Parental Involvement Home Type And School Location As Determinant Of Students Performance In English Language In Ibadan North Local Government Area

Project and Seminar Material for English Education

Parental Involvement Home Type And School Location As Determinant Of Students Performance In English Language In Ibadan North Local Government Area


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine parental involvement, home type, and school location as determinant of students performance in English language using some selected public and private secondary schools in Ibadan North Local Government Area as a case study. The study was specifically set to ascertain whether parental involvement has a significant impact on students academic performance in English language, find out the factors which influences the level of parent’s involvement in their child’s education, investigate whether home type has a significant impact on students academic performance in English language, find out the home factors which influences students’ academic performance in English language and ascertain whether school location has a significant impact on students academic performance in English language. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of students of the selected public and private secondary schools in Ibadan North Local Government Area. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 229 respondents and 210 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that parental involvement have a significant impact on students academic performance in English language. Furthermore the result of the findings reveals that The home factors which influences students’ academic performance in English language includes: family size, parental support, availability of study materials, home-to-school distance. Therefore, it is recommended that parents should actively be organizing and monitoring children’s time, helping with home work and discussing school matters regularly with them. Parents should also model the value of learning, self discipline and hard-work in children. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

In the New Encyclopaedia Britannica (2002), education is thought of as the transmission of values and accumulated knowledge of a society. And in his own way, Jimoh (2004) defines education as the totality of the experiences made available to the individuals in order to make them develop rounded personality and be useful to themselves and their communities. The position of Gerald (2000) on the concept of education is that it developed from the human struggle for survival and enlightenment, and that it may be formal or informal. Generally, education should be viewed as the transmission of culture from one generation to the other for the purpose of continuity in the values and traditions promoted by the society for useful and productive living of its members.

Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, morals, beliefs, habits and personal development. It originated as transmission of cultural heritage from one generation to the next. Education is a social and historical category; no society has failed to have an educational system. Helmuth vonHentig outlines this in his text and, he reminds us that education is action, process and result. The paradigm shift brought about by the accelerated transformation of society also applies to the concept of education. New technologies and the irreversible digitalization of society have already greatly influenced educational practices and processes. Moore (2010) explains education in relation to the commitment by society to have a desirable type of individual and the expected values. Thus, children may have some expected characteristics, attitudes, knowledge and skills that society would like to see.

Education has been an agent of change and an instrument of national development. Adepoju and Akinwumi (2001) observed that the role of education in national development has received considerable attention in developed countries where it is argued that heavy investment in education has a great potential for enhancing rapid economic growth. Education is important in the development and improvement of skills.

Education has been responsible for the upliftment of the human conditions. Alade (2004) observed that the primary concern of education is the elevation of human conditions. Through education, people are enabled to develop their knowledge and skills, adopt new behaviour and be able to survive in the society. In the same vein, Oderinde (2005), opined that all over the world, education is the key to development which clearly demonstrated that education play vital roles in the development of the individual, society and the nation as a whole.

The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 (U.S. Department of Education, 2002) mandated that schools close the student achievement gap by placing a high demand on parental involvement. Lack of communication hinders parent participation in schools. Factors that contribute to this lack of communication include the inability to speak, read, and understand English in an academic or personal school setting and the belief of parents that they are overstepping their boundaries by questioning authorities or upholding the rights of their children in schools
Education can be divided into two categories: formal education and non-formal education. Formal education by Ngaka, Openjuru and Mazur (2012) denote a “hierarchically structured and chronologically graded educational system”, which starts at pre-school and continues through university and includes “academic studies, a variety of specialized programs and institutions for full-time technical and professional training.” Non-formal education Ngaka, Openjuru and Mazur (2012) refers to that type of education which does not take place in formally structured schools “such as adult literacy and continuing education programs for adults and out of school youth which does not necessarily emphasize certification.”

Sofradzija, Sehic, Alibegovic, Bakic and Camo (2021) Education is a process that happens both at the individual level of each human being and at the global level of total humanity, which has always been and never ceases to be in the process of education. Education is considered to be the formation of potentials: intellectual, psychological, moral, physical, aesthetic, cognitive and active possibilities. In the process of acquiring knowledge and skills, socialization has its place, as does the development of institutional education in schools. Pedagogy is considered to be a science of education that explores education as a phenomenon and concept. Thus, education is a process that should yield results worth the effort, because happiness would accompany true education. The school is a place where one lives; it must not be a poorly maintained place in which everything is reduced to listening and does not involve active participation and cognition. A humane school should nurture curiosity about the world and life. Hentig attempts to describe an educated human or, at least to present the ideal-type of one -“Who is an educated man?” as an answer, he cites Robert Spaermann’s of an educated individual Hentig (2008). Educated people have left behind animal egocentrism, they are interested in “how the world looks in other people’s eyes”; their sense of self-worth can be strong and clear “because it does not draw him from comparison with others”; it is foreign to him to give an opportunity to get to know; it is foreign to him to get rich -he is not afraid to value himself; -he often speaks scientific language, but it does not enslave him. Hentig explains that these characteristics (just to list few) are not acquired by themselves; they pass from the cultivated environment to the educated person Hentig (2008).
Learning is a relatively permanent change, usually brought about intentionally. Learning is about a change: the change brought about by developing a new skill, understanding a scientific law, changing an attitude. The change is not merely incidental or natural in the way that our appearance changes as we get older. Sequeira (2018). Learning can be considered as change that is permanent in nature because change is brought into students by a teacher through techniques like developing specific skills, changing some attitudes, or understanding specific scientific law operating behind a learning environment Sequeira, (2012). Teaching is a set of events, outside the learners which are designed to support internal process of learning. Teaching (Instruction) is outside the learner. Learning is internal to learners. You cannot motivate others if you are not self-motivated. Motives are not seen, but, behaviours are seen. Is learning a motive or behavior? Learning is both a motive and behaviour but only behaviour is seen, learning is internal, performance is external.

According to Martell and Calderon (2005), assessment is an ongoing process that involves planning, discussion, consensus building, reflection, measuring, analyzing, and improving based on the data and artifacts gathered about a learning objective. Assessment encompasses a range of activities including testing, performances, project ratings, and observations Orlich, Harder, Callahan & Gibson, (2004). Haken (2006) explained that assessment is an integral piece to assuring that an educational institution achieves its learning goals, as well as a crucial means of providing the essential evidence necessary for seeking and maintaining accreditation. Hersh (2004) advocated the position that assessment of student learning should be considered an integral part of the teaching and learning processes as well as part of the feedback loop that serves to enhance institutional effectiveness.

Assessment serves as a communicative device between the world of education and that of the wider society. This spectrum of communication ranges from the most informal of exchanges to the extremely formal, spanning everything from school reports to high-stakes public examinations, and from individual job interviews to national monitoring, the common factor is being the use of assessment data of one kind or another as a publicly acceptable code for quality.

Parental involvement is an effective strategy to ensure the academic success of students. It also has many positive effects on students other than academics, including increased motivation, self-esteem, and self-reliance, which may lead to academic success regardless of economic background. Conversely, research affirms that inadequate or no parental involvement contributes to low student achievement and engagement Bower and Griffin, (2011). In essence, parents, siblings, and other significant relatives can create rich learning environments to enhance children’s academic development.

Traditional forms of parent involvement include participating in school activities (e.g., Parent Teacher Associations [PTA]), back-to-school nights, open houses, parent-teacher conferences, or volunteering at the school. Bower and Griffin (2011) posit that parental involvement in activities such as nurturing their children, instilling cultural values, and talking with their children, do not align with traditional forms of parental involvement as defined by school.

A home is a place where pupils live with their parents or guidance and it is the place where they are groomed. It is a place where the child begins to learn the norms and values of the society in which they find themselves. The family is a social unit in any society and it is the source of early stimulation and experience in children Collins, (2007). The home influences the students at the most possible time of his life at a time when his mind is most receptive. It provides the first impression which may last through the whole of the child’s life. The child often sees the parents, siblings and things in their immediate environment to be most significant. The environment is the immediate surroundings in which the pupils find themselves. It is also refer to as the physical and psychological conditions that affect children. The parents or guidance of these children are responsible for providing the right home environment that will facilitate effective learning for their wards and some factors that influence their academic performance include: parental educational background, background, parental economic status, parental marital status and parental home location Collins, (2007). According to Ogbemudia and Aiasa (2013), the parents or guidance of these pupils are responsible for providing the right home environment that will facilitate effective learning for their wards.

Furthermore, in pupil’s home environment some factors that influences their academic performance: parental educational background, parental economic status (At least an average financial status), parental marital status and parental home location. In assessing the parental marital status on pupils academic performance, much attention will be given to sound human relations, as the home environment that is tensed due to divorce or unhealthy atmosphere of quarrelling, fighting due to polygamy cannot favour learning, in the home, as the mind of the pupils will not be settled in order to give room for creativity. Ekanem (2004) stated that harmonious home create emotional stability in the child at home and subsequently throughout his school life. Hence the researcher was also concerned with the careful study of the influence of single parenthood due to broken home, death, widowhood and intact home on the academic performance of pupils in English Language.

In terms of the influence of school location on the academic performance of pupils, there are the socio-metric factors such as the kinds of social activities around the school environment of the students. For instance, a school that is near the market square will affect the spoken English of a student which will eventually affect his written English. In a case where the language of the people around the school is pidgin, this could gradually affect the child in learning good English at school. Furthermore, schools located in an environment where there is noisy traffic, noisy sound of machine from ply-wood industry, hotel and bar will negatively affect the academic performance of the students because the noisy environment will disturb them from concentrating while reading their novels, English text. Story books and even in creative writing.

The main thrust of this study therefore is to determine the trend of students’ performance in English Language based on the determinants, considering the fact that it is a major prerequisite for gaining admission into the higher institution of learning.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Students’ poor academic performance can be traced to school variables such as environment, structures, buildings, location. Teachers variables such as teacher’s age, experience, education, gender. Students’ variables such as attitude, self-concept, self-esteem, study habit, interest. While these variables have been identified as reasons to the variations in academic performance, the home environment is hardly mentioned.

Based on these facts, this study investigated empirically, if the differences in academic performance of the students can be attributed to differences in their home environments and the school location.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main objective of this study to examine parental involvement home type and school location as determinant of students performance in English language in Ibadan North Local; Government Area. The study will specifically focus on the aims listed below;

  1. Ascertain whether parental involvement has a significant impact on students academic performance in English language.
  2. Find out the factors which influences the level of parent’s involvement in their child’s education.
  3. Investigate whether home type has a significant impact on students academic performance in English language.
  4. Find out the home factors which influences students’ academic performance in English language.
  5. Ascertain whether school location has a significant impact on students academic performance in English language.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions guided this study:

  1. Does parental involvement have a significant impact on students academic performance in English language?
  2. What are factors which influences the level of parent’s involvement in their child’s education?
  3. Does home type have a significant impact on students academic performance in English language?
  4. What are the home factors which influences students’ academic performance in English language?
  5. Does school location have a significant impact on students academic performance in English language?

1.5 Hypotheses

This study was guided by the following null hypotheses.

H01 There is no significant relationship between parental involvement and students’ academic performance in English Language.

H02 There is no significant relationship between home type and students’ academic performance in English Language.

H03 There is no significant relationship between school location and students’ academic performance in English Language.


1.6 Significance of the Study

This study would enrich the existing literature or the body of knowledge in the domain of English Language, home type and school location and offer additional research that may indicate student achievement is directly correlated to parental involvement.

In turn, academic achievement may be an eye opener and serve to motivate parents and families to understand the impact of the seemingly little but valuable contribution they can make to assist their children achieve maximally not only in reading but other areas of their works.

The school management through the findings of this study would be challenged to brace up in any of the challenging aspects or lapses constituting a hindrance to the smooth learning of the students. Educators can use these findings to develop programs and strategies to increase parental involvement in schools.

Also, this study would orient teachers to go beyond just teaching but to know their students challenges and develop strategies to solve them so as to make them improve in their academic performance. The outcome of this study would be of immense contribution to sensitizing lecturers in higher institutions of the necessity to keep embarking on researches that are likely to improve the academic performance of students. Finally, it is the belief of the researcher that the outcome of this study would positively reshape the existing theory of parental involvement.


1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The focus of this study was on parental involvement, home type and school location as determinants of students’ academic performance in English Language in some selected secondary schools in Ibadan North Local Government Area in Oyo State. Six (6) secondary schools were used for this study, three public schools and three private schools.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing to the nature of the discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. More so, the choice of the sample size was limited as few respondent were selected to answer the research instrument hence cannot be generalize to other secondary schools. However, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.


1.9 Definition of Terms

English Language Arts

English language arts is a subject that includes reading, writing, and speaking.

Parents

For the purpose of this study, parents include family members, siblings, guardians, aunts and uncles, and grandparents who are involved in school for the benefit of a specific student.

Performance

Performance refers to students’ academic efforts and is measured using test scores.

School-Initiated

School-initiated refers to efforts made by site based educators to encourage communication and participation with families for the benefit of students. Examples of school-initiated involvement opportunities include back-to-school nights, open houses, patriotic and cultural celebrations, holiday programs, student study team meetings, PTA activities, award ceremonies, weekly bulletins, individual class activities (e.g., parent volunteers, fieldtrip chapter ones, homework assistance, and reading to students), and district-sponsored classes for parents.

Stakeholders

Stakeholders include school boards, parents, teachers, administrators, students, local business owners, community groups and leaders, professional organizations, youth organizations, the faith community, and media.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on parental involvement, home type, and school location as determinant of students performance in English language using some selected public and private secondary schools in Ibadan North Local Government Area as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine parental involvement, home type, and school location as determinant of students performance in English language using some selected public and private secondary schools in Ibadan North Local Government Area as a case study. The study is was specifically carried out to ascertain whether parental involvement has a significant impact on students academic performance in English language, find out the factors which influences the level of parent’s involvement in their child’s education, investigate whether home type has a significant impact on students academic performance in English language, find out the home factors which influences students’ academic performance in English language and ascertain whether school location has a significant impact on students academic performance in English language.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 210 responses were validated from the enrolled participants were all respondent are students of the selected public and private secondary schools in Ibadan North Local Government Area.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. Parental involvement have a significant impact on students academic performance in English language.
  2. The factors which influences the level of parent’s involvement in their child’s education includes: educational background, economic status, nature of occupation, perception towards education and Family size.
  3. Home type has a significant impact on students academic performance in English language.
  4. The home factors which influences students’ academic performance in English language includes: family size, parental support, availability of study materials, home-to-school distance.
  5. School location have a significant impact on students academic performance in English language.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Parents should actively be organizing and monitoring children’s time, helping with home work and discussing school matters regularly with them. Parents should also model the value of learning, self discipline and hard-work in children.
  2. Strict measures must be put in place by the District Educational Officer, which can enforce parents to fully participate in the academic affairs of their children.
  3. Head teachers, Board of governors should clearly state and explain to parents about the necessity of teaching and learning materials to boost the students‟ academic performance.
  4. Policy on should be formulated and adequately implemented concerning parents who never attained any formal education to get the opportunity. This policy need to be effectively introduced in rural area.
Recommendations on School Location
  1. The government should evolve effective and strategic planning method before new schools are established in the State.
  2. The government should develop more useful and reliable policies for the distribution of educational facilities in the state.
  3. Government should evolve a rational distribution pattern of secondary schools such that the home-school distance covered by students is convenient.
  4. A standard plan should be laid down for the establishment of secondary schools in relation to potential school-age population of each community.
  5. Government should ensure that rural schools are provided with necessary facilities to increase the enrolment rate and bridge the rural-urban educational.

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