Parental Influence And Socio-Economic Factors As Correlates Of Personality Adjustment Among Adolescents

Project and Seminar Material for Guidance and Counselling

Parental Influence And Socio-Economic Factors As Correlates Of Personality Adjustment Among Adolescents


The study examined the effect of parental socio-economic status on students’ personality adjustment at the secondary level in selected public secondary schools in Shomolu Local Government Area of Lagos State. Also, this study reviewed some relevant and related literatures under sub-headings. The descriptive research survey was applied in this study for the assessment of the opinions of the selected respondents for this study, with the use of the questionnaire and the sampling technique. A total of 200 respondents were sampled for this study. Five null hypotheses were formulated and tested, with the application of Pearson Product Moment Correlation and the t-test tools at 0.05 level of significance. At the end of the testing of hypotheses, the following results emerged: there is a significant relationship between parental socio-economic status and students’ personality adjustment, there is a significant relationship between broken homes and adolescents’ personality adjustment, there is a significant gender difference between the performance adjustment of adolescents in intact homes and those in divorced homes, there is a significant influence of parental discipline on adolescents’ personality adjustment in schools, and there is a significant influence of family size on adolescents’ personality adjustment in schools. Based on the conclusions reached in this study, the following recommendations were made: parents should ensure that they give every support that their children and wards need in their academic endeavour and social adjustment. Parents should endeavour to have the number of children that will not give them much stress in training or bringing them up. At this present period where the economy has nose-dived, parents should be aware of this down-ward economic trend, and therefore be conscious of the number of children they rear in their families. This is because, too many children will give much stress to the parents and this can affect their economic well-being and the education of the child.


Table Of Content

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table Of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background Of Study
  • 1.2 Statement Of Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives Of Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.6 Significance Of Study
  • 1.7 Definition Of Terms

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Conceptual Review
  • 2.3 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3.1 Social Learning Theory
  • 2.3.2 Bradshaws Theory Of Poverty
  • 2.4 Empirical Review

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population Of The Study
  • 3.3 Sample And Sampling Techniques
  • 3.4 Instrument For Data Collection

Chapter Four

4.0 Results And Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion Of Findings

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References
  • Questionnaire


Chapter One


1.1 Background to the Study

Parents are the greatest single influence on their children’s development in two indisputable ways. Parents act as socializing agents in providing goals and value system from which the child develops various patterns of behaviours. In some situations, parents adopt care-free attitude towards the learning of their children, even their social orientation, and this has in many instances, caused the low academic performance of children even maladaptive behaviours in their immediate society (Hake, 2009).

According to Ndubuisi (2005) there is a positive correlation between parental attitude and children’s social orientation and academic achievement. Ndubuisi (2005) is of the opinion that parents’ dimensions of value placement on their children’s well-being or otherwise, significantly affects the child’s positive or negative adaptation to his/her society and even the way he/she carries out his/her academic work in school.

Many factors contribute directly or indirectly to the personality development of a child both within and outside the school system. These factors stem from either heredity or environment. Many psychologists such as Freud (1952) and Adler (1958) de-emphasize the significant role of heredity in the total development of the child while underlining the prominence of the environment. Craft, Allport, Barns and Mondi (2002), made some contributions to the understanding of the relationship between the child’s home background and his personality adjustment in school. A child is the product and reflection of the society. While the school runs the formal education system, the home provides formal and non formal educational experiences.

Many psychologists have advocated that the immediate environment (Home) should be made quite stimulating so as to enhance the development of a child’s intellect and good personality adjustment. According to Locke (1970), the child is like a clean slate at birth and that the environmental influences determine what fills the vacuum. This is what Locke referred to as “Tabula Raza”. In other words, whatever the child inherited from the parents may be enhanced or dampened by the kind of environment he/she lives in.

Studies carried out by Mudock and Mudock (2004) show that the first six years of a child are very important because whatever goes wrong at this stage will have long lasting effect on the child when the child grows up. It is during this early period that the personal characteristics and mental health of the child are established. The child learns how to love and be loved and how to cope with sibling rivalry. Also, it is at this time that the child develops feelings of hostility and aggression if the environment is not conducive. This early socialization process is important because it helps a child adjust to places outside his home.

Psychologists and sociologists like Jersild (2005), Hurlock (2006), believe that if solid foundations are not laid for the acquisition of basic skill when the child is young, learning and personality adjustment becomes a problem later in life as they are is often unsuccessful.

Joyce, Almond and Edith (2005) have long established that in effective schools where high quality education is provided, there is usually frequent communication between the school and parents and this is mainly positive, such as at award days and parent days and two-way, with parents often initiating contact with the school. This should involve parents monitoring efforts to accountability and acting as advisors in school improvement efforts. This may be achieved by having parents serve on standing and ad-hoc special committees and boards of the school such as special events committee, disciplinary committee and governing board. This way, parents get first hand knowledge of the needs and problems of the school and work co-operatively with the school in resolving them (Aloe, 2006).

When parents possess the necessary knowledge and skills relevant to the school curricula such parents may serve as information sources, the audience for school academic activities and/or class assistants. There also seems to be ample evidence to suggest that parental involvement in home work and assignments may improve children’s performance in school. Also, parental positive and co-operative attitude towards the development of the school has been found to influence positively on children’s personality adjustment in home or school. Such parental behaviours are reflected in good attendance at PTA meetings, sending children to school on time, fees are paid on time, children are made to complete homework on time and parents visit the school regularly to monitor the progress of their children. Teachers have a remarkably difficult job and will appreciate any one who supports them and acknowledges their work.

1.3 Statement of the Problem

The problem of low socio-economic status among parents and its attendant effect on the personality adjustment of students cannot be overemphasized. Most parents in Nigeria today are poor and the majority of them are unemployed. This can be linked to poor economic situation in the country and the world economic recession. As a result, parents lack the wherewithal to maintain themselves and their children. Most Nigerian parents fail in their duties to send their children to school. Many of them whose children are in school, do not take adequate care of them because they lack the financial power to carry or foot their children’s school bills. This has caused many children whose parents are poor to constantly absent themselves from school, while majority of the children have finally dropped out of school. This has caused the children to become socially maladjusted due to lack of socialization with their peers in the school.

Not only that, the children of the poor are not properly cared for. For instance, children whose parents are not rich, do not feed well before and after school. Thus most of them go to school in an empty stomach, and while in school, they do not pay attention to what is going on in the classroom. A child needs proper feeding to complement social adjustment and cognition, but children of the poor do not feed adequately not to talk of balanced diet. For lack of money, children whose parents are poor, are meant to live in an unfriendly environment where they are incapable of reading freely and the materials to study are not available for them to carry out meaningful academic work. This also leads to poor learning outcomes and poor interaction with their mates at school and at home. The above problems therefore, necessitated this study.

1.3 Objectives Of Study

The main aim of this study is to assess parental influence and socio-economic factors as correlates of personality adjustment among adolescents.

The specific objectives of this research project are stated as follows;

  1. Examine the influence of gender on personality adjustment of secondary school students.
  2. Ascertain the effect of parents’ socio-economic status on personality adjustment of secondary school students
  3. Determine the impact of parental influence on personality adjustment of secondary school students
  4. Ascertain the influence of personality adjustment on academic achievement of secondary school students

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the influence of gender on personality adjustment of secondary school students?
  2. What is the influence of parents’ socio-economic status on personality adjustment of secondary school students?
  3. What is the impact of parents’ influence on personality adjustment of secondary school students?
  4. What is the effect of personality adjustment on academic achievement of female secondary school students?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • H01: Gender has no significant influence on personality adjustment of secondary school students in Nigeria.
  • H02: Parents’ socio-economic status has no significant effect on personality adjustment of secondary school students in Nigeria.
  • H03: Parents’ influence has no significant influence on personality adjustments of secondary school students.

1.6 Significance Of Study

It is envisaged that the findings of this study may expose some factors that might be responsible for poor performance of students’ in school with respect to parental socio-economic status and personality adjustment among female secondary school students. The identified areas where government at different levels could come in to bridge the gap of educational attainment of children from low and high income earned background in the society. The importance of achieving the objectives of education programmed among the general populace cannot be over emphasized.

1.7 Definition Of Terms

Personality Adjustment:

Is used to describe personal adequacy, self-fulfillment, and psychological maturity. Yet the term is one-sided, since it. implies the individual’s “coming to terms” with society, but not his active involvement.

Socio-Economic Status:

Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person’s work experience and of an individual’s or family’s economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of parental influence and socio-economic factors as correlates of personality adjustment among adolescents in junior secondary school. As specific objectives, the study sought the influence of family socio-economic status and parents’ educational level exerts on student’s personality adjustment. To carry out the study effectively, the variables were hypothesized. Using independent t-test, the first hypothesis was tested. Also, the second hypothesis was tested using ANOVA. Each of the hypotheses was tested for significance at 0.05 alpha levels. Based on the findings of the study, the conclusions were drawn:

  1. Personality adjustment observed among students is traceable to the fact that most parents are poor. Students from poor background were noted in this study to have higher scores in delinquency.
  2. Most parents in are highly educated. This account for high rate of delinquency among students

5.2 Recommendation

On the basis of the findings from this study, the following recommendations were made.

  1. That parent from low socio-economic status should be empowered to enable them provide basic needs of their children, thus preventing some form of delinquency.
  2. Parents with delinquent behaved children should be charged or cautioned, so they will help to check the activities of their children and wards. This will promote parent-child relationship with a consequent reduction in personality adjustment of children.
  3. Counselling psychologist should be deployed to secondary schools for early identification of personal social issue among students. This will go a long way in reducing cases of delinquency in students in general and female students in particular.

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