Pattern Of Career Aspiration Among Senior Secondary School Chemistry Students In Tai LGA Of Rivers State

Project and Seminar Material for Chemistry Education

Pattern Of Career Aspiration Among Senior Secondary School Chemistry Students In Tai LGA Of Rivers State


Abstract


This study was carried out to assess the pattern of career aspiration among senior secondary school chemistry students in Tai LGA of Rivers State. The study was specifically carried out to ascertain the career mostly preferred by chemistry students in secondary schools in Tai LGA of Rivers State, determine whether students’ pattern of career aspirations influences their performance in Chemistry subject in secondary schools, and ascertain the factors influencing pattern of career aspirations of chemistry students in Tai LGA of Rivers State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of Chemistry students of selected senior secondary school in Tai LGA of Rivers State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that there numerous career aspirations of chemistry students, however, the mostly preferred by chemistry students in secondary schools in Tai LGA of Rivers State covers chemical engineer, chemical development engineer, pharmacologists, laboratory technicians, chemistry teachers, and hazardous waste management chemist. Furthermore, the findings showed that the factors influencing pattern of career aspirations of chemistry students in Tai LGA of Rivers State include; parental level of income, parental influence, gender, academic prowess, and role model. Therefore, it is recommended that school heads should collaborate with counselling unit in schools to organise career workshops for students about how to deal with the negative influence of peer pressure on their career aspirations. This is important because peer pressure was found to be a major factor affecting the career aspirations of students. Thus, empowering students to be able to take their own career decisions and not following their peers when it is against their will. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Educators and psychologist continue to ponder on reasons why students are not doing so well in the science subjects, many factors have been identified as the cause of this menace both in developing and the developed countries with the major once being cognitive and non cognitive. More attention is still required on these factors so as to maintain and improve on the scientific and technological state of the world, Nigeria inclusive. Chemistry has been one of the core science subjects in which a credit pass is required before a student can be admitted into any tertiary institution for any science based discipline. However statistics on students enrolment and achievement in the west African senior secondary school examination (Source West African Examination Council) have shown that despite the low rate of students enrolment in science subjects for the examination, only few percentage of them passes the subject particularly chemistry at a credit level to qualify them to purse courses in the science, technology, basic medical sciences and or agriculture at the tertiary level despite the continuous clarion call for technological growth in the country.

Many reasons have been attributed to this problem of students’ enrolment and achievement in science (subjects) in West African and particularly in Nigeria. There has been idea of students perceiving science subjects as being difficult (Obioha, 1987), this has led man students into avoiding science and consequently into low enrolment and poor performance in the subjects. Other factors identified include: career aspiration misconception, attitudes and motivational traits, self concept, confidence and control among others. Although, many of all the factors are considered attitudinal, Educators and psychologist believes that certain factors apart from the cognitive ones, are responsible for different achievement in chemistry, part of which includes aspiration, motivation, perception, intelligence, attitude, seriousness and purpose of individual and personal characteristics of the learner (Abe 1995) (Osokoga 1990).

Another school of thought believes that personality and psychological factors are operative in academic performance. Interest level of aspiration, study habit, self concept and anxiety are some of the factors being identified based on this consideration. However (Bakare, 1975) reported that forestation between these personality factors and academic performance are found to range between 1 and 3. Gender difference has also been identified as one of the major/key player in low enrolment and poor performance in science subjects. Available data pointing to this on Education in Nigeria (Longe and Adedeji, 2003) points to the fact that female students tend to have more interest in areas of study regarded as feminine and therefore shy away from scientific and technological field. Also, male students are drifted towards outdoor and mechanical activities. This difference could be attributed to the degree of propensity to take risk by males than the females. Female students negative attitude could be attached to their believe that by myth, boys are better than them in the science subjects (Adedeji and Longe 2003) also added that, some communities believes that exposing girls to the world of science implies immersing the girls in male environment. Males are found to prefer risk-involving and hazardous occupation.

Generally, achievement as a measure of school productivity is the concern of teachers, parents, students and the policy makers. Inspite of government investment and incentives on science and technology education, in pursuit of one of the stated goals of science teaching, students still perform poorly and below expectation in science courses and blames are placed on teachers and or school administrators, not bearing in mind the students emotional, psychological and personality characteristics. The world is turning technological, Nigeria like the rest of the world depends mostly on what science could give. It is therefore of high necessity to probe into some of the non-cognitive characteristics of students which is part of major possible threat to success of science subjects, identify their relative effect on core science subjects like chemistry achievement.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Career aspiration has become one of the principal gridlocks which poses difficulties in any student’s life this is because many factors which are intricately knotted play out in this process (Kazi & Akhlaq, 2017). Intrinsically, abound social environmental factors -the family, the social environment, peers, societal values, the technological advancement of the society, and religious orientation, teachers, counselors and educators from the school environment are other significant forces on the career decision of secondary school students among others which affect student career choice in Chemistry (Akosah-twumasi, Emeto, Lindsay, Tsey, & Malau-Aduli, 2018).

In Tai Local Government area, it has been observed that many chemistry students are confronted with the problem of choosing a suitable career. This is evident in the reported poor academic performance, lack of interest in schooling and incessant dropout in their academic pursuit among others. The paucity of career information by such social settings of the student’s upbringing is expected to facilitate the student’s conscientious career decision needed for survival in the world. As a result, students are bereft of alternatives to career choices that are not consistent with their inherent capacities and invariably turn to uninformed channels, like their friends, family, to make the very important decision of choosing suitable career paths. This leads to a large number of students falling into careers by happenstance instead of via an objective and holistic analysis to find a fit that takes all aspects of their personality and skills into consideration. Whereas several studies have been conducted on factors affecting career choice among secondary school students, paucity of data with reference to the situation in Tai Local Government Area of Bayelsa State abound on the patters of career aspiration among chemistry students. Upon these premise, the researcher seeks to investigate the pattern of career aspiration among senior secondary school chemistry students in Tai LGA of Rivers State.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The study aims at finding out the pattern of career aspiration among senior secondary school chemistry students in Tai LGA of Rivers State. Hence, the specific purpose for this study are outlined below;

  1. To ascertain the career mostly preferred by chemistry students in secondary schools in Tai LGA of Rivers State.
  2. To determine whether students’ pattern of career aspirations influences their performance in Chemistry subject in secondary schools.
  3. To ascertain the factors influencing pattern of career aspirations of chemistry students in Tai LGA of Rivers State.

1.4 Research Questions

The research will seek to answer the following questions:

  1. What are the career mostly preferred by chemistry students in secondary schools in Tai LGA of Rivers State?
  2. Does students’ pattern of career aspirations influences their performance in Chemistry subject in secondary schools.
  3. What are the factors influencing pattern of career aspirations of chemistry students in Tai LGA of Rivers State.

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: Students’ pattern of career aspirations does not influence their performance in Chemistry subject in secondary schools.
  • Ha: Students’ pattern of career aspirations influences their performance in Chemistry subject in secondary schools.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study seeks to identify the influence of peers, educators, and parents on students’ career aspirations, as well as the effect of students’ interests on those aspirations. Specifically, the study’s findings will be beneficial to a wide range of parties, including Officers at the Ministry of Education and Nigeria Education Service, teachers, parents, students, and other researchers.

The results of the research will provide the Ministry of Education and Nigeria Education Service with information on the factors that can influence students’ career aspirations. The findings of the study can be used to streamline policies that can assist students in making career decisions with less difficulty.

Again, the results of the study will benefit instructors in that they will be aware of the roles they play in influencing students’ career goals. This can assist instructors in assisting students with career decisions.

In addition, the study’s findings will equip students with the knowledge necessary to understand the key factors that can influence their career aspirations. This can facilitate easier career decisions for students.

In conclusion, the study’s findings will contribute to the existing literature on the career aspirations of junior secondary school students in Nigeria. Therefore, future researchers and other academics will find the study’s findings useful.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the pattern of career aspiration among senior secondary school chemistry students in Tai LGA of Rivers State. Hence, the respondents for this study will be obtained from secondary school students in Tai LGA of Rivers State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Career:

This is used in the current study to refer to the broad opportunities that exist for lifelong vocations. It is a profession for which one is trained and which is undertaken as a permanent calling. Examples of careers are teachers, doctors, journalists etc.

Career Aspiration:

Career aspiration is used in this study to refer to the path that students want their careers to follow. It reflects the aims that students have concerning their future careers.

Career Decision:

This connotes the choices that students make concerning their careers. When career decisions are made, they are no more aspirations but rather definite career choices


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the pattern of career aspiration among senior secondary school chemistry students in Tai LGA of Rivers State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the pattern of career aspiration among senior secondary school chemistry students in Tai LGA of Rivers State. The study was specifically carried out to ascertain the career mostly preferred by chemistry students in secondary schools in Tai LGA of Rivers State, determine whether students’ pattern of career aspirations influences their performance in Chemistry subject in secondary schools, and ascertain the factors influencing pattern of career aspirations of chemistry students in Tai LGA of Rivers State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were Chemistry students of selected senior secondary school in Tai LGA of Rivers State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. There numerous career aspirations of chemistry students, however, the mostly preferred by chemistry students in secondary schools in Tai LGA of Rivers State covers chemical engineer, chemical development engineer, pharmacologists, laboratory technicians, chemistry teachers, and hazardous waste management chemist.
  2. Students’ pattern of career aspirations influences their performance in Chemistry subject in secondary schools.
  3. The factors influencing pattern of career aspirations of chemistry students in Tai LGA of Rivers State include; parental level of income, parental influence, gender, academic prowess, and role model.

5.4 Recommendations

The following recommendations are made based on the findings of the study:

  1. School heads should collaborate with counselling unit in schools to organise career workshops for students about how to deal with the negative influence of peer pressure on their career aspirations. This isimportant because peer pressure was found to be a major factor affecting the career aspirations of students. Thus, empowering students to be able to take their own career decisions and not following their peers when it is against their will.
  2. School counsellors should encourage students during orientations and when students are preparing to leave school to pursue careers that are in line with their interests. This will help ensure that students’ interests have an influence on their career aspirations.
  3. School counsellors together with teachers should show interest in the career aspirations of students. They can pay continually assist students who may have career decision issues.
  4. School counsellors should advice parents to avoid forcing careers on their children but encourage their children to pursue careers that align with their (children) interests. This can help students more productive in their academic work.
  5. School authorities should make career issues a fundamental part of the extra curricula activities in school. This can help ensure that students receive attention to deal with their career decision issues.

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