Occupational Exposure To Noise And Its Health Effect

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

Occupational Exposure To Noise And Its Health Effect


In this study, our focus was on the occupational exposure to noise and its health effecton workers in old pantaker market, tudun wada area, kaduna state. The study is was specifically focused on examining the Adverse Health Effects of Noise pollution, to evaluate the noise pollution Interference with Spoken Communication and Examine the cognitive effect of noise pollution.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are workers in old panteka market, Tudun wada area, Kaduna state.

Table of Content

Chapter One:


  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Research questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope of the study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the study
  • 1.8 Definition of terms
  • 1.9 Organizations of the study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the study
  • 3.3 Sample size determination
  • 3.4 Sample size selection technique and procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of data collection
  • 3.7 Method of data analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the study
  • 3.10 Ethical consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Interpretation of Result

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


1.1 Background to the Study

The word noise is derived from the Latin word “nausea” implying „unwanted sound‟. Noise can originate from human activities, especially urbanization and the development of transport systems. Though the urban population is much more affected by such pollution, small towns/villages along side roads or industrial areas are also subjected to this problem. Noise is becoming an increasingly omnipresent, yet unnoticed form of pollution even in developed countries.

Many researchers have studied the effects of noise on man and his environment. Onuu (1999) concluded that the environmental noise climatedue to road traffic in urban areas has shown strong dependence on the number of heavy vehicles in particular and of course vehicle speed and other parameters such as ground cover. It is worthy of note that prolonged exposure to low frequency noise can cause either permanent or temporal damage to hearing.

The effect of noise on human emotions ranges from negligible through annoyance and anger to psychologically disruptive. Physiologically, noise can range from harmless to painful and physically damaging, (Akpan et al., 2003). Murray and Lewis (1995) studied environmental noise correction factors for typical industrial work rooms using field measurement techniques and found the result to be more accurate than the calculated value which was incorrect by as much as 4dB.

Industrial plant noise is considered a principal source of noise in our communities. Numerous industrial plant workers and communities are affected continuously by such noise. Onuu et al. (1996) studied the sound levels and spectra of industrial noise of nine industrial layouts in Calabar, Cross Rivers State of Nigeria and found the octave band pressure levels to be well above 85 dB (A) which is the starting point where damage risk is thought to be imminent. From the survey, they also found that the deafening level produced by the machinery noise was as high as 115 dB (A). High noise levels in industry may reduce productivity and the efficiency of workers. Additionally, a lot of industrial accidents are caused by excessive noise. Furthermore, industrial noise in plants, depending on the spectral distribution and amplitude, may annoy, interfere with speech and hearing, accelerate presbycusis, or cause irreversible hearing damage. It also has pathological danger.

Alaminokuma et al. (2008) studied the frequency- dependent noise characteristic in a gas-to-liquid plant in the swamp area of the Niger Delta and concluded that the noise condition within the gas plant is such that the high level of discomfort and annoyance were produced by discrete noise masked by broadband noise in the zones where machines with rotating parts operate.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Omubo-Pepple et al. (2009), investigated the effect of noise-induced hearing loss within Kaduna state metropolis, Nigeria at two locations and concluded that the noise pollution within Kaduna state International Airport has adverse effect on the environment and recommended that if certain protective measures were not taken that it will result to induced hearing loss and other psychological and pathological effects.

Noise pollution is not a unique problem for developing countries like Nigeria. In China, until the third century B.C., instead of hanging men for dangerous crimes, noise was used for their torturing. The worrisome effects of noise are dangerous enough that the noise problem can be considered a crime by certain countries (Kapoor and Singh, 1995). Bond (1996) reports that 16% of people in Europe are exposed to 40 dB or more of traffic noise in their bedrooms at night and compared it with WHO‟s average estimates of 30 to 35 dB for undisrupted sleep.

Several initiatives have been taken by various countries to check noise levels. For example, the USA has taken initiatives to create sites where human-caused noise pollution will not be tolerated (Geary, 1996). Laws in the Netherlands do not permit the building of houses in areas where 24- hour average noise levels exceed 50dB. In Great Britain, the Noise Act empowers local authorities to confiscate noisy equipment and fine people who create excess noise at night. In Nigeria, as far back as 1990, while forming the Federal Environment Protection Agency (FEPA), the Federal government entrusted it with the responsibility of formulating laws to regulate and control the levels and impact of noise in the country. However, the impact of FEPA has not been felt. Despite the fact that much has been written about the health effects of noise, it seems that much of the following information is not appreciated by the medical community and even less so by the general public.

Two major effects of noise are interruption of sleep and the interference with work that requires concentration. It is interesting that noises emanating from the various types of roadways of today are still among the most important sources of environmental noise, even though the types of noise are not those that existed in Rome, Medieval Europe, or 18th century Philadelphia. Our modern transportation-ways (including road, rail, and air) and the products of modern technology produce increasing levels of unwanted noise of varying types and intensities throughout the day and night that disturb sleep, concentration, and other functions (Ising and Kruppa, 2004 and Bluhm et al. 2004).

This noise affects us without our being consciously aware of it. Unlike our eyes, which we can shut to exclude unwanted visual input, we cannot voluntarily shut our ears to exclude unwanted auditory input. Our hearing mechanisms are always „on‟ even when we are asleep (Babisch et al., 2005).

The noise problems of the past are significant when compared with those experienced by modern city dwellers; noise pollution continues to grow in extent, frequency, and severity as a result of population growth, urbanization, and technological development (Berglund and Lindvall, 1995). Our society is beset by noise, which is intrusive, pervasive, and ubiquitous; most important of all, it is unhealthy. Most reasonable people would agree that much of the environmental noise to which we are subjected serves no useful purpose and is therefore undesirable. The variety of noise polluting devices and activities is large and seems to be growing on a daily basis, although there is no consensus about what items are useful and desirable or noise polluting and unnecessary.

1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of the study is to examine Occupational Exposure To Noise And Its Health Effect on workers in old panteka market, tudun wada area, kaduna state. Specifically the study aims to :

  1. Examine the Adverse Health Effects of Noise pollution
  2. Evaluate the noise pollution Interference with Spoken Communication
  3. Examine the cognitive effect of noise pollution

1.4 Research Question

  1. What is the Adverse Health Effects of Noise pollution?
  2. How does noise pollution Interfere with Spoken Communication?
  3. What is the cognitive effect of noise pollution?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The finding from study will show that Noise pollution interferes with the ability to comprehend normal speech and may lead to a number of personal disabilities, handicaps, and behavioral changes.

Noise pollution is not believed to be a cause of mental illness, but it is assumed to accelerate and intensify the development of latent mental disorders. Noise pollution may cause or contribute to the following adverse effects: anxiety, stress, nervousness, nausea, headache, emotional instability, argumentativeness, sexual impotence, changes in mood,

A growing body of evidence confirms that noise pollution has both temporary and permanent effects on humans (and other mammals) by way of the endocrine and autonomic nervous systems. It has been postulated that noise acts as a nonspecific biologic stressor eliciting reactions that prepare the body for a „fight‟ response (Babisch et al, 2005).

Uninterrupted sleep is known to be a prerequisite for good physiological and mental functioning in healthy individuals. Environmental noise is one of the major causes of disturbed sleep (Stansfeld and Matheson, 2003). When sleep disruption becomes chronic, the results are mood changes, decrements in performance, and other long-term effects on health and well-being.

1.6 Scope / Limitation of Study

This study will be carried out in old panteka market, tudun wada area, kaduna state.Kaduna state city was chosen for the study because of its population, and reflects both the modern and traditional infrastructure (roads, localities, buildings, etc.). Moreover the residents represent a cross-section of the Nigerian culture.

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

For the purpose of this study, the following operational definitions are used:

Noise Pollution:

It is the intrusion of unwanted, uncontrollable and unpredictable sound that are not necessarily loud into the immediate environment of man.


In this study, implication basically explains the possible effect of noise on students in the area of study.


In this context extent explains the area covered by noise and the degree to which noise affects the environment.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the occupational exposure to noise and its health effecton workers in old panteka market, tudun wada area, kaduna state. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.

5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the occupational exposure to noise and its health effecton workers in old panteka market, tudun wada area, kaduna state. The study is was specifically focused on examining the Adverse Health Effects of Noise pollution, to evaluate the noise pollution Interference with Spoken Communication and Examine the cognitive effect of noise pollution.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are workers in old panteka market, tudun wada area, kaduna state..

5.3 Conclusions

With respect to the analysis and the findings of this study, the following conclusions emerged;

Generators, automobiles and public address systems (loudspeakers) turn out to be the major sources of noise pollution. Loudspeakers and generators are frequently used for religious and social functions. As a society, our history is filled with failures to recognize the agent that cause disease; once the causes have been recognized, we have responded reluctantly, slowly, and often inadequately. Despite the evidence about the many medical, social, and economic effects of noise, as a society, we continue to suffer from the same inertia; the reluctance to change or take appropriate action on tobacco, lead, mercury and asbestos. Now we seem unable to make the connection between noise and disease, despite the evidence, and despite the fact, which we all recognize, that our societies are becoming increasingly more polluted with noise. Noise represents an important public health problem that can lead to hearing loss, sleep disruption, cardiovascular disease, social handicaps, can reduce productivity, lead to impaired teaching and learning, absenteeism, increased drug use, and accidents. It can impair the ability to enjoy one’s property and leisure time and increases the frequency of antisocial behaviour. Noise adversely affects general health and well-being in the same way chronic stress does. It adversely affects future generations by degrading residential, social, and learning environments with corresponding economic losses. Local control of noise has not been successful in most places. We therefore recommend improved methods of local control that should include public education, enlightened legislation, and active enforcement of noise ordinances. However, government and NGOs can play a significant role in the process.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;

  1. Hearing conservation program should be encouraged in every industry where noise emitted exceeds the permissible limit;.
  2. Noise surveys to determine the degree of hazardous noise exposure by surveying any area in which workers are likely to be exposed to hazardous noise (>85 dBA) should be considered and appropriately effected.
  3. Audiometric tests by pre-employment and periodic follow-up testing by employers to help determine employee status; employee medical history and nonworkplace noise exposure should be assessed; .
  4. Company-sponsored education programmes should be thoroughly carried out to stress the importance of good hearing conservation practices on and off the job, as well as, other factors or diseases that may affect their hearing or general well-being; .
  5. All parties concerned – government, employers, workers and factory inspectors- should be involved in implementing noise control measures using the appropriate standardized Health and Safety guides;.

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