Occupational Safety And Health Hazards Among Employees

Project and Seminar Material for Sociology

Occupational Safety And Health Hazards Among Employees


This research project tends to examine Occupational Safety and Health Hazards among Employees of Beta Glass Plc Agbara Industrial Estate, Ogun State.

Survey design was employed with the use of a well structured questionnaire. Respondents were selected based on simple random sampling technique. Sample size of Eighty (80) respondents were selected from the staff of Beta Glass Plc.

Three hypotheses were formulated and tested with the use of Chi-Square analysis. The analysis resulted to rejecting all null hypotheses and hence accepting the three alternate hypotheses.

Based on decisions of the tested hypotheses conclusions were reached that; there is a significant relationship between occupational hazard and the psychological well­being of factory workers; There is a significant relationship between occupational hazard and poor productive service of factory workers; There is a significant relationship between job satisfaction and effectiveness as well as efficiency.

It was recommended that employers and employees should be encouraged in their efforts to reduce the number of occupational hazard and safety at their places of employment, and to stimulate employers and employee to institute new and to perfect existing programs ‘for providing safe and healthful working conditions.

Chapter One


1.1 Background to the Study

There is increasing evidence that workplace conditions may be eroding levels of job satisfaction and directly damaging the physical and mental health as well as the safety of employees. Most organizations have poor occupational health and safety review mechanisms, inadequate health and safety policies and infrastructure. As a result most employees are exposed to workplace injuries and illnesses as well as repetitive strain injury (RSI); an umbrella term of injuries affecting the soft tissues of the neck, upper and lower back, chest, shoulders and arms which occurs from continuous and repetitive physical movements (Bernardin 2007). Employees who suffer accidents are unsatisfied with their jobs, and have higher levels of job tension and lower organizational commitment. Good working conditions make employees happier and find it easier to carry out their jobs while poor working conditions dissatisfy employees. According to Hong (2001), the environment in which people work has a tremendous effect on their level of pride for both them and the work they are doing.

Occupational safety and health (also commonly referred to as occupational health and safety) is an area concerned with protecting the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment. The goals of occupational safety and health programs include to foster a safe and healthy work environment. (Oak Ridge National lab safety Documents) OSH may also protect co-workers, family members, employers, customers, and many others who might be affected by the workplace environment.

Occupational safety and health can be important for moral, legal, and financial reasons. All organizations have a duty of care to ensure that employees and any other person who may be affected by the companies undertaking remain safe at all times. ‘Employers safe work practices, Health and safety policy, 2013. Moral obligations would involve the protection of employee’s lives and health.

The concept of working culture is intended in this context to mean a reflection of the essential value systems adopted by the undertaking concerned. Such a culture is reflected in practice in the managerial systems, personnel policy, principles for participation, training policies and quality management of the undertaking. Joint ILO/WHO Committee on Occupational Health Occupational Health service and practical ilo.org 2013.

Although work provides many economic and other benefits, a wide array ofworkplace hazards also present risks to the health and safety of people at work. These include but are not limited to, chemicals, biological agents, physical factors, adverse genomic conditions, allergens, a complex network of safety risks, and a broad range of psychosocial risk factors. Lopez. A.Rogers and C J C Murray (ends) Comparative Quantification of health Risk (WHO).Physical hazards are a common source of injuries in many industries. They are perhaps unavoidable in many industries such as construction and mining, but over time people have developed safety methods and procedures to manage the risks of physical danger in the workplace. Employment of children may pose special problems.

Falls are a common cause of occupational injuries and fatalities, especially in (instruction, extraction, transportation, healthcare, and building cleaning and maintenance (jail injuries prevention in the work place” NIOSH. Work and Health institute of occupational safety and health. July, 2012.)

Bazroy et al. (2003) reported that traumatic occupational injuries lead to 10,000 deaths globally. Occupational injuries have been identified as one of the leading causes of adult mortality and a major contributor to permanent disability among low income countries such as those of South Asia and Africa; and an estimated 50 million work related injuries occur every year or 160,000 every day. Gardner et al. (1999) and Druchi et al. (W04) stated that the manufacturing industry has a high incidence of workplace injuries in comparison to other industries. Fadier and De la Garza (2006) reported the occurrence of 62,500 occupational accidents on France in the year 2000 alone, while Mattila et al. cW06) also stated that Finland recorded 20,016 hospitalizations for injuries between 1990, I and 1999. According to the Nigerian Institute of Safety Professionals (2000) overall, 11,000 people were injured due to on-the-job accidents each year in chemical industry alone in Nigeria. Also, Adebiyi et al. (2005) estimated the cost of accidents agro-allied industries in south-western Nigeria at 87.89 million dollar annually.

Occupational hazards are dangers to human health and well-being which are alone in Nigeria. Also, Adebiyi et al. (2005) estimated the cost of accidents in agro-allied industries in south-western Nigeria at 87.89 million dollars annually associated with specific occupations. While efforts are made to reduce hazards, these hazards remain present in the workplace by nature of the profession. Recognizing occupational hazards is the first step in working on risk reduction programs for the Workplace to keep work as safe and healthy as possible. Some jobs are, by their very nature, extremely hazardous. Jobs with numerous occupational hazards often provide better pay for their employees, in recognition of the danger, and they are also usually charged higher races for insurance, because underwriters recognize that the chance of paying out on that insurance is much higher. Occupational hazards may lead to illness, injury, or death. They can include physical risks like falls and exposures to heavy machinery, sharp or glass object cut, along with psychological ones such as stress. Occupational hazards like exposure to chemical, biological, as well as radiological agents are also a concern. In people who work jobs with at recognized occupational safety hazard, special training is often provided so the It people are made aware of the hazard.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

In our country employers have a very negative approach towards the employees as they are often seen labourers in Nigeria whom they should treat like slaves. Their job is such that they face plenty of health problems. The main health problems faced by the manufacturing workers or employees are all sorts of physical problems like Cardiac diseases, High blood pressure, Hypertension, Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis, Fatigue, Obesity, Varicose veins, Dehydration, Sunstrokes, Aging as they work all day. They also face sunstrokes, joint pains, scull skeletal disorders (MSD) as well as emission of waste chemicals or gases due to prolonged hours of work and less physical activity and many other problems. Looking at such a huge list of health problems some strict measures should be taken to avoid such problems. Possible remedies like sitting in a correct posture, medication for high resistance power, etc. so that they too can have healthy work conditions at ida healthy and happy life after all they sacrifice their family life and health for our nation.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The objectives of the study are to:

  1. To inquire the various occupational hazards affecting factory workers.
  2. To examine the impact of occupational hazard on psychological well-being of factory workers behavior (job satisfaction, commitment and compliance).
  3. To ascertain the impact of job satisfaction on the efficiency of factory workers.
  4. To determine various response or reaction to occupational hazard in terms of job satisfaction, commitment and compliance.
  5. Make plausible recommendations on the effective ways of ameliorating occupational hazards among factory workers.

1.4 Research Question

  1. What are the occupational hazards affecting factory workers?
  2. What are the impacts of occupational hazards on the psychological well-being of factory workers?
  3. How efficient and effective are factory workers in the factory with some hazard they encountered in the work place?
  4. What are the various responses or reaction to occupational hazard in terms of their levels of job satisfaction, commitment and compliance?
  5. What are the various things that determine job satisfaction even with the hazard experienced in the factory?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  1. Ho: There is no significant relationship between the health of workers and their working environment.
    H1: There is a significant relationship between the health of workers and their working environment.
  2. H0: There is no significant relationship between the health of workers and their productivity in an organization.
    H1: There is a significant relationship between the health of workers and their productivity in an organization.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Factory work or manufacturing work involves both physical and mental strength d besides it requires a very important carefulness so as not to meet oneself in a hazardous situation. This study is necessary in order to unravel the hazards associated with are manufacturing as well as factory job that is based on glass production, and also highlight the satisfaction associated with the job as well. This study is imperative in view of the present hazardous situation where factory workers wrists, legs, hands cut through the heavy powered engine that is used in the production of the glass or when an heavy load falls on a worker at the point of discharging his duties. I have heard of such situation where an incident of such occurred. The fact remains that the worker was not really taken care of. And that some that have been permanently incapacitated are even neglected such that some of their family will sometimes have to sue the company to court before necessary actions are then taken towards remedying the situation of the victim.

A country with strict law and good health working condition policy should enforce the provision of standardized health and safety policy that will guarantee the safety of lives of workers in various organizations.

1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The scope of this study is to find out the occupational hazards and job satisfaction olfactory workers. The study deals with those aspects that constitute occupational health and safety hazards in the glass manufacturing plants/industries.

The study will cover workers in the factory. The study will highlight the various types of occupational health and hazard as well as its effects on the life of workers as well a!: how it can be managed such that it will enhance better job efficiency and effectiveness that is guaranteed through job satisfaction. However, the limitations of this study are population, time and financial constraint.

1.8 Definition of Terms

The various terms in the study have been operationalized systematically:

Occupational Hazard:

Danger or hazard to workers that is inherent in a particular occupation. A danger or risk inherent in certain employments or workplaces or any condition of a job that can result in illness or injury

Occupational Safety:

To foster a safe and healthy work environment that also protects co-workers, family members, employers, customers and many others who might be: affected by the workplace environment. To make progress in occupational safety and health within the enterprise, workers and their representatives have to cooperate with employers e.g., by participating in elaborating and implementing preventive programmes.

Factory Workers:

These are people that are employed for labour services to industries that guarantees meeting the need or objective of the organization.


State or quality of being competent in performance or ability to do a job with a minimum expenditure of time and effort. Describes the extent to which time, effort or cost is well used for the intended task or purpose. It is often used with the specific purpose of relaying the capability of a specific application of effort to produce a specific effort. The term “efficient” is very much confused and misused with the term “effective”.

In general, efficiency is a measurable concept, quantitatively determined by the ratio of output to input. Efficiency can be expressed as a result as percentage of what ideally could be expected, hence with 100% as ideal case.


Act of pledging or promising or the state of being so committed. Commitment is to be obligated or under the pledge to a particular cause. In a relationship, this shows the pledge to the other partner to have an exclusive companionship which binds the people together.

1.9 Organization of the Study

The study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the study’s introduction and gives a background to the study. Chapter two reviews related and relevant literature. The chapter three gives the research methodology while the chapter four gives the study’s analysis and interpretation of data. The study concludes with chapter five which deals on the summary, conclusion and recommendation.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to emphasize that the objective of this study was to examine Occupational Safety and Health Hazards among Employees. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given.

In this chapter, certain recommendations are made which are the express opinion of the researcher is based on the findings from the study which includes the responses from the respondents and through observation.

5.2 Summary

The study has examined Occupational Safety and Health Hazards among Employees. The study stated the problem, its objectives and research questions in the chapter one. Occupational safety and health hazards are not just a national issues. It is also an international affair, thus, a literature review was undertaken in the second chapter, where the various causes for health hazards were examined. The way out as prescribed by other authors were recognized and an empirical and theoretical background was given in the second chapter. The third chapter examined the method for data collection and the population and sample size. The fourth chapter analyzed and presented the information converted from the data collected in the field.

5.3 Conclusion

From the findings of this research, it is evident that employees felt that the organization’s management had put in place a number of health and safety practices to ensure they worked in safe and healthy environment. Most respondents agreed that there are wellness programmes in place, adequate accident prevention measures, provision of health care and safety training. They were satisfied with the wellness programmes, accident prevention measures and the health services provided to employees at the health facility.

The respondents were dissatisfied with safety training and education. Job satisfaction is affective and by a series of factors including employee health and safety. This study revealed that occupational health and safety practices should be effective and efficient to influence employee satisfaction positively.

5.4 Recommendations

From the findings of the study, it is recommended that the management of the company improves the frequency of refresher training on safety to equip employees with necessary skills and knowledge in line with the changing technology and the work environment.

The training should be customized to meet the needs and requirements of different jobs in different workstations of the organization. The study also recommends that all employees undergo an annual medical checkup to ensure that all employees with medical issues are assisted and referral services be improved. The government should enforce the safety laws as stipulated in Occupational Health and Safety Act (2007) by taking legal action against all employers who do not abide by the safety laws and standards.

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