Parenting Style And Social Development Of Pupils In Public Primary School In Port Harcourt Local Government Area

Primary Education Project and Semina Material

Parenting Style And Social Development Of Pupils In Public Primary School In Port Harcourt Local Government Area


Abstract


The study investigated parenting style and social development of pupils in public primary school in Port Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers State. The population of the study comprises pupils in public primary school. The participant’s age ranged from 5 years to 15 years. 150 questionnaires were administered out of which 149 students participated and this amount to 98% of total respondents. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire consisting of Parenting Style Scale, and Social Development Scale. The data were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) and Multiple Regression Statistics Method. The results revealed that the independent variable (Parenting Style) has a significant effect on Social development of pupils in public primary schools. The value of R (adjusted) = 0.764 and R² (adjusted) = 0.578. The analysis of variance performed on the multiple regressions yielded an F-ratio value of 103.36 and was found to be significant at 0.05 level. Furthermore, the independent variable made a significant contribution to the prediction of Social development of pupils in public primary schools. In terms of magnitude of contribution, authoritative style made the most significant contribution (Beta = 0.654; t = 7.28; P < 0.05) to the prediction among the Parenting Styles (Beta = 0.131; t = 1.46; P < 0.05). Lastly, there was significant relationship between Parenting Style and Social development of pupils in public primary schools (r = 0.658; P < 0.05). This means that the Parenting Style influence the level of Social development of pupils in public primary schools.The findings of this research provide reasonable information that can be applied in counselling and social psychology to the better understanding of social development of pupils in public primary schoolsconsidering the fact that a keen observation of what is happening in Nigeria today seems to indicate that social behaviour is on the increase among children and adolescents despite the fact that the manifestation of anti-social behaviour could hinder their ability to concentrate in classroom teaching and learning situation and prevent them from developing required functional competencies for academic success.

 


Table of Content


Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Question
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisation of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Social Development
  • 2.3 Parenting Style
  • 2.4 Parental Involvement
  • 2.5 Peer Group Pressure
  • 2.6 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.6.1 Anomie Theory
  • 2.6.2 Sociological Theory
  • 2.6.3 The Attachment Theory
  • 2.6.4 Problem Behavior Theory
  • 2.7 Empirical Review

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population
  • 3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
  • 3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
  • 3.5 Validity of the Instrument
  • 3.6 Reliability of the Instrument
  • 3.7 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.8 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Result
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

The early years is a very crucial period in the life of individuals. It is also the period where the success or otherwise of individuals are largely determined. It is estimated that 7.5 million children under the age of 5 worldwide die each year while over 200 million children survive but do not reach their full potential (UNICEF, 2013). The implication of this is that the early years is a very crucial period of human development. This assertion has led almost every developed country in the world to set up some form of early childhood education for children below the age of compulsory schooling (Melhuish, 2014). The first few years of life are seen as a particularly sensitive period in the process of development, laying a foundation for cognitive functioning; behavioural, social, and self-regulatory capacities; and physical health in childhood and beyond (Karoly, Kilburn and Cannon, 2005). The early years of children can therefore be seen as the time where the exploits of every other period in their lives are determined.
The experiences of the early years also have a significant influence on the all-round development and later lives of any child (Ajayi, 2008). It thus becomes imperative that children be helped to have the best early childhood experiences in order to have an all-round development. This early experience makes a child more apt to learn in the primary level as the confidence in his learning capabilities which he acquired from the nursery school is taken to the primary school (Osakwe, 2009). According to Nakpodia (2011) the foundation of the education of the child is the preschool education which may be formal or informal. This educational level provides for the physical, motor, health, nutritional, intellectual, aesthetic, emotional and social development of the child (Nakpodia, 2011). It is in recognition of this that the Federal Government of Nigeria through its National Policy on Education (FRN, 2013) purposed early childhood education to; effect a smooth transition from the home to the school; prepare the child for the primary level of education; provide adequate care, supervision and security for the children while their parents are at work; inculcate social, moral norms and values; inculcate in the child the spirit of enquiry and creativity through the exploration of nature, the environment, art, music and the use of toys, etc; develop a sense of co-operation and team-spirit; stimulate in the child good habits; including good health habits; and teach the rudiments of numbers, letters, colours, shapes, forms, etc. through play. Melhuish (2014) summarized the benefits of Early Childhood Education to be a means of advancing school readiness and later attainment of children, and supporting their subsequent social, economic and occupational success as adults in later life. Hence, to ensure future competence, coping skills, health, success in the labour market and consequently the social and economic health of the nation, early childhood education must be given adequate attention.

Apart from its undisputable benefits to individual children, Early Childhood Care and Education is becoming pivotal in the development of every modern society in recent times. UNICEF (2013) reports that countries where children in large numbers are unable to reach their full potential have an estimated 20 per cent loss in adult productivity. Despite the growing interest in early childhood education however, there are still controversies on early years’ educational programmes among scholars. Robinson & Robinson (1986) as cited by Ejieh (2006) noted that some early writers on this issue hold the view that young children are not mature enough to learn complex skills demanded by preschool educational programmes and that the warmth of mother’s love and the fostering of children’s emotional security are more important than any form of educational programme. In Nigeria, Early Childhood Education is a largely post-colonial development (Ejieh 2006). Hence, State and Federal government are working on several policies to ensure that Early Childhood Education is given priority in Nigeria’s educational system

Primary education in Nigeria, is described in the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2013) as the education given in an educational institution for children aged six to eleven plus. Primary education as stated in the National Policy on Education covers the most basic aspect of overall education. Hence, it has the following general objectives; the inculcation of permanent literacy and numeracy; the laying of a sound basis for scientific and reflective thinking; citizenship education that makes for effective participation and contribution to the society; character and moral development of the child; developing in the child the ability to adapt to his environment; providing the child with the opportunities to develop manipulative skills and providing the child with basic tools for further educational advancement. Thus the primary level provides the foundation of subsequent educational attainment any child can receive.

Children at the primary level are expected to be between the age of 6-11 years plus according to the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2013). According to Bastable and Dart (2007) children between the age range of 6-11 years plus have gross and fine-motor skills which are increasingly more coordinated so that they are able to control their movements with much greater dexterity than before. The primary school stage is also characterized by cognitive development in terms of logical, rational thought processes and the ability to reason inductively and deductively.

This stage according to Paiget’s developmental theory is labelled the middle of concrete operations (Bastable& Dart, 2007). Like other aspects of children’s development, the affective domain of development which include emotional and social development also develops rapidly at this stage. This is because, the period of primary education for children is a period where children begin self-awareness and establish their self-concept as members of the social group larger than their own nuclear families. In the social development of the children, social skills determine the success or otherwise of interactions between children and their peers or adults as the children participate more in daily activities with people outside their homes.

Social skills is also one of the most important prerequisites needed to fulfil the objectives of primary education laid down by the Federal Government of Nigeria through the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2013). Social skills are described as a set of skills that allow individuals to communicate, relate and socialize with others (Rashid, 2005). Social skills development as described by Berk (2006) has to do with self-understanding, and knowledge about other people, interpersonal skills, friendship, intimate relationships, moral reasoning and behaviour. Social skills which involves interpersonal relationship was categorized by Spence (1985) cited by Tsang and Lak (2010) into three key elements: non-verbal, verbal and conversational skills. It is commonly agreed that social skills is the ability to interact with other people in a way that is both appropriate and effective (Segrin 1992; Segrin 2000; Spitzberg 1985; Spitzberg 1989) cited by Tsang and Lak (2010). While making assertion on social skills development, Huitt and Dawson (2011) suggested that while people may initially learn something independently, eventually that learning will be modified in interaction with others. This statement gives social development a central point in the development of children. The benefits as stated by The State of developing social skills in children as stated by The State of Texas Education (1999) includes; tendency to demonstrate better social adjustment and less likelihood to exhibit later delinquency and antisocial behaviour.

According to Tsang (2010) poor social skills can lead to children being less popular among their peers compared with those who have better social skills and this can have long term effects on the social interactions and functioning of the children. Lynch and Simpson (2010) also asserted that social skills like showing empathy, participating in group activities, generosity, helpfulness, negotiating and communicating with others are very crucial for the survival of the growing child in the demanding environment. Lynch and Simpson (2010) further stated that children learn these skills from adults and children in their environment. However, learning social skills from adults is mostly unconscious for children because children picked up behaviours based on their interactions with adults around them as evidenced by Bandura’s social learning theory.

While factors like low family income and parents’ unemployment can be associated with strong social skills gaps which ultimately leads to social disadvantage (Goodman 2015), parenting style is another major factor which apart from the parents’ socio-economic factors can determine the development of children’s social skills. The development of an individual in the childhood stage can easily predict their general development of life especially as it regards their interaction with others.

Social skills are components of behaviours (rather than a behaviour) that help an individual understand and adapt across a variety of social settings. (Steedly, Schwartz, Levin, Stephen and Luke, 2008). Hence, Walker (1983) in Steedly et al (2008) defines social skills as a set of competencies that allow an individual to initiate and maintain positive social relationships; contribute to peer acceptance and to a satisfactory school adjustment and; allow an individual to cope effectively with the larger environment. Social skills according to Lynch and Simpson (2010) are behaviours that promote positive interaction with others and the environment. Caldarella and Merrell (1997) cited in Rashid (2005) derived taxonomy from their review that included five broad dimensions of social skills; peer relations skills, self-management skills, academic skills, compliance skills and assertion skills. All these elements are critical to successful functioning in life as they enable the individual to know what to say, how to make good choices, and how to behave in diverse situations (Rashid, 2005).

Defining social skills can also be within the context of social and emotional learning (Steedly et al 2008). These have to do with the ability to recognize and manage our emotions, developing caring and concern for others, establishing positive relationships, making responsible decisions, and handling challenging situations constructively and ethically (Zins, Weissbert, Wang & Walberg, 2004). Social skills overall are those skills that we use in every environment that includes two or more people. Social skills allow people to succeed not only in their social lives, but also in their academic, personal, and future professional activities (Huitt and Dawson 2011). The essence of social skills development thus cut across every endeavour of the holistically developed child. Goodman, Joshi, Nasim& Tyler (2015) also describes social skills as a child’s ability and tendency to interact with others, forge and maintain relationships, and avoid socially unacceptable responses.

In the same vein, social skills development can be seen to involve the acquisition of a set of skills which include; the ability to identify and understand one’s own feelings, accurately read and comprehend emotional state in others, manage strong emotions and their expressions in a constructive manner, regulate one’s behaviour, develop empathy for others, establish and sustain relationships. (Boyd, Barnett, Bodrova, Leong and Gomby 2012). Thus Huitt and Dawson (2011) concluded that an effective social development program will include elements of developing the foundational competencies in other domains that support and enrich it and it will do so in a way that the child or has high social self-esteem in a variety of social situations. The development of the social skills of an individual plays a very prominent role in the overall development. Hence, Goodman, Joshi, Nasim& Tyler (2015) stated that social skills have been found to be important primarily as predictors of non-labour market outcomes, mental health and well-being, health behaviours and partnerships in later life. This gives social skills a pivot and important role in the development of children. Social skills as an aspect of development is necessary for maintaining social, psychological and occupational well-being (Tsang &Lak, 2010). What this implies for children at the primary level of education is the essentiality of social skills for the children to perform optimally in all aspects of development in the school environment.

According to Boyd, Barnett, Bodrova, Leong and Gomby 2012, problems that can arise as a result of poorly developed social skills of children include; persistent physical aggression, high-school dropout rates, adolescent delinquency and antisocial behaviour. These problems as listed by Boyd, Barnett, Bodrova, Leong and Gomby 2012 makes learning irrelevant if learning will only promote the cognitive skills of children. Murphy (2005) cited in Rashid (2010) found out that underdeveloped social skills could lead to isolation, loneliness, and frustration while Rashid (2005) also stated that failure to develop adequate social skills can lead to negative feelings, self-doubt, and low self-esteem. Rashid (2005) stated further that, behavioural difficulties in school such as delinquency, inattentiveness, peer rejection, emotional difficulties, bullying, difficulty in making friends, aggressiveness, problems in interpersonal relationships, poor self-concept, academic failures, concentration difficulties, isolation from peers and depression were all associated with lack of social skills.

Bornstein and Ziontnik (2010) described parenting style as consisting of several elements that combine to create the emotional climate in which parents communicate their attitudes and practices about child upbringing with their children. Parenting styles conveys parents’ overall feelings about the child through body language, tone of voice, emotional displays, and quality of attention (Bornstein and Ziontnik, 2012). All these factors are what build up the social and emotional development of a child. Hence, the influence of parenting style on the acquisition of social skills with which children can thrive well in the society and the school, becomes powerful.

The majority of published studies on parenting styles have used some variation of the parenting style construct delineated by Baumrind (1966, 1997) cited by Turner, Chandler and Heffer (2009). Baumrind (1966) identified three types of parenting styles which according to Turner et al (2012) has become a model which majority of published works use to make other variation in parenting style. Baumrind’s typology of parenting style are; authoritarian, authoritative and permissive. According to Baumrind(1966), the authoritarian parent attempts to shape, control, and evaluate the behaviour of the child in accordance with a set of standard of conduct, usually an absolute standard, theologically motivated and formulated by a higher authority. He/she values obedience as a virtue and favours punitive, forceful measures to curb self-will at points where the child’s actions or beliefs conflict with what he/she thinks is right conduct.

The authoritarian parent believes in keeping the child in his/her place, in restricting his/her autonomy, and in assigning household responsibilities in order to inculcate respect for work. He/she regards the preservation of order and traditional structure as a highly value end in itself. He/she does not encourage verbal give and take, believing that the child should accept her word for what is right. Authoritarian parenting is also characterized by parents talking to their children rather than with their children and they do not consult with their children while making decisions even when the children are mostly affected by the decision. (Alegre, 2011; Baumrind, 1971; Grolnick&Pomerantz, 2009) cited by Roshi (2014). The effects of authoritarian parenting in children includes; depression, lack of self-esteem, high delinquent behaviour and unsatisfied life later as adults (Rosli, 2014). Effects of authoritarian parenting on children’s social skills include; frequent withdrawal from social contacts, lack of self-assertion, intellectual curiosity and spontaneity (Rosli, 2014)

In direct contrast to the authoritarian parenting style using Baumrind’s (1966) typology is the permissive parenting style. According to Baumrind (1966), the permissive parent attempts to behave in a non-punitive, acceptant, and affirmative manner toward the child’s impulses, desires, and actions. He/she makes few demands for household responsibility and orderly behaviour. A permissive parent allows the child to regulate his/her own activities as much as possible, avoids the exercise of control, and does not encourage him/her to obey externally defined standards. According to Gfroerer et al. (2004) cited by Roshi (2014), permissive parents are more supportive of what their children want to do and this attitude decreased depression among children. Parents with a permissive parenting style are too lenient and tolerant of their children without setting limits (Roshi 2014). The permissive parent also often holds the belief that restricting the child’s action in any way might infringe on the child’s autonomy, in turn hindering normative child development (Benson &Haith, 2010). Effects of permissive parenting on children’s social skills include; immature behaviours, poor impulse control and difficulty in accepting responsibility for their own actions (Rosli, 2014)

Baumrind’s (1966) third parenting style is the authoritative parenting. The authoritative parent is described as one who attempts to direct the child’s activities in a rational, issue-oriented manner. She encourages verbal give and take, shares with the child the reasons behind her policy, and solicits his objections when he refuses to conform. The authoritative parent affirms the child’s present qualities, but also sets standards for future conduct. She uses reason, power, and shaping by regime and reinforcement to achieve her objectives and does not base her decisions on group consensus or the individual child’s desires (Baumrind, 1966). According to Greenspan (2006) cited Roshi (2006), Baumrind combined the best elements of permissive parenting (high warmth) with the best elements of authoritarian parenting (high control) to create the authoritative style. Authoritative parents encourage children to be independent and develop their own identities, but at the same time they also provide rules and boundaries for their children (Grolnick&Pomerantz, 2009; Takeuchi & Takeuchi, 2008) cited by Roshi (2014).

Mutual interaction is usually at its highest in the authoritative parenting style. The child often understand the reason behind some actions of his/her parents and as Roshi (2014) stated, this can help to minimize any problem that do occur. Evaluating authoritative parenting using Baumrind’s combination of authoritarian and authoritative qualities, authoritative parenting style will seem as if it is always beneficial in all culture but according Gfroerer, Kern, &Curlette, (2004) cited by Roshi (2014), while Baurind and others discuss the beneficial effects of authoritative parenting, other researchers have found that authoritative parenting was not beneficial for children in all culture. But it can be regarded as a balance between authoritarian and permissive parenting styles since it combines both qualities.

According to Baumrind (1991 & 1967) cited by Roshi (2014), children raised by authoritative parents are better able to develop social competence compared to other children. When children raised by authoritative parents grow up, they become adults who are ready to adjust in the community and know what is socially acceptable.

The fourth parenting style is the uninvolved parenting usually described using terms like indifferent (Benson and Hiath), neglectful (Roshi 2014) or uninvolved (Maccoby& Martin, 1983) cited by Roshi. It was an expansion of Baumrind’s three types parenting style (Roshi, 2014). Benson &Haith (2010) described the uninvolved parent as one who is not dedicated to parenting rules and is disinterested in helping foster optimal development of the child. He/she is also characterized by having little knowledge or involvement in the child’s personal life, seldom shows concern for what goes on at school or with the child’s friends, and rarely factors the child’s opinion in decision making processes. According to Roshi (2014), neglectful or uninvolved parenting style leads to depression, aggression, antisocial behaviour and delinquency. Children who are brought up by the uninvolved parents may grow up thinking that their parents do not care for them or see them as important. Uninvolved parenting mostly worsens children’s psychological development even though children may have good relationship with their peers (Roshi, 2014).

Effects of neglectful or uninvolved parenting on children’s social skills include; lack of social competence, inability to determine what is right or wrong and being overly dependent. It can therefore be deduced that the development of children’s social skills depends largely on the parenting styles with which they were brought up. Several studies have revealed how social skills is influenced by the parenting styles in bringing up children. However, these studies were not carried out in Nigeria and most especially in Port Harcourt Local Government Areaof Rivers State.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The development of children’s social skills largely depends on the parenting style parents used in upbringing their children. Several studies have revealed that the social skills of children are influenced by the parenting style used by their parents. Adolescence can be seen as a stage in the life span through which individual pass before adulthood. It is also a period of great emotional stress. Whatever happens during this developmental stage goes a long way in affecting the individual positive or negative.

Parenting styles are different manners of parents’ child relationship. Parenting is a complex activity that includes mar specific behaviours that work individually and together to influence the child. Peer influence is one of the most frequently referred to forms of negative peer influence it is particularly common because most adolescent are forced to spend large amount of time in fixed groups (schools and sub groups within them) regardless of their opinion of these groups. In addition to this, they lack the maturity to handle it. Also adolescents’ naturally wish to behave negatively towards those who are nor members of their own peer groups.

Although specific parenting behaviours, such as spanking or reading aloud, may influence the child’s development, looking any specific behaviour in isolation may be misleading. However they are people who have noted that specific parenting practices are less important in predicting child well-being than is the broad pattern of parenting. Most researchers who attempt to describe this broad parental milieu rely on Diana Baumrind’s concept of parenting style. The construct of parenting style is used to capture normal variations in parents’ attempts to control and socialize their children.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to investigate parenting style and social development of pupils in public primary school in Port Harcourt Local Government Areaof Rivers State. Specifically, the objectives of the study include to;

  1. Examine the most dominant parenting style used by parents of pupils in public primary school in Port Harcourt Local Government Area
  2. Determine the relationship between parenting style and social development of pupils in public primary school in Port Harcourt Local Government Area
  3. Find out the effect of Parenting Style on social development of pupils in public primary school in Port Harcourt Local Government Area

1.4 Research Question

The following research questions are formulated to guide this research:

  1. What is the most dominant parenting style used by parents of pupils in public primary school in Port Harcourt Local Government Area?
  2. What is the relationship between parenting style and social development of pupils in public primary school in Port Harcourt Local Government Area?
  3. What is the effect of parenting Style on social development of pupils in public primary school in Port Harcourt Local Government Area?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • HO1 There is no significant relationship between parenting style and social development of pupils in public primary school in Port Harcourt Local Government Area, Rivers state
  • HA1 There is a significant relationship between parenting style and social development of pupils in public primary school in Port Harcourt Local Government Area, Rivers state

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will hopefully provide empirical data to establish whether parenting style influences social development of pupils in public primary school. It is also expected to indicate clearly the degree of parenting style and the level of satisfaction of social development and provide useful information on how to control some negative influence of parenting style. The findings will also provide policy maker with relevant information that will help in effective adjustment in social affecting the pupils in public primary school.

Based on the findings of the study, the stake-holders would be able to identify and understand the concept of parental influence on the social development of adolescents. It is on this note that curative and preventive measures will be taken in order to deter further fall in standard of education which immensely centers on social development problems of our pupils in recent times. The findings of the study will help to check such unusual social adjustment problems like irregularity in attendance to lessons, a feeling of inferiority complexes which nurture negative self-concept among the students, retard their academic achievement and other activities.

The study is significant because it will provide the basis for using measures of parenting style as a determinant of students’ disposition towards social development.

Thus, Counsellors and teachers will be able to identify students who are likely to influence by peer pressure on social adjustment on the basis of their scores on social development inventor, it will provide comprehensive information for counsellors, educators, and parents on how they can assist adolescents to deal with peer pressure.

This research work will lead to further in-depth study on influence of parenting style on pupils’ academic performance and our educational system. Hence, the Nigerian Society will benefit a lot from the results of this study. It will serve as a contribution to knowledge on adolescents in Nigeria. In this regard, it will be useful for other researchers who might want to carry out research in related areas.


1.7 Scope of Study

The study is limited to public primary schools in Port Harcourt Local Government Area, Rivers state. The study is restricted to investigate parenting style and social development of pupils in public primary school in Port Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of this study, the researcher encountered some limitations. This includes: the geographical spread of the areas of study was a big limitation because the researcher could not move around the whole of the public primary schoolsin Port Harcourt Local Government Area, Rivers statein order to access the respondents, however the study used trained assistant in collection of the questionnaire. Again there was unwillingness of respondents to fill the questionnaires. Some of the copies questionnaires were also reported missing and it was severally replaced and this affected the researcher negatively finance wise.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Parenting Style:

This refer to the overall style or pattern of actions which includes: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and uninvolved parenting employed in upbringing children which will most affect the child’s behaviour of pupils in primary 1-3 classes of Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State

Social Development:

This refers to a child’s ability to share things without prompting, make suggestions, ask questions, obey rules, listen to others, have a two way conversation and does not display antisocial behaviours during play.

Pupils:

A person who is taught by another, especially a schoolchild or student in relation to a teacher.

Primary School:

A school for children between the ages of about five and eleven.


1.10 Organisation of the Study

This study is organized into five chapters.

  • Chapter one included the background of the study, research problem, research objectives and questions as well as limitation of the study.
  • Chapter two contains the literature review.
  • Chapter three includes the methodology and study area.
  • Chapter Four contains the results and discussion of key findings of the study.
  • Chapter Five finally looks at the summary, conclusions, and recommendations based on the findings.

Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The study investigated parenting style and social development of pupils in public primary school in Port Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers State.

The following results were obtained from the analysis of data collated on the field:

  • The independent variable (Parenting Style) has a significant effect on Social development of pupils in public primary schools. The value of R (adjusted) = 0.764 and R² (adjusted) = 0.578. The analysis of variance performed on the multiple regressions yielded an F-ratio value of 103.36 and was found to be significant at 0.05 level.
  • The independent variable made a significant contribution to the prediction of Social development of pupils in public primary schools. In terms of magnitude of contribution, authoritative style made the most significant contribution (Beta = 0.654; t = 7.28; P < 0.05) to the prediction among the Parenting Styles (Beta = 0.131; t = 1.46; P < 0.05).
  • There was significant relationship between Parenting Style and Social development of pupils in public primary schools(r = 0.658; P < 0.05). This means that the Parenting Style influence the level of Social development of pupils in public primary schools.

The finding simply that there is a need for the parents/guardians to adopt effective and efficient parenting styles on the students; this will help in curbing the menace of negative social behavior and development at this stage of adolescence in the society. Since psycho-social factor (Parenting Style and Social development) require training; as such the adolescent psychologists should always intensify their effort to organize seminars and workshops for the teachers, students and other significant stakeholders in society for the improvement.


5.2 Conclusion

Social development is one of the crucial areas of adjustment especially in the age group of childrentill adolescence. There is a constant struggle between real self and ideal self, child tries to balance between the two. An individual tries to maintain the equilibrium position in such phase. Sometimes he/she succeeds in doing it and other times it do not. This struggle of child led him/her to either well developed in the society otherwise maladjustment. The present social development scale developed by the investigator has able to measure the social development of children. The high value of inter-item and inter-total item correlation along with high reliability and validity indicate it is reliable tool to measure social development. Though, tool has been in wide variety of population but still it needs to be tested in rural set up for wider acceptability.

The result of the study revealed that Parenting Style and Peer Group Pressure influence correlates significantly with Social development of in-school adolescents. The reason for this development could be that it is worth emphasising that research on spontaneous levels of parental involvement in children’s education confirms the long held view that the impact is large and the processes are well understood. What parents do with their children at home through the age range is much more significant than any other factor open to educational influence. Notwithstanding the poor quality of research and evaluations in intervention studies a clear picture of need, want, commitment and readiness is evident. What seems to be lacking is an effort to put these two bodies of knowledge together in a development format likely to deliver the achievement bonus from enhanced parenting.

It is a common site in schools for peers to influence or pressure their friends to reject other adolescents as a means to subdue them and gain control over them. Also, in some instances, friends support their peers in combining forces to put pressure on others. Thus, it is observed that at this stage of development, the act of friendship/peer association is an essential component of development for in-school adolescents. They provide safe venues where in-school adolescents can explore their identities, where they can feel accepted and where they can develop a sense of belongings. Friendships also allow youth to practice and foster social skills necessary for future success. Thus, past research shows that peer influence has emerged over the last 50 years to be the chief source of values and behavioural influence in adolescence, replacing the influence of adults.


5.3 Recommendation

Based on the findings of this study, the following are recommended;

  1. Parents should be helpful to their children and they should talk to them as friends not as authoritative parents because adolescents are convinced more when they are with an open-minded person who shows both understandability and kindness. Otherwise, adolescents will encounter crisis and will hide them in their psychology and as explained by Lawrence Kohlberg, and these disorders will appear lately with more psychotraumatic troubles.
  2. Structures such as Parents Teachers Association should be strengthened. Enlightenment programmes on good parenting should be organized for the parents to expose them to different parenting styles and how they have contributed or influenced the performance of students in their school work.
  3. Parents should endeavour to monitor the activities of in-school adolescents so that their negative attitude would be corrected on time before it would be too late.
  4. Adolescents should be given appropriate orientation on the danger of negative peer influence on their well-being and the need to avoid the expression of violence in their relationship with their peers.
  5. Schools should endeavour to organize social reawakening activities that will enable in-school adolescents appreciate the need to develop friendly attitude toward those that are not in their peers.
  6. Counselors should work directly with parents with the view of helping them to improve their effectiveness in guiding their children especially as regards showing faith in their children’s abilities.
  7. Social development needs to be carefully examined. It is important to understand not only what social development is, but also to have a better understanding of how it is created. Positive parenting and prevention of negative peer pressure may possibly lead to a decrease in antisocial behavior. This could create better environments in schools, homes, and many other places. The more knowledge society has about what contributes to the presence of social development, the more work can be done to lessen its presence and impact.

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