Organizational Climate And Teaching Effectiveness In Public Secondary Schools
The study investigated the relationship between organisational climate and teaching effectiveness in public secondary Schools in Imo State. The organisational climate indices of interest were openness of the school climate, institutional integrity, principal’s influence, initiating structure, consideration behaviour, resource support, morale of teachers and academic emphasis. Eight specific objectives, research questions and null hypotheses were respectively formulated to guide and direct the study. Review of literature was done under two broad headings: (theoretical and Conceptual/empirical Frameworks). The ex-post factor correlational design was employed for the study. The population comprised all teachers totaling 5,047 and Principals totaling 320 for 2013/2014 school year. Cluster and random sampling techniques were used in selecting 505 teachers and 231 principals as sample for the study.
Two duly validated instruments with reliability coefficient of 0.91 and 0.61 for Organisational Climate Questionnaire (OCQ) and Teaching Effectiveness Questionnaire (TEQ) which were used to gather information. The R values of the simple linear regression were used to answer research questions and R2 for hypotheses, which were analyzed using F-value from the simple linear regression and tested at .05 alpha level of significance. The findings revealed there is weak positive but significant relationship between organisational climate and teaching effectiveness. Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded that there is a significant relationship between organisational climate and teaching effectiveness in public secondary schools in Imo State. Among the recommendations made was that stakeholders and Government must ensure that adequate learning facilities and leadership are in place for effective teaching in the schools.
Table Of Contents
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Statement of problem
- 1.3 Objective of the study
- 1.4 Research Hypotheses
- 1.5 Significance of the study
- 1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
- 1.7 Definition of terms
- 1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 Literature Review
3.0 Research Methodology
- 3.1 Sources of data collection
- 3.3 Population of the study
- 3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
- 3.5 Validation of research instrument
- 3.6 Method of data analysis
Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation
- 4.1 Introductions
- 4.2 Data analysis
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Introduction
- 5.2 Summary
- 5.3 Conclusion
- 5.4 Recommendation
1.1 Background Of The Study
In Nigeria, education is regarded as both an investment and a commodity for consumption. Therefore if the student academic performance in school work is poor, it means that money invested on their education would not yield the expected result. Common observation shows that some parents have lost confidence in the ability of most of the public secondary schools to guarantee successful academic performance of their children. It has equally been observed that while some students passed their Senior Secondary Certificate Examination in some schools, others failed the examinations in some other schools. It is assumed that the type of school climate of an organization is responsible for this because a school has unique characteristics and these characteristics of the school tend to distinguished one school from the other.
Characteristics of school such as the physical structure of a school building and the interaction between students and teachers are two diverse factors that both affect and help to define the broad concept of school climate. Adeogun and Olisaemeka (2011) defines school climate as an aggregate measure of school characteristics such as relationship between parents, teachers, administrators as well as physical facilities on the ground. Organizational climate is the formal system of task and reporting relationships that controls, coordinates, and motivates employees so that they cooperate to achieve an organization’s goals. This includes the leadership focus, authority and responsibility, resource policies and planning deployment or implementation. The task of an administrator is to create an organizational structure and culture that encourages employees to work hard and to develop supportive work attitudes and allows people and groups to cooperate and work together effectively.
The way a climate or culture is designed or evolves over time affects the way people and groups behave within the organization. The organizational climate affects the people’s processes and decisions, behavior and motivation, teamwork and cooperation, social relationships and rewards of good performances. As for schools, climate is a necessary link between organizational climate and teacher attitude and behavior. It has been remarked that the formal characteristics of schools have an important influence on the way in which teachers perceive the climate.
Clearly, climate represents a composite of the mediating variables that intervene between the climate of an organization and the style and other characteristics of leaders and teacher performance, effectiveness and satisfaction. The importance of the organizational climate to teachers’ effectiveness is relevant to a high degree, since it is indicative of how well the teacher manages to realize his/her full potential. High-performance organizations tend to make optimal use of everyone’s capabilities. Thus, organizational climate definitely affects the teacher’s performance in school. It will affect their motivation and dedication at work, job satisfaction and efficacy. In an organization with a high extent of humanistic relationship, collegiality, and participation, the teaching effectiveness is high, triggering a higher success of education, too.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Teachers are important pillars of the educational system of any nation. They are considered to be the Nation Builders. To perform such a heavy task they have to be physically, mentally, economically and socially balanced. Only then can they provide an effective teaching and learning process. Teaching requires effective as well as qualitative improvement for the betterment of learners. At present it is felt that there is a decline in the quality of teaching. Recent research in the field of education reflects that though the quality, competency, dedication and commitment in teachers are showing upward trends, they are not being able to discharge their duties in a right manner or effectively.
It has been observed that in an educational institution where all the facilities are the proper ones, teachers are competent, yet the results are mediocre, whereas institutions with fewer facilities produce better results. In an institutional organization, the system of administrative hierarchies and controls, examination and centralized planning for school reforms, all currently restrict the autonomy of the teacher. For the teacher to be effective a certain amount of autonomy should be provided so that he/she should be able to meet the diverse needs of children. In the same way in which the learner requires space, freedom, flexibility and respect, the teacher requires the same. The teacher should not only receive orders, but his views and ideas should also be heard by his superiors and colleagues, who often take decisions that affect the immediate organizational climate in the institution. The teachers and the head must share a relationship based on equality and mutual respect to create a better and positive organizational climate. The decision making must be on the basis of dialogue and discussion.
The way they conduct themselves individually as well as jointly has a direct bearing on the climate of the organization. There is a need to encourage an atmosphere that facilitates collaborative efforts among teachers. Therefore it can be said that, in any organization where there is a conducive environment or climate, teachers excel. An educational organization free of hierarchical problems produces healthy competition among teachers, which ultimately increases teacher effectiveness. Research studies (Olorunsola and Arogundade 2012; Adenike 2011; Raza 2010; Garg and Rastogi 2006; Kumaran 2005) show that there is a significant influence of the organizational climate on different psycho-social variables of the teacher. Based on all these, the researchers of this study have been provoked to study the Organizational Climate as a Predictor of Teacher Effectiveness. Many schools seem to exhibit different types of climate. In some schools, the atmosphere might be healthy and friendly while in other in this work we would determine how the organizational climate can affect teaching effectiveness iiin public secondary schools in Owerri, Imo state.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study:
The following objectives were formulated for the study:
- To study the Organizational Climate of Elementary Schools.
- To study the Teaching Effectiveness of Secondary School Teachers in Owerri.
- To study the Teaching stress of Secondary School Teachers in relation to Organizational Climate.
- To study the influence of Organizational Climate on Teacher Effectiveness.
1.4 Research Hypotheses
- Ho: School organizational climate has no influence on the occupational stress of the teachers.
- Hi: School organizational climate has influence on the occupational stress of the teachers.
- Ho: There is a significant relationship between organizational climate and teaching effectiveness in public secondary schools in Imo State.
- Hi: There is no significant relationship between organizational climate and teaching effectiveness in public secondary schools in Imo State.
1.5 Significance Of The Study
It is hoped that this study will advance school climate planning quality for effective output by teachers and achievements in students. This study will no doubt contribute immensely and meaningfully towards improving learning quality and also help attend to other unfavourable working conditions which affect teachers, schools and students.
This study will assist the federal, state government, Head teachers, and principals of schools to see the need for improvement of school quality in order to boost the academic performance of students.
1.6 Scope and Limitation Of The Study
This study is primary concerned and restricted secondary schools in Owerri, Imo State. Due to shortage of time, the research will not be able to carry out the study in the entire state.
The researcher encountered some constraints, which limited the scope of the study. These constraints include but are not limited to the following.
a) Availability Of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
1.7 Definition Of Terms
This is a concept “perceived” by employees. Importantly, it is dependent on a value judgment which can vary greatly from person to person. The organizational climate affects productivity, motivation and employee behavior.
This is the process of designing and understanding the need of the students. By designing and implementing the process properly the result will reach a real effective stage. Teacher effectiveness is the characteristics of a teacher to be a real instrument for the process.
1.8 Organization Of The Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concerned with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation
It is important to reiterate that the objective of this study was the organizational climate and teaching effectiveness in public secondary schools.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in evaluating examine the organizational climate and teaching effectiveness in public secondary schools.
This study was undertaken to examine the organizational climate and teaching effectiveness in public secondary schools. organizational climate and how it affects teaching effectiveness in public secondary schools is a topic with high priority. Organizational climate differs considerably, between countries and also between states. The study opened with chapter one where the statement of the problem was clearly defined. The study objectives and research hypotheses were defined and formulated respectively. The study reviewed related and relevant literatures. The chapter two gave the conceptual framework, empirical and theoretical studies. The third chapter described the methodology employed by the researcher in collecting both the primary and the secondary data. The research method employed here is the descriptive survey method. The study analyzed and presented the data collected in tables and the hypotheses were tested using the Chi square method. While the fifth chapter gives the study summary and conclusion.
5.3 Conclusion And Recommendations
As a way of concluding, all said and done, it can clearly be seen that the realization of educational goals and objectives, no doubt, depends on the extent to which government and administrators of schools are able to give school climate and teaching effectiveness the adequate attention needed. The findings revealed that school organizational climate has influence on the occupational stress of the teachers and that there is a significant relationship between organizational climate and teaching effectiveness in public secondary schools in Imo State. Among the recommendations made was that stakeholders and Government must ensure that adequate learning facilities and leadership are in place for effective teaching in the schools.
Based on our findings we recommend that;
- The school administration should understand the role of the organizational climate for an effective teaching-learning environment.
- The Government should help in shouldering the responsibility of guiding and training the school administrators, the teachers and students to the best suited avenues.
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