Parental Academic Background And Primary School Pupils’ Academic Performance In Mathematics
This study was carried out to examine parental academic background and primary school pupils’ academic performance in mathematics, using 6 selected schools in Ojo Local Government Area, Lagos state as a case study. Specifically, the study was aimed at determining the extent to which parent level of education influences the academic performance of their children, and determine the extent to which the occupation of parents also influences or affect the child’s academic performance. The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of 77 responses were validated from the survey. From the responses obtained and analysed, the findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between the economic status of the parents’ and child academic performance, there is a significant relationship between parental level of education and child academic performance, and there is a significant relationship between the type of parent’s occupation and child’s academic performance.The study recommend the Federal Government should make the mass literacy campaign a more effective venture than it is today. Parents should be given proper orientation on the importance of education and as it affects their children’s performance at school. More so, teachers should be vigilant to identify those that are affected by parental variables, so as to give them necessary assistance.
The purpose of this study is to investigate in the parental academic background on primary school pupil’s academic performance in mathematics (A case state of Ojo local Government). In other to get a sound conclusion, some research hypothesis was formulated. In gathering information, concerning the parental academic background on primary school pupil’s academic performance in mathematics: one hundred questionnaire was designed and administered to pupils in primary school, Ojo local Government Educational District and the researcher will collect it back immediately, the method that was use is sample random procedure. However, solutions were given to authorities concerning the parents, theirs parent’s appropriate measure in involving and providing educational needs, ministry of education should give awareness on how parent can help their children in mathematics and education.
1.1 Background of the Study
A family units is the first contact a child has in life, and the quality of such family unit has a great impact on the growing child and it actually reflect on the child’s personality and attitude letter in life. A family has been defined by ties of marriage, blood, adoption constituting a single household interacting and inter- communicating with each other in their respective social roles of husbands and wife, father and mother, brother and sister, creating a common culture. According to Collin dictionary (2003) parental background is one’s social class, education or experience, event or circumstances that help to explain something.
The average Nigeria children are hardworking, intelligent and strive to succeed to have some level of self-fulfillment in education. The aspiration to succeed is biological in origin but its intensity and directions may greatly affected by learning and parental background ‘he who has the youths has future’ says Kari marx (1993) ad saying only goes to show the important role youths of any nation play in developmental processes in such a nation. With the above, it therefore becomes a thing of sorrow for one realizes the decadence and delinquency that has permeated the youth of this nation.
Child education is very much important and their educational performance depends on their interaction with peer group, parent, teachers and environment. Some parents are finding it increasing difficult to meet the basic requirement of their children due to economic depression; many have no time for the upbringing of their children.
Adekeye (2002) observed that, it is mainly through their efforts and ability that children are to become productive and effective n the area of mathematics, parents posses the resources, skills and also apply them effectively in raising their children.
The level of educational attainment of parents could influence the academic performance of their children, according to European Monitoring Union Report (2013) those pupils whose parents have a high level of education/ academic background performs on average significantly better in tests of sentence, reading and mathematical abilities than those whose parents have only basic schooling.
In a family where both parent are educated most especially knowledgeable in the area of mathematics, their children always taken good of in their academicals activities. They may go through their children’s, book after school, or even employ a mathematics teacher to teach them, privately after school and by so doing their academic performance will improve.
Where as in the case of the illiterate family, the need to supervise their children’s books is not there because they lack such. Atkinson and Feather (1996) argued that, successful parents, tends to provide early training on mathematics which is necessary in the development of their academic performance. They also set high goals for their child and expecting the child to show competence in doing their task well. Illiteracy of parent could have negative effect on the academic performance of their children. Encouragement from home is one of thing children whose parents are illiterate seem to lack.
This implies that some illiterate refuse to provide their children with the needed mathematics textbooks, it is a means of discouraging the child from learning David (2007) stated that, text books especially in mathematics, aids studies after normal; school teaching . they also lack assistance because of parents illiteracy and ignorance, as such parents fails to motivate reinforce, give awareness or punish their children on their poor academic performance which might have affect them to be serious in learning mathematics.
On their hand literate parents tends to have interest in the academic performance of their children they struggle to provide needed materials and give adequate encouragement. Having known the importance of education they draw a workable time- table for their children which will involve much mathematical activities and also arrange for a part- time teacher to teach and check their work books from time to time so as improve the academic performance of the child. Apart from the educational background of the parent, other variables still exits which can positive or negative and as a result predict pupils mathematics performance mathematics educators and researchers like Oluche (1993, Ale (1995) Oshibodu (1996) and Akpan (1998) et al have over the year carried out researches on the factors that is responsible for the poor performance in mathematics at primary schools.
These factors range from shortage of qualified mathematics teachers, poor facilities equipment and instructional materials for effective teaching etc. if at all considered teacher variable such as teacher self efficacy competence attitude experience and qualification.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
This study sought to make finding on how the academic performance of parent affect tends to have effect or impact on to primary school pupils academic performance in mathematics. Comments from educators have shown that the blame from lack of good performance has been as a result of neglect and carefree attitude towards the academic work by pupils and parents how first school of a child is the home where he/ she is taught the first basic norms and values by the parents before the child leaves for the formal education. The home is where the child’s foundation on mathematics is first build. The child should be given encouragement and needed materials such as textbooks, Video tapes on mathematics in order to aid the intelligence of that child.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to examine the parental academic background and primary school pupil’s academic performance in mathematics.
- To achieve the above objective, the following specific objectives became guides:
- Determine the extent to which parent level of education influences the academic performance of their children.
- Determine the extent to which the occupation of parents also influences or affect the child’s academic performance
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions were generated
- Does the economic status of parents have impact on the child’s academic performance?
- Does the parent’s level of education have any impact on the academic performance of their children?
- What is the effect of parent’s occupation on the academic performance of their children?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- There is no significant relationship between the economic status of the parents’ and child academic performance.
- There is no significant relationship between parental level of education and child academic performance.
- There is no significant relationship between the type of parent’s occupation and child’s academic performance.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study would be very significant because it would provide useful suggestions that will enable parent, guardians, well to do individuals in the society or government in providing the needed materials for pupils that ensure a great academic performance in mathematics in primary schools.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
This study is focused and centered on pupils academic performance in relation to their parent academic background specifically literature or illiterate. This study was limited in assessment of some randomly selected primary schools pupils in Ojo Local Government Area, Lagos state. The schools were:
1.8 Definition of Operation Terms
Connected with a parent r parents; parental responsibility/ right. Parental choice in education.
An act of giving people useful knowledge or details that helps you to understand a situation.
That is the standard of success that someone or something achievers.
This may be understood as a link between a husband and wife possibly with children living together under the same roof.
This is a person’s family, level, experience, education, financial ability, events or circumstances that help to explain something.
This is the lawful dissolution of marriage.
This is taken to be the level of performance or students in a standardized examination that follows a course of instruction undergo by the learner.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
In this study, our focus was to investigate parental academic background and primary school pupils’ academic performance in mathematics, using 6 selected schools in Ojo Local Government Area, Lagos state as a case study.
The study specifically was aimed at determining the extent to which parent level of education influences the academic performance of their children, and determine the extent to which the occupation of parents also influences or affect the child’s academic performance.
The study adopted the survey research design and conveniently enrolled participants in the study. A total of 77 responses were received and validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from the teachers of the 6 sampled schools in Ojo Local Government Area, Lagos state.
Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:
- There is a significant relationship between the economic status of the parents’ and child academic performance.
- There is a significant relationship between parental level of education and child academic performance.
- There is a significant relationship between the type of parent’s occupation and child’s academic performance.
In the light of the findings and conclusions, the following recommendations are hereby proposed:
- The Federal Government should make the mass literacy campaign a more effective venture than it is today. Parents should be given proper orientation on the importance of education and as it affects their children’s performance at school.
- In the Ministry of Education, curriculum planners should be informed about the two sets of students in school so that in designing the curriculum provision should be made for the privileged and less privileged ones.
- Teachers should be vigilant to identify those that are affected by parental variables, so as to give them necessary assistance.
- The Government should increase minimum wages of employees so that the wide gap between the high and low class could be bridged. In this case, equal opportunities of the parental background. When this is done, the standard of living of low income earners and low levels of parental education will be raised.
- Government should undertake a wide campaign both at Federal, State and Local Government levels on the adverse effect of broken home and polygamous homes on the education of children at school.
- Government should ensure that school employs the services of guidance counselors who will from time to time check those students and identify their problems. They can do this by extending their services to the parents where the roots of most of the problems students encounter at school originated from.
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