Operations Of Mini Buses In Developing City Of Ogbomoso Nigeria

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Operations Of Mini Buses In Developing City Of Ogbomoso Nigeria


A study of operations of mini buses in developing City of Ogbomoso Nigeria, was carried out in this research work with the objectives of determining the mode of transport often used by the residents on the main roads and examining the trip pattern of residents in the study area. Primary data used for the study were derived from direct interview and administration of questionnaires to the drivers and passengers. The extracted data was analyzed by SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science). Relative importance indices (RII) and severity indices (SI) ranking methods were adopted to determine the safety, comfort, efficiency and effectiveness of the mini buses. The results showed that the majority of the bus users are between the ages of 26-35years, they were mainly civil servants and the major trip purpose is home to work. The results also indicate that majority of the drivers are primary school certificate holders, have 15 years and above of driving experience, the highest trip made per day by the drivers is between 21 and 40, fuel consumption per day is between 21 and 30 litres and the average income of the driver per day is between N3000 and N4000. In measuring the effectiveness and efficiency of mini buses “accessibility of vehicle” and “buses availability” ranked 1st and 2nd with RII values of 0.879 and 0.861.

Table of Content

  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:


  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms
  • 1.9 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Transportation is a process that involves the movement of commuters, goods and services from a given point of origin to a specific destination (Okoko, 2006). Transportation determines the regional patterns of development, economic viability, environmental impacts and maintenance of socially acceptable levels of quality of life. It is a means to access business activities, education, employment and recreational opportunities, thus contributing to policy effectiveness and enhancement of security through reduced isolation as well as providing job opportunities (World Bank, 2002).

An efficient transport system is an axle wheel on which the economic activities of any nation revolve. Transport is needed to provide access to sources of existing and potential raw materials. It facilitates the collection and distribution of agricultural and industrial products and it encourages efficient allocation and utilization of some economic resources. It equally promotes the smooth administration of any country. It can therefore be regarded as the life wire of a nation‟s economic development.

In addition to being an expression of an individual‟s free will, mobility takes place with a view to reaching and satisfying such individual‟s socio-economic, cultural and political needs in different places (Adetunji, 2010). For instance, trips to work, schools, postal services, recreational centres, health centres, relatives, shops/markets and banks are undertaken in order to procure services, which are available in specific locations. The frequency, pattern and complexity of such trips are usually influenced and constrained by physical, demographic, cultural and socioeconomic factors (Boarnet and Crane, 2001; Ironmonger and Norman, 2007; Ipingbemi, 2010).

It is paradoxical that in developing cities where vehicle ownership is low, dependence on public transport is high whereas the financial condition and performance of all forms of government-organized public transport, either state or privately owned, are in decline. This situation has forced people and the market to develop creative solutions to address daily travel needs. A search for these alternatives has led to rapid growth in non-conventional means of public transport, initially provided by minibuses and shared taxi/vans, and more recently by commercial motorcycles. According to Olubomehin (2012), the transit modes have become the dominant form of public transport but they also present clear disadvantages from a general public welfare perspective in terms of the negative externalities generated (noise, safety, pollution). Government intervention has often had perverse impacts, compounding the problem by distorting market structures through policies that promote rent seeking that favour the interests of a select, small group.

Therefore, when there are inadequate facilities and mechanisms capable of facilitating efficient and effective transportation, there is hardly any human settlement that can function effectively. As a result of this inadequacy, mobility and accessibility of the people are crippled, which is one of the major problems facing the world cities today. The situation is not different in Osogbo, Osun State Capital, Nigeria, a growing city with challenges of effective transportation system which require urgent attention, hence the need for this study.

Urban transportation problems have negative consequences on the socio-economic development of a nation. For example traffic congestion, which is one of the major problems plaguing urban transportation system in most metropolis across the globe (Yildirim, 2001), has serious effect on economic and social activities both at the micro and macro level. Urban transportation systems in most developing countries face major challenges. The existing road transport infrastructure capacity in most cities in the developing economies has reached critical level and is unable to meet the huge demand from the increasing number of vehicles. The challenges have been attributed to continuous growth in urban population, private vehicle ownership, ineffective traffic management system and the ineffectiveness of public transport services which are the causes of traffic congestion with dire consequences on social and economic activities (World Bank, 2011).

Lee (2001) reported that the vehicle ownership rate is estimated to increase from about one vehicle for every four persons in the year 2000 to about two vehicles for every five persons in 2020. It is imperative, therefore that effective urban transportation be developed to accommodate the increasingly high rate of vehicle ownership in order to improve upon the effectiveness of the transportation system in cities. In the study area there is no known public mass transit system; this has compounded the problem of mobility. The increased pressure on road transportation has brought about other constraints to mobility and accessibility of people.

Most of the scholars who have worked on urban transport problems in Nigeria have identified congestion as the most serious. Congestion occurs when transport demand exceeds transport supply at a specific point in time and in a specific section of the transport systems. Associated with the traffic congestion are problems of parking demand which far outweighs the available supply in most Nigerian cities.

Osogbo has been growing very rapidly as a result of influx of civil servants, industrial workers and businessmen to the city because it is the capital of Osun State. Due to the rapid growth coupled with physical constraints (among which are drainage and topography) to urban development has led to haphazard development of land uses. The problems associated with land use, road network, mode of movement and socio-economic characteristics of residents have led to unaffordable high cost of travel, longer travel times, inconveniences and strains to urban residents in Osogbo metropolis. The presence of these mini-buses known as „Korope‟ has increased travel time of passengers due to“move and stop” movement pattern, causing traffic congestion and increase in the rate of accidents on the major street of the study area and to recommend potential solution.

Urban transport in Nigeria is largely an unregulated market and inadequate both in quality and quantitative terms. Urban transport technology in use in Nigeria is a combination of transit modes, consisting of shared taxis, minibuses, motorcycles and tricycles. Only in the cities of Lagos and Abuja are conventional buses in use, but even in both cities the use of transit modes of transport is obviously dominant. As a matter of fact, Nigeria remains the only country in the world where densely populated cities with over six million people do not have an organized urban transport system based on a combination of conventional buses and rail. Urbanization has been one of the dominant contemporary processes as a growing share of the global population lives in cities. Considering this trend, urban transportation issues are of foremost importance to support the passengers and freight mobility requirements of large urban agglomerations. Transportation in urban areas is highly complex because of the modes involved, the multitude of origins and destinations, and the amount and variety of traffic. Urban transit is an important dimension of mobility, notably in high-density areas (Rodrigue, 2013).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Mini buses are seen as one of the best solutions battling the rising numbers of people living in dense areas (Merkert, et al., 2017). Nevertheless, minibusoperators are often facing different challenges, one being the integration of paratransit already in place in the chosen city. A consequence of this is that if the local bus service is not integrated into the mini bus, customers cannot differentiate between the two, and the minibus operators system might not achieve its goal (Satiennam, et al., 2006). Another problem is that during the development of the mini bus system, the paratransit regime is often not involved. This lack of paratransit inclusion leads to different issues such as less income, fewer employment opportunities, and less decision power for the paratransit workforce (Schalekamp & Behrens, 2010).

1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to investigate the operations of mini buses in developing city of Ogbomoso Nigeria. Specific objtives include to:

  1. Investigate the impact of the operations of mini buses on the safety and comfort of passengers in Ogbomoso
  2. Examine the efficiency and effectiveness of the operations of minibuses in Ogbomoso
  3. Investigate the impact of effectiveness of the operations of minibuses on safety and comfort in Ogbomoso.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is theimpact of the operations of mini buses on the safety and comfort of passengers in Ogbomoso?
  2. What is the level ofefficiency and effectiveness of the operations of minibuses in Ogbomoso?
  3. What is the impact of effectiveness of the operations of mini buses on safety and comfort in Ogbomo?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study is highly significant to students, teachers and stakeholders in the transport sector. The literature reviewed in this study will add significantly to the knowledge of scholars and tutors in the field of transportation. The findings will serve as a policy formulation guide for stakeholders in the transportation sector.

1.6 Scope of the Study

This study focused on operations of mini buses in developing City Of Ogbomoso Nigeria. The study also encapsulates theimpact of the operations of mini buses on the safety and comfort of passengers in Ogbomoso, the level ofefficiency and effectiveness of the operations of minibuses in Ogbomoso and theimpact of effectiveness of the operations of mini buses on safety and comfort in Ogbomo

1.7 Limitations of the Study

This study was constrained by some factors. Firstly, the time frame allocated for the completion of this study was not enough for the researcher to extensively carry out research based on the theme of this research work. On the other hand, the research participants were not willing to participate in responding to the administered questionnaire of this study. Also, the required materials like journals and articles needed for the proper completion of this study were not readily available online and offline. All these constraint put together, ultimately determined the extent to which researcher was able to go in this study.

1.8 Definition of Terms

Public Transport:

A system of transport for passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public unlike private transport, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.[1][2] There is no rigid definition; the Encyclopædia Britannica specifies that public transportation is within urban areas,[3] and air travel is often not thought of when discussing public transport—dictionaries use wording like “buses, trains, etc. Examples of public transport include city buses, trolleybuses, trams (or light rail) and passenger trains, rapid transit (metro/subway/underground, etc.) and ferries. Public transport between cities is dominated by airlines, coaches, and intercity rail. High-speed rail networks are being developed in many parts of the world.

Most public transport systems run along fixed routes with set embarkation/disembarkation points to a prearranged timetable, with the most frequent services running to a headway (e.g.: “every 15 minutes” as opposed to being scheduled for any specific time of the day). However, most public transport trips include other modes of travel, such as passengers walking or catching bus services to access train stations.[5] Share taxis offer on-demand services in many parts of the world, which may compete with fixed public transport lines, or complement them, by bringing passengers to interchanges. Paratransit is sometimes used in areas of low demand and for people who need a door-to-door service.[6]


A passenger-carrying motor vehicle that is designed to carry more people than a multi-purpose vehicle or minivan, but fewer people than a full-size bus. In the United Kingdom, the word “minibus” is used to describe any full-sized passenger-carrying van or panel truck. Minibuses have a seating capacity of between 12 and 30 seats. Larger minibusses may be called midibuses. Minibuses are typically front engine step in vehicles, although low floor minibuses do exist and are particularly common in Japan. Minibuses may range in price from £2000 to nearly £100,000.


A person who travels in a vehicle, but does not bear any responsibility for the tasks required for that vehicle to arrive at its destination or otherwise operate the vehicle, and is not a steward. The vehicles may be bicycles, buses, passenger trains, airliners, ships, ferryboats, and other methods of transportation.

Crew members (if any), as well as the driver or pilot of the vehicle, are usually not considered to be passengers. For example, a flight attendant on an airline would not be considered a passenger while on duty and the same with those working in the kitchen or restaurant on board a ship as well as cleaning staff, but an employee riding in a company car being driven by another person would be considered a passenger, even if the car was being driven on company business.


The state of being “safe”, the condition of being protected from harm or other danger. Safety can also refer to the control of recognized hazards in order to achieve an acceptable level of risk.


The capability of producing a desired result or the ability to produce desired output. When something is deemed effective, it means it has an intended or expected outcome, or produces a deep, vivid impression.

1.9 Organisations of the Study

This research work is categorized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  1. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), background to the study, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms.
  2. Chapter two encompasses the conceptual review theoretical review and empirical reviews on which the study is based.
  3. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  4. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  5. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary of Findings

SPSS statistical analysis software was used to analyse and analyse the data that was obtained. To analyse the performance of the routes, descriptive statistical techniques were employed to describe the data, such as tables and straightforward percentages. Using socioeconomic data, multiple linear regression models were utilised to forecast the likelihood of travels (sex, education, income and occupation). The characteristics of the respondents are outlined in Table 4.1.

With a relative importance index (RII) of 0.842, the safety of the passengers on board received the highest rating for passenger comfort and safety when utilising mini buses, which was followed by the RII of 0.827 for the directness of the route to the destination of the passengers. The driver’s courtesy during the trip is ranked third (3rd), with a score of 0.808. With a RII of 0.804, ride comfort was placed fourth (4th), while vehicle condition and how satisfied you are with the road system were ranked sixth (6th) and seventh (7th), respectively, with RIIs of 0.737 and 0.674.
In Table 4.3, it is shown that vehicle accessibility came in first place with a RII of 0.879, followed by bus availability, which came in second place with a RII of 0.861, frequency of bus service, which came in third place with a RII of 0.823, and cost of travel, which came in fourth place with a RII of 0.763. Bus waiting times and speeds were ranked sixth (6th) and seventh (7th), respectively, with RII values of 0.727 and 0.705.

5.2 Conclusion

Analyses of the characteristics of passengers revealed that most the residents depend on mini buses for their daily movement, the majority of the bus users are between the ages of 26 and 35 years, average household number was four persons, they are mainly civil servants, alternative mode of transportation of the residents is motorcycles, the major trip purpose of the residents is home to work and the walking distance before getting to a bus stop is between 100m and 1km. Regression models were used to evaluate the level of performance of the minibuses and Relative Important Index (RII) and Severity Index (SI) were also used to rank the criterion. There is a significant relationship between the characteristics of the respondents and waiting time for the mini buses with R2 and adjusted R2 of 0.947 and 0.945 respectively which indicate that the passengers spend less time when waiting for the buses. RII ranking result of comfort and safety of mini buses passenger safety, directness of the route and behaviour of driver ranked as the first three factors with RII values of 0.842, 0.827 and 0.808 respectively. In measuring the effectiveness and efficiency of mini buses accessibility of vehicle and buses availability were ranked 1st and 2nd with RII value of 0.879 and 0.861.

5.3 Recommendation

The following are hereby recommended:

  1. Government at all levels should increase the efficiency of existing transport operations through improved planning and management.
  2. State and local governments must offer support service infrastructure in the study area such as bus stations and terminals to enhance effective and efficient intra-urban mobility.
  3. Mini bus drivers should be trained to drive properly and encouraged to comply with road regulations to reduce the rate of road crashes.
  4. Road unworthy minibuses should be prohibited from operations and appropriate systems of control of vehicle have to be applied by the relevant management authorities and private operators themselves.
  5. The suitability of urban roads for minibus operators in mixed traffic conditions along the major passenger transportation routes and their routine and periodic maintenance have to be considered in a reasonable and affordable way to preserve the physical environment from undesired damages and most importantly to avoid excessive expenditures in future.

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