He went on to state clearly that whereas the moribund method of settling disputes (pacific settlement) entails forceful means in totality but modern conflict management emphases peaceful procedure in the settlement of disputes.

Northege, (1976) intimates that conflict management is a collection of proposed techniques ranging from reduction of psychological abnormalities so as to release and eliminate tension inherent in them. This is the game approach to settling conflicts although it is seldom given attention, but it is an effective mechanism to resolve crisis of various forms.

Ikles, F.C. (1964) argues that conflict management can be achieved through negotiation, consultation and mediation. He explained that negotiation is a process in which conflict proposals are put forth ostensibly for the purpose reaching agreement on the realization of a common interest where conflicting interest are present.
Ray Ofoegbu (1980) is of the conception that conflict relationships in the international system receive more attention, comment and analysis than either cooperative or competitive relationship. He avers that conflict occurs when a serious disagreement, threat, use of violence or threats of the use of violence. In spite of the nature of conflict, Ofoegbu considers it as a normal and almost inevitable phenomenon at all levels of human society because as he puts it, occasions and issue of conflict always exit which could be activated when an actor seeks a major re-distribution of values while others stay aloof. Hence there will always be those seeking to change the status quo and hoping to maintain it.

Koffi Annan (1995) is of the contention that classical peace would be a neat solution to conflict but if one should restrict himself to that, then one would be excluding the main new sources of threats. Koffi Annan is simply emphasizing peacekeeping but sees classical peace keeping as a way out, once the crisis has taken place. According to John Dalland el al (1960) who propounded the theory of “Frustration and Aggression” is that the occurrence of aggressive behaviour always pre-supposes the existence of frustration and contrariwise, that the existence of frustration leads to some form of aggression.

Fierabends and Nesvold (1960) made their own contribution in the literature of frustration and aggression. They argue that frustration, collectively experienced by the members of a particular society and which is caused by the political system in which they live, induces the tendency to resort to political aggression. They further posit that collective frustration, begins mainly from an unsatisfactory political system, which cannot guarantee the achievement and sustenance of set goals in their political arrangement have fallen below expectation, they lose confidence, which leads to collective frustration, aggression tendencies.

Bandura, Albert and Walters, R.H. (1963) argues that aggression is always a consequence of frustration. The theory according to them maintains that all aggressive action presupposes the existence of frustration, a person does not need to be frustrated in order to engage in aggressive actions. Lawrence and Lorch (1967) believe that setting up departments to resolve conflicts between individuals or groups or necessary and this is because different department would be required to look at different activities in different ways. So far on his part opined that conflict may be resolved through humor. He went on to say that the target of the humor has implications for the degree to which it can help to resolve conflicts. According to him, if one of the parties involved makes itself an object of laughter that in itself tries to generate understanding from the other party. So far is focusing on comic relief as a way of resolving conflicts but was not oblivious of the fact that one party needs to make itself an object of laughter so that understanding can ensure.

1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of the study covers peacekeeping in Africa with emphasis on ECOMOG intervention in Liberia, in the cause of the study, the researcher encounters the following limitation

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

c) Finance:

The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.

1.8 Theoretical Framework

Collective Security Theory

Many theories can be applied in explaining any conceivable social problem. But it is the task of the researcher to identify and raise the appropriate theory/theories that will help him to offer adequate explanation of the problem under investigation. The field of political science is replete with varied theories and paradigms, which try to relate our ideas to the observations we make in the interactions between or among actors in national and international systems. At the moment no paradigm had emerged as an explanatory tool for all phenomena. This utility of a particular tool of analysis is heavily dependent on the extent to which it reflects the reality of what it sets out to describe. For the purpose of this study; we shall adopt the collective security theory. According to Inis L. Claude Jnr. (1970) collectively security is guided by the fact that the fabric of human society has become so tightly woven that a breach anywhere, threatens disintegration every where, unchallenged aggression in one direction emboldens and helps to empower its perpetrators penetrate other direction. Also the essential commitments of collective security system necessitate the willingness of nations to fight for the maintenance of the status quo, even though this involves injury to innocent people and the squealing of valid objectives to the moral legitimacy of legally established state of thing.To this end, United Nations as well as some regional ones, have sought to develop an international order in which the society of each state is expected to come from combined effort of all. In order words, collective security theory in essence involves the promise by sovereign states to join together by constitution of organization that under certain circumstance they will come to the aid of the state, which is threatened or actually attacked. Also collective security assumes that bringing to bear of overwhelming power against a state with the implication of inevitable defeat for the offender can prevent war. Although collective security originated from the League of Nations, it was further extended to regional organization through article 52 (1) of UN charter. Finally, ECOWAS protocol on non-aggression (1979) and Protocol to mutual Assistance (1982) collaborate UN article on the above, all in line 30 with collective security theory. Thus, the study finds it convenient to align with and agree with the collective security theory as the framework of analysis. According to Inis, L. Claude Jnr. (1970) collective security is a design for providing the certainty of collective action to frustrate aggression, for giving to the potential victim, the reassuring knowledge, and conveying to the potential law breaker, the deterring conviction that the resources of the community will be mobilized against any abuse of national power. In other words, collective security system entails the willingness of nation to fight for the status quo. Judging by the working hypothesis, we are tentatively at alert on the fact that ECOWAS intervention through the setting up of a ceasefire monitoring group for Liberia. Although there was no external aggression on the state of Liberia, peace and security was threatened not only in Liberia but also in the ECOWAS sub-region. The fear that the civil war in Liberia could escalate to the point that it will extend to other West Africa countries to some extent informed the intervention of the ECOWAS through ECOMOG in Liberia crisis.

1.9 Research Hypotheses

Hypothesis refers to an experimental statement, tentative in nature, showing the relationship between two or more variables. It is open to test and can be accepted or rejected depending on whether it agrees or disagrees with the statistical test. The two hypothesis that are tested in this study are the null and alternative hypothesis.

The null hypothesis reflects that there will be no observed effect in our experiment. In a mathematical formulation of the null hypothesis, there will typically be an equal sign. This hypothesis is denoted by H0.The null hypothesis is what we attempt to find evidence against in our hypothesis test.

The alternative or experimental hypothesis reflects that there will be an observed effect for our experiment. In a mathematical formulation of the alternative hypothesis, there will typically be an inequality, or not equal to symbol.

This hypothesis is denoted by either Ha or by H1. The alternative hypothesis is what we are attempting to demonstrate in an indirect way by the use of our hypothesis test. If the null hypothesis is rejected, then we accept the alternative hypothesis. If the null hypothesis is not rejected, then we do not accept the alternative hypothesis.

  • H0: ECOMOG peacekeeping mission did not play significant role in resolving the Liberian Conflict
  • H1: ECOMOG peacekeeping mission played significant role in resolving the Liberian Conflict

1.10 Research Methodology

Research methodology deals with the different ways or methods the researcher applied in order to carry out the research as well as the instrument used for gathering the data. Various types of research methodology are:

  • Experimental Research
  • Historical Research
  • Descriptive Research
  • Survey Research
  • Case Research
  • Correlational Research
  • Ex- post- facto Research
Experimental Research

This is the type of research that directly attempts influence a particular variable and for establishing cause and effect relationships. It is the type of research where the researcher looks at the effects of at least one independent variable on one or more dependent variables.

Ex-Post Research

Ex- post-research is otherwise called casual-comparative research. It is a type of research that is used for investigating possible cause and effect relationships through the observation of an existing conditions or events that had already happened and searching backwards in time to trace the plausible causal factors.

Historical Research

Historical research is the type of research that focuses primarily on past events and occurrences. It is the type where certain aspects of the past are studied by:

  • Perusing relevant documents of the past
  • Examining relics
  • Interviewing individuals who lived during the time under study

After collecting relevant information following the three steps above, attempt is then made to reconstruct what happened during the time under investigation.

Case Studies

A case study is the type of research where an entity such as one individual, one classroom, one school, one local government, one state etc, is studied. The entity under investigation is referred to as a case. Case study is a means of gaining valuable and at times detailed insight about the case being studied.

Survey Research

This is the type of researcher where the researcher is interested in the opinions of a large group of people about a particular topic or issue and goes out to ask his subjects questions relating to the issue of interest.

Correlational Research

This is the type of research where the researcher is out to investigate the possibility of relationships between two or more variables without influencing or manipulating any of the variables.

The type of research methodology used in this research to gather data and relevant information is the historical research and the study will adopt descriptive method of data collection. This will involve the collection of materials from secondary sources, such as books, journal articles, magazines, published and unpublished articles.

1.11 Definition of Terms


Peacekeeping refers to activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace. Research generally finds that peacekeeping reduces civilian and battlefield deaths and reduces the risk of renewed warfare.


The Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group was a West African multilateral armed force established by the Economic Community of West African States. ECOMOG was a formal arrangement for separate armies to work together


The Economic Community of West African States, also known as ECOWAS, is a regional economic union of fifteen countries located in West Africa

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

This research projects examined the concept of peacekeeping in Africa with social reference to the operation of ECOMOG a sun-regional peacekeeping out fit established to re-enforce peace in Liberia. The need for this study was informed by the Security Implication of the Liberian crisis within the West Africa sub-region. The fact that if the conflict was not collectively addressed by the sub-regional Organization – the ECOWAS, the effect of it would spread to other states within the subregion, especially state neighbouring Liberia.

The major findings of the study are:

The crisis in Liberia is occasioned by the frosty relationship between the indigenous people who constitute the majority of the Liberian and the majority Americo-Liberians who have dominated the Liberian political scene since they were deported to Liberia in 1821, as resettlement area for the Afro-American slaves after the abolition of slave in America. The ascendancy to power by the ethnic majority Liberian population through the coup of April 12, 1980, through Late Sergeant Samuel Doe escalated the ethnic conflict in that country. The part played by America in its efforts to maintain the status quo did not help matters either on the conflict. The dimensions and complications which assumed and the possibilities of it spreading too other arts of West Africa sub-regions, especially state bordering Liberia necessitated the intervention of ECOWAS in the crisis, with view to finding solution to the problem.

The ECOMOG operation in Liberia though well intentioned and supported by the sub-regional organization ECOWAS, encounter various teething problems in its activities in its peace in Iberia. Among the various problem encounter by ECOMOG are:

1. Poor funding:

The member states of ECOWAS did not make true their commitment to properly fund the operation of the peacekeeping organization. It was only when Nigeria offered to take up the bills of the operation that the efforts of the operation started to yield positive results.

2. Secondly,

There were the logistics problems occasioned by different colonial orientation of the force contributing to the sub-regional peace organization. Since the forces that constituted the ECOMOG group were drawn from various West Africa states, with their different colonial experience (-The Anglophone and francophone West Africa) there were the language and other cultural problems presented by this colonial experiences which inevitably impacted negatively on the operations of the forces again, the support given to the rebel forces and other contending interest in the Liberia conflict also impacted negatively on the operations of the forces. Again, the support given to the rebel forces and other contending interests in the Liberia conflict also impacted negatively on the operations of the forces. This work is basically an analytic description study which pre-cludes all forms of statistic method of data collection and analysis. Content analysis of the mass of data collection form library document was adopted in the analysis of the research findings.

5.2 Conclusion

This study has attempted to review the various encounter by ECOWAS in its efforts to bring peace to the crisis laden Liberians through ECOMOG. The study admits that the crisis originated from the inability of the indigenous Liberia population and the Americo – Liberia minority population to live in harmony together. The study observes that this domestic environment related to external factors to fuel the conflict in that country. The involvement of ECOWAS was informed by both altruistic and subregional security interests. The altruistic interest of ECOWAS was aimed at stopping the lost in human material resources in Liberia. The study also conclude that the Nigeria desire to write off the bills of the ECOMOG operation in Liberia was informed by the altruistic tendency and the show of big brother posture in the sub-region as well as in Africa as a whole

5.3 Recommendations

The analysis provided in this study has shown that the problems encounter by ECOMOG in Liberia stemmed mainly from the internal configuration f the forces in the group, as well as other extraneous factors. In view of these, the following recommendations are made:

The ECOMOG community of West Africa State (ECOWAS) should in view of the importance of having a sub-regional organization to help in maintaining peace and security create a more harmonious and integrated peacekeeping body in its efforts in the process of peacekeeping in the sub-region. In this regard, the forces so envisage should be established well ahead of any crisis in the sub-region, perhaps in peace time. The forces so establish should have common training orientation in peacekeeping especially within the West Africa sub-region. Members of the force should be trained in two major languages; English and French) spoken in the sub-region. Common funds shall be established for peace keeping operation in the sub-region. This fund shall be entrusted with the secretariat of the organization and contributions to the fund made mandatory for all members’ state of ECOWAS. It is the conviction of this researcher that a well-organized, well-funded and well-articulated peacekeeping operation body is a welcome idea for the maintenance of internal peace and security especially within the West Africa sub-region.

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