Nigeria’s Foreign Policy After The Cold War; Domestic, Regional And External Influence

Project and Seminar Material for International Relations

Nigeria’s Foreign Policy After The Cold War; Domestic, Regional And External Influence


Abstract


The project Nigeria’s foreign policy after the cold war: domestic, regional and external influence. The project aimed at assessing the evolution of Nigeria’s foreign policy during and after the cold war and examining the domestic, regional and external influences on Nigeria’s foreign policy after the cold war. For this study, the survey research design was adopted. The choice of the design was informed by the objectives of the study as outlined in chapter one. This research design provides a quickly efficient and accurate means of assessing information about a population of interest. A total of 134 respondents were selected from the population figure out of which the sample size was determined. The population for this study were residents in Abuja metropolis, FCT, Nigeria.The primary purpose of this study is toexamine the domestic, regional and external influences on Nigeria’s foreign policy after the cold war. Other secondary objectives guided the collection of primary data. A review of existing literature on the subject of foreign policy and related headings were presented in chapter two. Beside the secondary data, a primary data was gathered through the use of questionnaires from the sampled population selected for this study. A total of 100 respondents contributed to the findings of this study. The post-independence Nigeria witnessed the formation of a truly indigenous foreign policy that was truly called Nigerian foreign policy. It is not wrong, therefore, to state that the evolution of Nigeria’s foreign policy can be traced to when the country got her independence as a sovereign state. And in the event of the cold war, there was massive change.


Table of Contents


  • Title Page
  • Approval Page
  • Declaration
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Research
  • 1.7 Limitations of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.3 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.4 Empirical Review

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Population of the Study
  • 3.4 Sampling and Sampling Techniques
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Instrumentation
  • 3.6 Validity of Instrument
  • 3.4 Research Instrument and Instrumentation
  • 3.7 Reliability of Instrument
  • 3.8 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.9 Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

Data Analysis and Interpretation

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Analysis of Demographic Data of Respondents
  • 4.3 Analysis of Psychographic Data
  • 4.4 Test of Hypothesis

Chapter Five

Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • REFERENCES
  • APPENDIX  

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Nigeria is often described as the “Giant of Africa.” Its foreign policy is best understood and assessed in the context of its regional and continental ambitions which have been demonstrated over the course of the country’s 43-year history. Nigeria’s leaders of all political persuasions have come to see their country as the “natural leader” of the African continent. This aspiration to continental leadership, manifest since the country’s independence in 1960, is central to understanding some of the principal features of Nigeria’s foreign policy. It is clear from a historical examination of Nigeria’s foreign relations that its hegemonic ambitions have not, however, necessarily led to relevant, coherent and effective policies. Examining both the theoretical and practical aspects of Nigeria’s foreign policy is therefore key to understanding the country’s foreign policy. The theory of Nigeria’s foreign policy has often been explained by Nigerian diplomats and scholars in terms of four “concentric circles” of national interest. The innermost circle represents Nigeria’s own security, independence and prosperity and is centered on its immediate neighbours – Benin, Cameroon, Chad and Niger; the second circle revolves around Nigeria’s relations with its West African neighbors; the third circle focuses on continental African issues of peace, development and democratization; and the fourth circle involves Nigeria’s relations with organizations, institutions and states outside Africa.1 This concept still guides Nigeria’s foreign policy priorities. Participants at the Oxford conference examined these four “concentric circles,” starting with domestic security issues, focusing on the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the West African sub-region, assessing key bilateral relations with South Africa and Cameroon, and finally, analyzing Nigeria’s relations with key bilateral (France, Britain, the US and Japan) and multilateral actors and organizations outside Africa (the UN, the European Union [EU] and the Commonwealth).

In practical terms, examining the interplay of domestic forces and the external environment in the formulation of foreign policy in Nigeria is essential to understanding the intertwined factors that have influenced the country’s foreign policy in the postCold War era. Domestically, the importance of issues such as human security was felt by many participants to be an important dimension in the study of the domestic influences on Nigeria’s foreign policy. Other internal considerations such as the impact of a reputation for corruption on Nigeria’s foreign relations, was also seen as a key issue affecting Nigeria’s foreign policy. Indeed on this issue, a strong recommendation emerging from the conference was a call for the Nigerian government to examine urgently why corruption is such a major problem in society, since this not only affects Nigeria’s international image, but also its ability to attract foreign investment to Nigeria. Corruption in Nigeria constrains the country’s economic development and consequently its economic and political reach regionally and internationally.

At the external level, the end of the Cold War has resulted in a fundamental change in the dynamics of contemporary international politics. Developing countries like Nigeria with oil wealth, a large army and a large pool of well-educated citizens are now able to play a leadership role in Africa, due to the reduced strategic significance of the continent for major external powers. The potential for developing countries like Nigeria to exercise power and influence in an international system that is no longer dominated by the bi-polar conflict of the superpowers, lies at the heart of its foreign policy in the post-Cold War era.

In view of the foregoing, this study sought to examine the domestic, regional and external influences on Nigeria’s foreign policy after the cold war.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The pursuit of an Afrocentric foreign policy, with goals of emerging as Africa’s foremost state, has continued to guide Nigeria’s foreign policy aspirations to date (Ade-Ibijola, 2013). However, Nigeria’s efforts have been truncated by certain challenges which arise from poor leadership, corruption, developmental hindrances (Imoukhede, 2016), the country’s image crisis, ineffective representation of Nigerians in diaspora, and the seeming lack of will to engage the principles of reciprocity as it relates to its external relations (Chidozie, Ibietan & Ujara, 2014; Fayomi et al., 2015; Egwemi & Ochim, 2016). There is a lack of empirical evidences on the local and external influences on Nigeria’s foreign policy during the period after the cold war.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine the domestic, regional and external influences on Nigeria’s foreign policy after the cold war. Specific objectives include;

  1. To assess the evolution of Nigeria’s foreign policy during and after the cold war.
  2. To examine the domestic, regional and external influences on Nigeria’s foreign policy after the cold war

1.4 Research Questions

  1. How did Nigeria’s foreign policy evolve during and after the cold war?
  2. What are the regional and external influences on Nigeria’s foreign policy after the cold war?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The findings from this study will provide useful information on the nature of influences on Nigeria’s foreign policy during and after the cold war. This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other study.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study is on examining the regional and external influences on Nigeria’s foreign policy after the cold war. The study involved the use of secondary data sourced from different internet sources including journal papers and conference manuscripts.


1.7 Limitations of the Study

The demanding schedule of respondents at work made it very difficult getting the respondents to participate in the survey. As a result, retrieving copies of questionnaire in timely fashion was very challenging. Also, the researcher is a student and therefore has limited time as well as resources in covering extensive literature available in conducting this research. Information provided by the researcher may not hold true for all businesses or organizations but is restricted to the selected organization used as a study in this research especially in the locality where this study is being conducted. Finally, the researcher is restricted only to the evidence provided by the participants in the research and therefore cannot determine the reliability and accuracy of the information provided.

Financial Constraint:

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time Constraint:

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Foreign Policy:

Foreign policy, general objectives that guide the activities and relationships of one state in its interactions with other states. The development of foreign policy is influenced by domestic considerations, the policies or behaviour of other states, or plans to advance specific geopolitical designs. A state’s foreign policy or external policy is its objectives and activities in relation to its interactions with other states, whether bilaterally or through multilateral platforms.

Cold War:

The Cold War was a period of ideological and geopolitical tension between the United States and the Soviet Union, the Western Bloc and the Eastern Bloc, after World War II. The open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies. The Cold War was waged on political, economic, and propaganda fronts and had only limited recourse to weapons.

Influence:

To affect or change someone or something in an indirect but usually important way.” Something or someone that influences a person or thing, then, has an influence on that person or thing.


Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

The primary purpose of this study is to examine the domestic, regional and external influences on Nigeria’s foreign policy after the cold war. Other secondary objectives guided the collection of primary data. A review of existing literature on the subject of foreign policy and related headings were presented in chapter two. Beside the secondary data, a primary data was gathered through the use of questionnaires from the sampled population selected for this study. A total of 100 respondents contributed to the findings of this study.

The post-independence Nigeria witnessed the formation of a truly indigenous foreign policy that was truly called Nigerian foreign policy. It is not wrong, therefore, to state that the evolution of Nigeria‟s foreign policy can be traced to when the country got her independence as a sovereign state. And in the event of the cold war, there was massive change.

In the implementation of her foreign policy, Nigeria adopted five principles. These principles are:

  1. The policy of non-alignment which rejects formal military alliance with the capitalist West or the communist East;
  2. The principle of legal equality of states which is aimed at protecting the small and underdeveloped states;
  3. The principle of noninterference in the domestic affairs of other states;
  4. The principle of multilateralism, i.e. membership of international organisations;
  5. Africa as the centre-piece of Nigeria‟s foreign policy. Both internal and external factors have consistently influenced Nigeria‟s foreign policy.

These factors have played some considerable roles in the determination of Nigeria‟s relations with the international community.

The end of the Cold War has resulted in a fundamental change in the dynamics of contemporary international politics. Developing countries, like Nigeria, with oil wealth, a large army and a large pool of well-educated citizens are now able to play a leadership role in Africa, due to the reduced strategic significance of the continent for major external powers. However, while policymakers and executors of Nigeria’s foreign policy appear to be committed to responding to demands, pressures and influences from the external environment to contribute to regional peacekeeping, they also need to respond appropriately to domestic pressures and influences, especially those derived from popular public opinion. A civilian regime, unlike military governments, also faces pressure from the parliament and the press.

While Nigeria’s immense potential is clearly based on its demographic size of over 100 million people, its multiethnic population, its vast oil reserves and its reservoir of highly skilled and educated people, the majority of its people remain poor with a per capita income of less than $500. Likewise, while Nigeria has played a vital role in international p e a c e keeping both under the auspices of the United Nations, as well as the Economic Community of West African States Ceasefire Monitoring Group, Nigeria itself has been immersed in conflict, either at the level of intraelite struggles for power or conflicts within the context of its troubled federal experiment. Thus, while Nigeria possesses the necessary potential as well as institutional structures needed to formulate a vibrant foreign policy, its constraints lie in domestic factors, namely, the nature of the foreign policy elite and Nigeria’s economic dependence and vulnerability.


5.2 Recommendations

Key policy recommendations in this area include: first, the need for Nigeria’s foreign policy to be built around core national interests based on the promotion of peace and security, as well as development and democratization at home and abroad. Second, Nigeria’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs needs reshaping and strengthening, with foreign policy objectives translated into more specific national interests and a program of action designed to respond in a timely manner to changes in the external environment. Finally, Nigeria, having led efforts to create ECOWAS in 1975, should be at the forefront of efforts to build viable and effective economic communities in Africa. Along with South Africa, Nigeria should champion the building of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) and the African Union (AU).


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