Occurrence Of HIV / AIDS And Salmonella Typhi Among Pregnant Women Attending Antennal In Uyo Local Government Area.

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)

Occurrence Of HIV / AIDS And Salmonella Typhi Among Pregnant Women Attending Antennal In Uyo Local Government Area.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a range of conditions produced by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The initial infection may not produce any noticeable symptoms but infected persons may experience influenza-like illness. for a short period. But as the infection progresses, it merges with the immune system, leading to an increasing risk of developing common infections such as tuberculosis, tumors other opportunistic infections. These late symptoms of infection are referred to as acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).which is often associated with unintended weight loss. Sepkowitz KA (June 2001).The disease is spread basically through unprotected sex as anal and oral sex, blood transfusions, use of needles, and transfusion from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding.

Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi is an intracellular pathogen which causes typhoid. Typhoid fever is a challenge globally with an estimate of more than 27 million cases each year leading to an estimated 217,000 deaths. The Infection of pregnant women with Salmonella occurs as often as its infection in the general population, with an incidence of 0.2% positive rectal cultures at the time of delivery. The different modes of transmission by Salmonella Typhi and S. Paratyphi A are vertical transmission from the mother and transmission from exogenous sources. The study seeks to appraise the occurrence of HIV AIDS and Samonilla typhi among pregnant women attending antennal in uyo local government area.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The effect of HIV and AIDs is endemic and has led to the loss of life of many. It has also affected the nation’s healthy work force and negatively impacted on the economic wellbeing of the nation. Typhi causes typhoid fever, a fecal-oral infection leading to systemic disease (Baker et al., 2010). The problem confronting the study is to appraise the occurrence of HIV AIDS and Samonilla typhi among pregnant women attending antennal in uyo local government area.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The Main Objective of the study is to appraise the occurrence of HIV AIDS and Samonilla typhi among pregnant women attending antennal in uyo local government area; The specific objectives include

  1. To determine the nature of HIV AIDS and Samonilla typhi.
  2. To determine the occurrence of HIV AIDS and Samonilla typhi among pregnant women attending antennal.
  3. To determine the occurrence of HIV AIDS and Samonilla typhi among pregnant women attending antennal in uyo local government area.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the nature of HIV AIDS and Samonilla typhi?
  2. What is the level of occurrence of HIV AIDS and Samonilla typhi among pregnant women attending antennal?
  3. What is the level of occurrence of HIV AIDS and Samonilla typhi among pregnant women attending antennal in uyo local government area?

1.5 Statement of the Hypothesis

The statement of the hypothesis for the study is stated in Null as follows

  • HO The level of occurrence of HIV AIDS and Samonilla typhi among pregnant women attending antennal in uyo local government area.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study proffers an appraisal of the occurrence of HIV AIDS and Samonilla typhi among pregnant women attending antennal in uyo local government area. It provides relevant data for the effective formulation and implementation of policies to enhance the realization of envisaged objective.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study proffers an appraisal of the occurrence of HIV AIDS and Samonilla typhi among pregnant women attending antennal in uyo local government area


1.8 Limitation of the Study

The study was confronted with logistics and geographical factors.


1.9 Definition of Terms

HIV /AID Defined

Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a range of conditions produced by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The initial infection may not produce any noticeable symptoms but infected persons may experience influenza-like illness. for a short period. But as the infection progresses, it merges with the immune system, leading to an increasing risk of developing common infections such as tuberculosis, tumors other opportunistic infections. These late symptoms of infection are referred to as acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).which is often associated with unintended weight loss.

Education Defined

Education is viewed as the process of inviting truth and possibility. It is the wise, hopeful and respectful cultivation of learning undertaken in the belief that all should have the chance to share in life.


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