Parent Socio-Economic Status And Academic Performance Of Primary School Pupils In Ekiti State

Primary Education Project and Semina Material

Parent Socio-Economic Status And Academic Performance Of Primary School Pupils In Ekiti State


Abstract


This study was carried out on parent socio-economic status and academic performance of primary school pupils in Ekiti State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of teachers of of selected primary schools in Ikere LGA of Ekiti State. In determining the sample size, the researcher convenient selected 57respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypotheses were tested using Pearson Correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that parental education have a significant influence on primary school pupils academic performance. The study also revealed that parental occupation have a significant influence on primary school pupils academic performance. Furthermore, parental income level have a significant influence on primary school pupils academic performance. Therefore, it is recommended that parents should enroll in adult education centers for formal education to acquire skills and competencies which they can employ towards assisting their children school work and informed supervision. Parents should be facilitated in generation of income and especially those in self-employment by the National as well as the County governments so that they can have adequate income to cater for the basic needs and appropriate educational support to their children at home and school. Further, school feeding programme should be initiated in schools in regions where food is scarce. To mention but few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1. Background to the Study

Battle and Lewis (2002) narrated education as an important pillar in one life leading to different opportunities, income and better life. The background of a family where a student is reared up, identify the future in terms of academic achievement. The current study focuses upon this relationship being found in between the socioeconomic status and academic performance. Income, education and occupation comprises the socioeconomic status (McMillan and Westor, 2002). This is the reason the researchers should study these parameters in separate aspects. As per the idea of (Gul, R., & Reba, A., 2017) the socioeconomic status (SES) is the combination of educational level attained by parents, profession, occupation and the income being generated by the family. Baharudin and Luster (1998) found cause and effect relationship in between SES and the learning outcomes of learners. Eamon (2005) and Hochschild (2003) also described this causal relation in between the two variables as families with lower SES are like to produce students with lesser academic grades and maybe in some case, might be dropped out of school. Seyfried (1998) found students at least 10% lesser scoring than other with better SES on National Assessment of Educational Programs. McNeal (2001) has observed SES as affecting other parameters like involvement of parents in the education of children. Eamon (2005), and Jeynes (2002) found a negative relation among SES, resources and stress (Gul, R., Khan, S. S., & Akhtar, S., 2020). They suggested SES as creating problems for the students. Eamon (2005) described SES as cause of bad parenting, lesser attention on the part of the parents, conflicts inside home, stress among parents, and the running of household affairs. While determining the causes of dropout at primary level in Uganda, Okumu et al (2008) came across the fact that girls are more affected in this case as their number in dropouts surpassed that number in urban areas as compared to rural areas. Similarly, the mothers who are educated can better manage their time to educate their kids as compared to the mothers who are not educated (Gul, R., Khan, S. S., Mazhar, S., & Tahir, T., 2020). Also, educated mothers better provide help to their children in their studies. Bjorkman (2005) in research study conducted in Ghana elaborated the investment upon children in education terms as something related to the income by the family. The same study also narrated that boys are lesser affected than the boys. The investment upon children’s education surely affects the performance of the students in school (Gul, R., & Rafique, M., 2017).

The socioeconomic status of an individual means demography, along with a position one holds with respect to other living in an environment. The current study takes into consideration three main aspects of education, occupation and income by parents. The occupation refers to the kind of activity one performs in order to earn livelihood. The current study takes ‘occupation’ as prestige an occupation carries with itself in formal and an informal sense, the class of an occupation and finally as an indicator of income and education. Education is a mechanism of getting knowledge and skills especially at a school, college, or university (Gul, R., Kanwal, S., & Khan, S. S., 2020). In this study education was measured through the analysis of data such as scores/grades obtained from educational assessments to infer the abilities and proficiencies of students. The money received from different sources like selling goods and providing services, rents or financial support from other sources. The current study considers income as finances received from all sources like rent, investment, goods and services.Eamon, G. (2016)identified that student academic achievement has direct relationship with parents socio-economic background. He further stated that students academic achievement depends largely on parents encouragement of private lesson, provision of learning aids at home, lovely/mental health, provision of balanced diets and discouragement of exam-malpractice and all these can be obtainable through parent level of education, income, number of children catered for and marital status. According to Ezewu (1983) the socio-economic states of a family has been acknowledged to affect positive or negatively the schooling of the child. The higher the socio-economic states of a family the more likely it motivates the child to learn at school and consequently to succeed in learning. He also stated that students from family high class positions in Nigeria such as medical professional, engineers, politicians etc. stand the chance of performing better than those of low class positions.

Slavin (1994) reported a study that clearly showed the impact of social class on academic developments. Students from different social class and background achieve quite different during the school years. After a long term holidays, children from poor families lost much of their achievements unlike those from rich family who even gain more due to private teachers employed during and after holidays, provision of leaving and teaching materials. Looking at this study, the researcher’s argument is that the children from poor homes are not exposed to a wide variety of learning experiences in and outside their homes. In the light of the above, this study solely focuses on parent socio-economic and academic performance of primary school pupils in Ekiti State.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The responsibility of training the children is the primary role of the parents, this is because they are the first agent of socialization and this is usually an informal type of education which is being augmented by formal education in school. As a result of this, it is the duty of the parent to send their children to school and also ensure that they are progressing academically. Due to the vital role education plays in nation building, many people concerned about the quality of education given to the child. For instance, the National Policy on Education(2008) lays much emphasis on qualitative education for the development of a strong and virile nation. For this dream to be realized, many factors have to be considered, one of which is the home environment and family background of the child.

Many rural and sub-urban dwellers can no longer pay the school fees of their children. Children are made to engage in hawking, subsistence farming, become housemaids or engage in other menial jobs to support their academic pursuit. The health status of the children which could also be traceable to parental socio-economic background can be another factor that can affect the academic achievement of the student.Adewole (2005) had reported that in a rural community where nutritional status is relatively low and heath problem are prevalent, children academic performance is greatly hindered.Similarly, good parenting supported by strong economic home background could enhance strong academic achievement of the child. Learning environment that is not free of barrier or obstacle or distraction such as noise, gas/smoke pollutions and so on can constitute health hazards, which in turn affect or reduce student’s concentration or perceptual focus to learning. Market and garages located near schools have always posed a threat to student. Noise and pollution from these sources have always endangered student life and concentration.

Although Socio-economic status (SES) is often measured as a combination of education, income and occupation. It is commonly conceptualized as the social status or class of an individual or group. Low socio-economic status and its correlates, such as lower education, poverty and poor health, ultimately affect our societies as a whole. Research indicates that children from low social economic status (SES) households and communities develop academic skills more slowly compare to children from higher socio-economic status group. Alken and Barbarin (2014) noted that, the school system in low social economic status communities are often under resource and have negatively affected student’s academic progress. Families from low social economic status communities are less likely to have the financial resource or time available to provide children with academic support hence their academic success is impeded. For an adolescent belonging to a family of low class income earners, the tendency is that poor foundation might be given in home/mother care, day care, pre-nursery, nursery, primary and secondary schools. The children could not be provided with instructional materials at home and in schools, private lesson could not be organized due to lack of fund. These tends to make the students lack interest in certain areas due to poor foundation and the resultant effect is that is their adolescent stage in senior secondary school examinations, they would not perform well. The reserve is the case with those children belonging to middle and upper class families. The consequent to this, the students will lack the skills required of them at their level and it will affect the individual and technological development of the country. Therefore is is against this backdrop that motivated the researcher to investigate how parent socio-economic status can influence student academic achievement in primary school.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The generally aim of this study is to investigate parent socio-economic and academic performance of primary school pupils in Ekiti State.

The specific objectives are outlined below;

  1. Find out whether parental education have a significant influence on primary school pupils academic performance.
  2. Find out whether parental occupation have a significant influence on primary school pupils academic performance.
  3. Find out whether parental income level have a significant influence on primary school pupils academic performance.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. Does parental educational level have a significant influence on primary school pupils academic performance?
  2. Does parental occupation have a significant influence on primary school pupils academic performance?
  3. Does parental income level have a significant influence on primary school pupils academic performance?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

H0: There is no significant relationship between parent socio-economic status and academic performance of students in primary school.

Ha: There is a significant relationship between parent socio-economic status and academic performance of students in primary school.


1.6 Significance of the Study

It has been envisaged that the findings of this study may expose some factors that might be responsible for poor engagement of students in school. The identified areas where government at different levels could come in will be brought into focus in other to bridge the gap of educational attainment of children of low and high income earners in the society as well as student from illiterate parents home. The study will also encourage the policy makers to make a Social and economic policies to put in place and enable children from parents of low economic status to have equal opportunity of advancing the cause of education of their children. It will help Parents who are not educated or has low educational qualification on the importance of allowing their children to attend remedial summer coaching provided by non–governmental organization during holidays to supplement the regular school programmed.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on the influence of parental socio-economic status on the academic achievement of primary school students. The study will be delimited to parental educational level, occupation and income level. The study is however delimited to Ikere LGA of Ekiti State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that it is a new discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. Despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Educational Level:

This is used for social processes in which one achieve social competence and individual growth, carried on in a selected, controlled sitting which can be institutionalized as a school or college.

Parental Attitude:

Parents disposition to respond in a characteristics way to some stimulus in their social environment. Some responses determine the way and manner their children are brought up by them.

Academic Performance:

This is regarded as the display of knowledge attained or skills, shown in the school subjects such achievements are indicated by test scores or by marks assigned by teachers. It is the school evaluation of students’ classroom work as quantified on the basis of marks or grades.

Socio-Economic Status:

This refers to position of recognition which one finds him in the society. Such position may not be hereditary but acquired through personal efforts like culture, religion, educational background, financial status, occupation and social class.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on parent socio-economic status and academic performance of primary school pupils in Ekiti State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on parent socio-economic status and academic performance of primary school pupils in Ekiti State. The study is was specifically carried out find out whether parental education have a significant influence on primary school pupils academic performance, find out whether parental occupation have a significant influence on primary school pupils academic performance, and find out whether parental income level have a significant influence on primary school pupils academic performance.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were teachers in some selected primary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. Parental education have a significant influence on primary school pupils academic performance.
  2. Parental occupation have a significant influence on primary school pupils academic performance.
  3. Parental income level have a significant influence on primary school pupils academic performance.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Parents of low socio-economic status should be empowered to enable them provide for basic needs for their children. Thus, enhances their academic performance in subject.
  2. Parents without proper educational background should endeavour to send their children to extra lessons after school hours/days, by weekends and during holidays to improve their academic achievement. Also, parents with high socioeconomic status should assist schools in area of educational developments, setting up of laboratories and libraries in schools.
  3. Government should embark on programmes or formulate policies that can bridge the gaps between children of the rich and the poor in their academic pursuit. In order to balance the wide gap, government should restructure all public schools across the country by ensuring that qualified teachers are recruited and well paid.
  4. Also, basic amenities should be provided for the public schools to ensure that standard is maintained. School fees, tuition fees, and all other academic levy should be made affordable to the parents.
  5. Guidance and counseling services should be emphasized especially in government and public schools to assist students with problem which usually emanate from emotional distress and depression.
  6. Seminar and workshop should be regularly organized for parents of the effect of large family size. This will enable them to provide basic education needs for their children. Thus, enhances their academic performance.
  7. Government and educational stakeholders should endeavour to provide students facilities like Libraries, laboratories, etc. so as to improve students’ academic performance
  8. Parents should enroll in adult education centers for formal education to acquire skills and competencies which they can employ towards assisting their children school work and informed supervision.
  9. Parents should be facilitated in generation of income and especially those in self-employment by the National as well as the County governments so that they can have adequate income to cater for the basic needs and appropriate educational support to their children at home and school. Further, school feeding programme should be initiated in schools in regions where food is scarce.
  10. Parents should be assisted to cultivate positive attitude towards education and supervision of their children’s progress in school work through seminars organized by schools Boards of Management (BOM).

Parent Socio-Economic Status And Academic Performance Of Primary School Pupils In Ekiti State


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