Office Politics And Employees Performance; A Study Of Ministry Of Agriculture, FCT Abuja (2019-2021)

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Office Politics And Employees Performance; A Study Of Ministry Of Agriculture, FCT Abuja (2019-2021)


Abstract


This study was carried out on office politics and employees performance; a study of ministry of agriculture, FCT Abuja (2019-2021). The study was carried out to ascertain whether office politics is pronounced in Ministry of Agriculture, FCT Abuja, investigate factors prompting organizational politics in Ministry of Agriculture, FCT Abuja, determine whether politics affects employee productivity in Ministry of Agriculture, FCT Abuja and find out if office politics affects the position of superior and or subordinate in Ministry of Agriculture, FCT Abuja. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of staff of Federal Ministry of Agriculture, FCT Abuja. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 119 respondents and 100 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. The hypotheses was tested using Pearson Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the factors prompting organizational politics in Ministry of Agriculture, FCT Abuja includes: ill-functioning work structures, unfair treatment, loss of trust, favouritism, tribalism, selfishness/envy. The study also revealed that office politics affects employee productivity in Ministry of Agriculture, FCT Abuja. Therefore, it is recommended that training employees to acquire the necessary political skills; It is recommended to the organisational managers to ensure that employees across various levels, teams and departments are politically skilled enough to tactfully deal with political skills rather than remaining silent observers of the unsolicited behaviour of Machiavellians, and/or influential groups. To mention but few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms
  • 1.9 Organizations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE 

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

In the light of socio-political, economic, technological and environmental challenge (for instance, concern over widespread trade wars, geopolitical uncertainties, environmental destruction, political mayhem, and technological infiltration), organisational stakeholders remain engaged in continuous interaction to make sense of a situation, adapt to, or influence any emerging change that arises (Kapoutsis and Thanos, 2018). Nevertheless, any kind of change that intimidates the status quo may fail unless the initiators of such change mobilise the support of dominant and powerful members (Franke and Foerstl, 2018). This interplay of power between those who support change and those who oppose change is reflected in political behaviour. Based on these discussions, political behaviour may be defined as an intended action within a social environment to acquire, uphold, and replenish power to be used to endorse personal and/or shared interests (Kapoutsis and Thanos, 2016).

From this perspective, an organisation may engage in corporate politics (for instance, lobbying policymakers or fundraising for political campaigns) to influence key policies of the government or get involved in politically-motivated corporate social responsibility (e.g. initiatives undertaken for environmental protection and sustainability) to explore solutions to governance challenges across the globe (Rasche, 2015). At the same time, within organisations, staff members across the hierarchical set-up may exhibit political behaviour, above their basic job-related efforts to lessen the discrepancy in goals between the aspired state and the actual state (Kapoutsis et al., 2019). The formation of a political background is one of the main outcomes of political behaviour that people consider while determining their future behaviour and attitudes. In management science, the leading perception is that organisational politics is omnipresent yet morally questionable and detrimental to those who presume that success is derived through their competency level, job-related efforts and commitment towards the organisation (Landells and Albrecht, 2017). This viewpoint led academic researchers and organisational managers to consider politics with disdain or maintain a prejudiced perception that politics is troublesome and selfserving (Lampaki and Papadakis, 2018), and interrupt the proper functioning and efficienc of the organisation, thereby need to be eliminated (Chinomona and Mofokeng, 2016; Sambrook and Herrmann, 2018). This perception was maintained by academic researchers and management practitioners dominantly until the past few decades. Without a doubt, researchers in the field of organisational politics have indicated that it may have pervasive unfavourable effects on critical management functions such as resource allocation (Khan and Hussain, 2016), decision making and policy implementation (Eldor, 2017; AL-Abrrow, 2018), rewards and performance appraisals (Patyal and Koilakuntla, 2016; Dello Russo et al., 2017; Eldor, 2017). Organizational politics or office politics is really about manipulating power and authority to build relationship to get things done. In other words, it is about “stabbing” people to achieve objectives. Organizational politics is the use of one’s individual or assigned power within an employing organization for the purpose of obtaining advantages beyond one’s legitimate authority. Those advantages may include access to tangible assets, or intangible benefits such as status or pseudo-authority that influences the behavior of others.

Both individuals and groups may engage in organizational politics (Weissenberger, 2010). Organizational politics, sometimes referred to as office politics (which strictly only includes office workers, although the meaning is usually intended in the wider sense) is “the use of one’s individual or assigned power within an employing organization for the purpose of obtaining advantages beyond one’s legitimate authority (Parker, Dipboye, and Jackson, 1995). This definition is in line with the definition of office politics brought by Dhar (2009) where he defined office politics as the exercise of power to negotiate different interests amongst members while maintaining one’s interests in certain organizational issues. Hence, in office politics game, conflict always exists due to power competition.

However, contemporary researchers have undertaken efforts to balance the scales by investigating the positive effects of politics for the employees as well as the organisations they work for (Cacciattolo, 2015; Kapoutsis and Thanos, 2016;Landells and Albrecht, 2017; Elbanna et al., 2017; Malik et al., 2019). These researchers also argued that political behaviour may serve domestic/personal or global/shared interests based on the political mindset of the actors (Eldor, 2017); therefore, organisational politics may be viewed by individuals as a challenge or a barrier depending on the person-organisational fit (Bryne et al., 2017; Hanif et al., 2018). Opoku and Arthur (2018) made a point that organisational politics is not essentially toxic or damaging, despite traditionally perceived as self-serving, and meant for selfishly promoting self-interest, and increasing self-centredness, to be derived at the expense of the wellbeing of others, since it is unfavourable to the goals and pursuits of others.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Organizational politics is a major issue in today’s organizational behavior because it involves individuals who manipulate their working relationships consumes time and resources for their own gain at the expense of the team or company. This situation causing problems for the individuals who work together, the end result can be far more devastating. Employees and managers who concentrate on the political aspects of work may have less time to pay attention their jobs. Study by Ferris and Kachmar (1992) has shown that perception of politics predicted job dissatisfaction among employees. This study has exhibited that negative influential between relationship with supervisor and organizational politics perception. Dhar (2009) has stated that organizational politics produced a threat on staff retention and work productivity.

Conversely, the commonness of organisational politics in the process of goal setting/achievement and outcomes dissemination and their influence on individual and organisational welfare is largely accountable for the continuous interest in this concept within management and organisational literature (Cacciattolo, 2015; Khan and Hussain, 2016; Landells and Albrecht, 2017; Elbanna et al., 2017). Studies by Lee and Chang (2013) indicate that politics is strongly correlated with stress at work, including reduced employee commitment and job satisfaction, and increased turnover intention. Karatepe (2013) pointed out that employees’ perceptions about organisational politics may als have a range of adverse outcomes, such as communication gaps, concealing information related to critical factors, taking an active part in gossips, wastage of time, and weakening of the relationships with colleagues, peers, and immediate supervisor.

Despite this, extant research on this concept is fragmented across various management fields (such as organisational behaviour, human resource management, strategic management and leadership).Very limited studies consider it as a favourable construct, the presence of which enhances employee skills, behaviour and performance capabilities. This is the main gap that this research aims to address.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objectives of this study is to examine Office Politics And Employees performance; a Study Of Ministry Of Agriculture, FCT Abuja (2019-2021). Other specific objectives includes

  1. To ascertain whether office politics is pronounced in Ministry of Agriculture, FCT Abuja.
  2. To investigate factors prompting organizational politics in Ministry of Agriculture, FCT Abuja.
  3. To determine whether politics affects employee productivity in Ministry of Agriculture, FCT Abuja
  4. To find out if office politics affects the position of superior and or subordinate in in Ministry of Agriculture, FCT Abuja

1.4 Research Questions

  1. Is office politics pronounced in Ministry of Agriculture, FCT Abuja? YES
  2. What are the factors prompting organizational politics in Ministry of Agriculture, FCT Abuja?
  3. Functioning work structures, unfair treatment, loss of trust, favouritism, tribalism, selfishness/envy
  4. Does office politics affects employee productivity in Ministry of Agriculture, FCT Abuja?
  5. Can office politics affects the position of superior and or subordinate in Ministry of Agriculture, FCT Abuja?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Office politics does not affects employees’ productivity in Ministry of Agriculture, FCT Abuja.
  • Ha: Office politics do affect employees’ productivity in Ministry of Agriculture, FCT Abuja.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Power competition and manipulation become the essence in office politics. Organizational politics has been discussed literary in 1970’s with a focus on aspects of power and bureaucracy (Drory and Romm, 1988). The practice of organizational politics can have an even more serious effect on major business processes such as strategy formation, budget setting, performance management, and leadership. This occurs because when individuals are playing organizational politics, it interferes with the information flow of a company. Information can be distorted, misdirected, or suppressed, in order to manipulate a situation for short term personal gain. Besides causing problems for the individuals who work together, the end result can be far more devastating. Employees and managers who must concentrate on the political aspects of work may have less time to pay attention their jobs. This translates into financial loss which may in turn translate into job loss. Kacmar, Bozeman, Carlson and Anthony (1999) exhibited that intent to turnover and job satisfactions were among the consequent outcomes from organizational politics. As most of the office political game occur in managerial level, thus, it becomes vital to study the relationship between leaders’ attributes and need for power with office politics.

Findings of this study will be of both practical and empirical relevance. the practical relevance of study is to create new insight into existing research. On practical level, this research can be helpful to both future practitioners and professional teachers within this field of study to understand the short-comings arising from organizational politics and lessons to be learned in such situations. On the short-comings arising from organizational politics, bad political manoeuvring should be managed well within reasonable bounds. Empirically the study will add to the general body of knowledge and serve as reference material to management scholars and student who wishes to conduct further studies in related field.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on examine Office Politics And Employees performance. The study will further discuss factors prompting organizational politics and establish whether politics affects the position of superior and or subordinate. The study is however delimited to Ministry of Agriculture, FCT Abuja from the period 2019-2021. the respondents for this study will comprise of staff of Federal Ministry of Agriculture, FCT Abuja.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.9 Definition of Terms

Organizational Politics:

This is the use of one’s individual or assigned power within an employing organization for the purpose of obtaining advantages beyond one’s legitimate authority.

Employee Performance:

Employee performance is defined as how an employee fulfills their job duties and executes their required tasks. It refers to the effectiveness, quality, and efficiency of their output. Performance also contributes to our assessment of how valuable an employee is to the organization.


1.10 Organisations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on office politics and employees performance; a study of ministry of agriculture, FCT Abuja (2019-2021). The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on office politics and employees performance; a study of ministry of agriculture, FCT Abuja (2019-2021). The study is was specifically set to ascertain whether office politics is pronounced in Ministry of Agriculture, FCT Abuja, investigate factors prompting organizational politics in Ministry of Agriculture, FCT Abuja, determine whether politics affects employee productivity in Ministry of Agriculture, FCT Abuja and find out if office politics affects the position of superior and or subordinate in Ministry of Agriculture, FCT Abuja.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent arestaff of Federal Ministry of Agriculture, FCT Abuja.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. Office politics is pronounced in Ministry of Agriculture, FCT Abuja.
  2. The factors prompting organizational politics in Ministry of Agriculture, FCT Abuja includes: ill-functioning work structures, unfair treatment, loss of trust, favouritism, tribalism, selfishness/envy.
  3. Office politics affects employee productivity in Ministry of Agriculture, FCT Abuja.
  4. Office politics affects the position of superior and or subordinate in Ministry of Agriculture, FCT Abuja.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;

  1. Adoption of effective leadership such as participative, transformational leadership and authentic leadership.
  2. Training employees to acquire the necessary political skills; It is recommended to the organisational managers to ensure that employees across various levels, teams and departments are politically skilled enough to tactfully deal with political skills rather than remaining silent observers of the unsolicited behaviour of Machiavellians, and/or influential groups.
  3. On the short-comings arising from organizational politics, bad political maneuvering should be managed well within reasonable bounds. To deal with this situation, the author recommends seven approaches in the following; screen out exceedingly every political individuals during recruitment period; create an open-book management system; make sure every employee knows how the business works and has a personal line of sight to key results with corresponding measurable objectives for individual accountability; periodic financial and accounting statements for all employees should not be politicized; establish formal conflict resolution and grievance processes; publicly recognize and reward people who get real results without political games; disciplinary committee should be set up and defaulters should be apprehended to serve as a deterrent for others to follow; organization should adopt sensitive analysis approach to track and monitor any strange behavior of workers in the work environment.
  4. It is strongly recommended that the organisational managers, irrespective of the leadership style or approach they adopt, they should encourage employee inclusion in the organisational affairs and decision making.

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